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Origin of this Work. — Richard's "Geographic de VEmpire 
cle Chine" published in 1905, b}^ the T'usewei Press, Shanghai, 
was so appreciated in the East and at home, that an English 
Edition of the work was immediately requested. The Chinese 
Legation in London, Officials, Railway-prospectors, Merchants, 
Travellers, Missionaries, and all who take a special interest 
in China and Things Chinese, have at various times urged 
the necessity of the work, and augured that it would be of 
valuable service to the Public. The Translation, undertaken 
and carried out amidst the drudgery of class-work with Chinese 
pupils, remote from English surroundings, and without the 
assistance of the valuable home libraries, was unavoidably 
slow. As the work proceeded, it was remarked that the 
various reforms adopted by China, the new status of the Man- 
churian Provinces, and the progress of events in the Far East 
would require some recasting of the original. The new part 
has not been thrown into the shape of additional notes, but 
has been welded into the old paragraphs, Avith as little distur- 
bance as possible of the order of the original. The present 
English Edition is thus enlarged and revised, bringing all infor- 
mation, administrative, statistical and economic, thoroughly 
up to-date. 

Plan of file Work. — This Work given a Physical and 
Political description of China and Dependencies. The Physical 
part groups all facts around the 3 natural Regions or Great 
Basins of China : 1°. the Northern, around the Yellow River; 
2°. the Central, around the Yangtze-kiang; and 3°. the Southern, 
around the Si-kiang or West River. A general outline of each 
region precedes the description of the Provinces. Each Province 
is the object of a particular study, in which its area, population 
and boundaries, its aspect and characteristics, its mountains 
and rivers, its geology, its fauna and flora, its climate, its 
agricultural and mineral resources, its people, race and language, 
its principal towns, its industry and commerce, its land-routes 
and waterways are minutely and methodically exposed. 

The Coast-line, which extends along 6 Provinces of the 
Empire : Chihli, Shantung, Kiangsu, Chekiang, Fokien and 
Kwangtung, is treated in a special chapter. This has the 
advantage of combining in a general study important notions 


bearing on winds, currents and tides, which could not be easily 
connected with the study of each individual Province. The 
description of the coast-line proceeds from North to South, 
and follows the above mentioned order of the Provinces. rOv 
fuller details, the Reader is referred to the Index at the end 
of this work. 

The Political part describes the Government and Adminis- 
tration, the various Religions, the Army and Navy, the 
Educational system, Agriculture, Industry and Mining, the 
Railway, Postal and Telegraph departments. In view of the 
growing intercourse with other countries, and the expansion of 
Foreign Trade, the chapter on this subject will be found specially 
useful, and no pains have been spared to enhance its value by 
full statistical tables. Appendix II (at the close of the volume) 
embodies the latest Returns for the year 1906. 

A brief account of the Rise and Progress of the Empire, 
and of its International Relations, is appended to this part. It is 
not a dry story of kings and wars, but is intended to show the 
development of the Nation, in its manifestations good as well as 
evil. It will also afford a deep insight into the national mind 
and life, so essential for the proper understanding of Things 
Chinese. The collection of dates cannot fail to be of service to 
all Readers, and must be correlated with events and facts described 
in the Physical part of the work. 

Each chapter is followed by a library of references, and 
a list of standard Authors ('French. English, German , many of 
whom are household words in connection with Chinese histor}-. 
literature and scholarly attainments. To all. the Translator is 
much indebted for valuable information, and begs hereby to 
tender acknowledgement. 

A full list of the (Hies. Towns and Open Ports, in the 18 
Provinces and outlying Dependencies, complete the work. Every 
proper name, romanised in English, is followed by its equivalent 
Chinese pictograph. a novel and valuable improvement which 
will help to avoid confusion in words so similar in sound. 

The Index has been carefully prepared with the twofold 
purpose of securing completeness, and rendering research expe- 
ditious. The names of Authors and the titles of books are 
printed in Italics, while figures in heav}* type indicate the parti- 
cular place where a subject is principally treated. 

China is at present making every effort to take her place 
in the comity of Nations. Her Administration and Army are 
being re-organized. Schools are multiplied. Railways are opened. 
Postal work is improved, the opium evil is to be suppressed, 
and a Constitutional Government is promised to the Country in 
the near future. Other improvements, in Finance, in Law. 
in National unity, will follow in due time. This awakening and 


re-shaping of the country cannot but interest the Great Nations 
of the world. Richard's Comprehensive Geography will help 
much to make China and the Chinese people better known. 
Should it also promote mutual friendship between East and 
West, it will have fulfilled a great need, and we hope be 
welcomed by all classes of Readers. 

Corrections and suggestions will be thankfully received 
by the Translator, who expresses his many obligations to his 
friends for their valuable assistance and encouragement in the 
completion of this work. 

M. Kennelly, S, J . 

Sicawei College, Shanghai 
18 December, 1907. 


In the transliteration oi* Chinese proper names, the Nan- 
hing fcwanhwa or Nan kwanhwa ^j % ]& (Southern mandarin 
dialect) has been adopted preferably to the Pekingese, spoken 
only at the Capital and in a small portion ol* Chi hi i and Ho- 
nan Provinces. The Nankingese discriminates between the 
initials si and hsi (as in (g sin, a letter, a note; and %f 
hsing, to go), tsi and hi (as in fjf tsi, to aid; and f^ hi, to re- 
member), which are so bewilderingly confused in the Pekingese. 
The Nankingese is spoken by two-thirds of the whole population 
of the Empire, and is everywhere understood. Its syllabary is 
richer than the Pekingese, its pronunciation purer (j£ ■§■ cheng 
yin, correct or standard pronunciation, as the Chinese say) and 
better, and being now largely adopted by the Postal and Tele- 
graph Administrations of China, it is most likely to outlive its 

In the working out of details, familiar spellings are main- 
tained, as Peking, Foochow, Amoy, Canton, Chefoo, Soochow. 
Fokien, Kansu etc. The vowels have their Italian or fixed 
sounds. The aspirates, a most essential element of the Chinese 
language, are indicated by an inverted comma (thus '), and the 
short abrupt final vowels by the addition of h (as in ffl. teh, to 
attain). In all instances, the same sound is ever represented by 
the same phonetical equivalents. The initials si and hsi, ts, tsi, 
k and ch, six and hsu have been carefully distinguished. The 
compound consonants : hw, kw, Iw, sw, shw, sz, ts and tz, 
recently adopted by the Postal Service, have been admitted and 
followed. The initial nasal ng, followed by a or e, is maintained, 
as its omission is considered unscientific and based on mere 
convention. The final nasals an and en; ang and eng, ung and 
Sng, iian and uen, so generally confounded by English writers, 
have been represented by more exact phonetic equivalents. In 


the alphabetical list, the aspirated characters follow immediately 
the unaspirated, and these latter are followed in turn by those 
of the short abrupt final vowel sounds. Throughout the work, 
every proper name, romanised in English, has beside it its 
equivalent Chinese character or pictograph, a valuable improve- 
ment, which will help to avoid confusion especially in words 
which are similar in sound. 

It is thus hoped that this system, which embodies the best 
elements of Morrison, Williams, Wade, Giles and of the recent 
Postal List, will meet with the approval of all competent Sino- 
logues, and go far in solving the yet unsettled question of uni- 
formity, at least so far as the English language is concerned. 
M r H. B. Morse, the learned Statistical Secretary of the Imperial 
Maritime Customs, to whom the work has been communicated 
as the sheets left the press, appreciated its system of ortho- 
graphy in the following terms : "as scientific romanisation, I 
fully approve of your system, and I have serious fault only with 
your ngan." (Letter to the Author, 13 August, 1907). 


Values of vowels, consonants, diphthongs, aspirates and nasals, 
adopted in this Work. 

The Mandarin dialect lacks the initial letters b, d, g, q, r, v, x and z; and all 
words end by a vowel, semi-vowel, n or ng. 

Vowels and diphthongs. 


— as in father. 



— as in aye. 



— (final) as ow in how, but 



— as in men, yet. 


— as the vowel sound in 



— short and abrupt. 



— as in height, or i in sigh 
(many English writers 


confound ai and ei). 



— as ou in souse (some 

write it ou or ow). 



— as 11 in hull or skull, 


with an approxima- 


tion to rl, as in hurl. 


(English and American 


writers have trans- 


literated this sound 


in the most bewilder- 


ing manner, thus : 


urh (Morrison). 


'rh (Williams). 


irh (Wade, Giles). 

ur (Jenkings). 

rh (Edkins). 

ri (Ballard). 

as in pin. 

as ya in yard. 

i and ao sounded, but 

slightly coalescing 

into one sound, 
as in the Italian word 

shorter than ie. 
short and abrupt, as the 

vowel sound in chick. 
as the vowel sound in 

chin, pin. 
as in king, sing, 
i as y in yawn, 
short and abrupt, 
as ew, in pew, yew. 
as o in long. 
short and abrupt, 
as ow in how (see eu). 
as oo in too, fool. 
as u in abuse, 
short and abrupt. 
u as in too; i as in 

height, both slightly 

coalescing into one. 

Consonants, aspirates and nasals. 

The aspirate is about the same sound as initial h in English, but often somewhat 
stronger. In English, the aspirate after a surd is a neglected sound, while in Chinese 
it is a substitute for the lack of the sonants b, d, g hard and g soft. The Mandarin 
dialect has 9 aspirates : the initial simple consonants k, p and t, and the compound 
consonants ch, chw, kw, shw, ts and tz. 

A nasal sound is performed by closing the lips and causing the voice to pass 
into the nose. 


ch. — (always initial) as in 


church, chair. 


ch c . — the same sound aspirated. 


chw. — as in chew. 

f. — as in fat, find. 

h. — as in hang. 


hs. — (always initial), a sibil- 

ant sound as sh in 

shin, she. 

hw. — as w/i in what, which. 

j. — as in the French jaune, 




h. — as in king. 

k ( . — the same sound aspir- 


ated (in some places 



1. — as in lamp, land. 


m. — as in man. 

n. — as in not. 

p. — as in pot. 

p'. — the same sound aspir- 



as in sand. 

as in shall, shut. 

a peculiar sibilant, as 
if followed by a quies- 
cent vowel. 

an imperfect vowel so- 
und; e final as in table 
(Wade renders this 
sound by ssfi, Wil- 
liams by sz). 

as in top. 

the same sound aspir- 

as in wits. 

the same sound aspir-. 

an imperfect vowel so- 
und; e final as in table 
(Wade and Giles ren- 
der this sound by tzu; 
Williams by tsz'). 

as in went, winter. 

» se333 c « 



Geography. Formation of the Earth. Modifications of the crust of the 
Earth. Formation of new lands. 1. — Igneous and sedimentary rocks. 
Formation of the soil of China, 2. — China in the various geological 
periods. Formation of coal and sandstone. Modifications wrought on tlv 
surface. Volcanic action and eruptions. Present geological action. Pre- 
dominant rocks of the Chinese soil. New modifications wrought on the 
surface of China. 3. — Flora and Fauna of the first ages. Primitive origin 
of the Chinese. Pre-Chinese races. First Chinese Settlers. 4. — Actual 
China. Situation. Divisions. Boundaries. Area and Population. Reasons 
of the unequal distribution of inhabitants. Difficulty of a collective view. 
Study of the 18 Provinces, 5. — References. 6. 



The Eighteen Provinces. 

General Notions, 7-20. 

Names applied to the Country and People. Situation. Boundaries, 7. — 
Shape. Area and Population, 8. — Geological constitution. Orography or 
Mountain Systems, 10. — Historical or Sacred Mountains. Plains, 13. — 
Climate, 14. — Hydrography, 15. — Lakes. Coast-line. Fauna and Flora. 
16. — Diffusion of the Population. 18. — Present Division of China. The 
Three Regions or Basins, 19. — References, 20. 


Valleys of the Peh-ho and of the Hwana-ho, 21-30. 

Characteristics of this Region, 21. — Provinces comprised in it. Geological 
constitution. Loess or Yellow lands, 22. — Alluvial lands. Orography. 
Climate. Hydrography, 23. — The Hvvang-ho, 24. — Variations in its 
Course, 27. — Flow, 28. — The Great Wall, 29. — A few other particulars 
concerning the Northern Region, 29. — References. 30. 


Reg-ion of the Upper Hwana-ho (Kansu and Shensi), 31-40. 

Kansu and Shensi Provinces, 81. — 1". Kansu: Area. Population. Name. 
Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures, 32. — Aspect and Characteristics. 
Geological constitution. Orography, 33. — Climate. H3*drography, 35. — 
Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth. Population (People). 


Language, 36. — Cities and Principal Centres, 37. — Industry and Com- 
merce. Highways of communication. 38. — 2°. Shensi : Area. Population. 
Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures. Aspect and Charac- 
teristics, 39. — Geological constitution. Orography, 40. — Climate. 
Hydrography, 41. — Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth. 
Population (People). Language, 42. — Cities and Principal Centres, 43. 

— Industry and Commerce. 44. — Highways of communication, 45. — 
References, 46. 


Region of the Middle Hwang-ho (Shansi and Honan), 47-64. 

Shansi and Shensi Provinces. 47.— 1°. Shansi: Area. Population. Name. 
Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures. 48. — Aspect and Characteristics. 
Geological constitution. Orography, 50. — Climate. Hydrography, 51. — 
Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth. Population (People). 
Language. Cities and Principal Centres, 52. — Industry and Commerce. 
Highways of communication, 54. — 2°. Honan : Area. Population. Name. 
Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures. Aspect and Characteristics, 56. — 
Geological constitution. Orography, 57. — Hydrography, 59. — Fauna and 
Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth. Population (People). Language. 
Cities and Principal Centres, 61. — Industry and Commerce. Highways of 
communication, 62. — References, 63. 


Reg-ion of the Lower Hwang-ho and of the Peh-ho (Chihli 
and Shantung), 65-89. 

Chihli and Shantung Provinces, 65. — 1°. Chihli : Area. Population. Name. 
Boundaries. Capitals. Other Prefectures, 66. — Aspect and Characteristics. 
Geological constitution. Orography, 67. — Climate. Hydrography, 69. — 
Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 70. — Population 
(People). Cities and Principal Centres, 71. — Industry and Commerce. 
Highways of communication. Open Ports, 78. — 2°. Shantung : Area. 
Population. Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures, 79. — Aspect 
and Characteristics. Geological constitution. Orography, 80. — Climate. 
Hydrography, 82. — Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth. 
Population (People). Language. Cities and Principal Centres, 83. — Industry 
and Commerce. Highways of communication, 86. — Open Ports. Notes, 87. 

- References, 88-89. 



Valleys of the Yangtze and of the Hwai-ho, 90-108. 

Characteristics of this Region, 90. — Provinces comprised in it. Geological 
constitution, 91. — Orography, 02. — Climate. Hydrography. The Yang- 
tze River (name, course, changes of, distance of Ports on from sea- 
coast, Navigation of, Steamboat Companies trading on), 93. — Further 
particulars regarding this Central Region, 101. — References, 102-103. 


liegion of the Upper Yangtze (Szechw'an), 104-119. 

S/echw'an Province, 104. — Area. Population. Name. Boundaries. 
Capital. Other Prefectures, 105. — Aspect and Characteristics. Geological 


constitution, 106. — Orography, 107. — Climate. Hydrography, 109. — 
Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 111. — Population 
(People, Races). Language. Cities and Principal Centres, 112. — Industry 
and Commerce. Highways of communication, 11G. — Open Ports. Notes. 
117. — References, 118. 


Region of the Middle Yangtze (Hupeh and Hunan i, 120-188. 

Hupeh and Hunan Provinces, 120. — 1°. Hupeh : Area. Population. 
Name. Boundaries. Capital, other Prefectures. Aspect and Characteristics, 
121 . — Geological constitution. Orography, 122. — Climate. Hydrography, 
123. — Lakes. Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth. 124. - 
Population (People). Language. Cities and Principal Centres, 125. — 
Industry and Commerce. Highways of communication, 129.— open Ports, 
130. — 2°. Hunan: Area. Population. Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other 
Prefectures. 131. — Aspect and Characteristics. Geological constitution. 
Orography, 132. — Hydrography, 133. — Fauna and Flora. Agricultural 
and Mineral Wealth, 134. — Population (People). Language Cities and 
Principal Centres, 135. — Industry and Commerce, 136. — Highways <>f 
communication. Open Ports, L37. — References, 138. 


Region of the Lower Yangtze (Kiangsi, Nganhwei, Kfangsu . 189-166. 

Kiangsi, Nganhwei and Kiangsu Provinces. L39. — 1". Kiangsi : Area. 
Population. Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures. 140. — Aspect 
and Characteristics. (Geological constitution. Orography, I'll Hydro- 

graphy, 142. — Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and .Mineral Wealth, 142. — 
Population (People;. Language. Cities and Principal Centres, 143. Industry 
and Commerce, 145. — Highways of communication. Open Ports. Note. 
References, 145. — 2". Nganhwei : Ana. Population. Name Boundaries. 
Capital. Other Prefectures. Aspect and Characteristics. L46. — Geological 
constitution. Orograplry. Climate. 147. - Hydrography. Lakes. I '■«. — Fauna 
and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 149. — Population (People). 
Language. Cities and Principal Centres. 150. — Industry and Commerce. 
Highways of communication. 151. — Open Ports, 152. — 3". kiangsu : 
Area. Population. Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures, 153. — 
Aspect and Characteristics. Geological constitution. Orography, 154. — 
Hydrography, 155. — Fauna and Flora, 156. — Agricultural and Mineral 
Wealth. Population (People). Language. 157. — Cities and Principal 
Centres, 158. — Industry and Commerce, Highways of communication, 163. 

— Open Ports. Notes, 164. — References, 165-166. 



The Si-kiang Valley and the Coast-rivers of Fokien and Chekiang, 167-173. 

Characteristics of this Region, 167. — Provinces comprised in it. 
Geological constitution. Orography, 168. — Climate. Hydrography, 170. 

— References, 173. 


Region of the Upper Si-kiang (Yunnan and Kweichow), 174-193. 

Yunnan and Kweichow Provinces, 174. — 1°. YUnnan : Area. Population. 
Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures, 175. — Aspect and Charac- 


teristics. Geological constitution, 177.— Orography. Climate. Hydrography, 
178. — Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 180. — 
Population (People). Language. Cities and Principal centres, 181. — 
Industry and Commerce, 182. — Open Ports. Note, 183. — 2°. Kweichow : 
Area. Population. Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures, 184. — 
Aspect and Characteristics. Geological constitution. Orography, 185. — 
Climate. Hydrography, 187. — Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 187. — 
Population (People'. (Language. Cities and Principal Centres, 188. — Industry 
and Commerce. Highways of communication, 190. — Note. References, 191- 


Keg ion of I lie .Middle and Lower Si-kiang 1 (Kwangsi 
and Kwangtung), 194-216. 

Kwangsi and Kwangtung Provinces, P*4. — 1°. Kwangsi: Area. Popula- 
tion. Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures, 195. — Aspect and 
Characteristics. Geological constitution. Orography. Climate. Hydrography, 
196. — Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 198. —Popula- 
tion (People). Language. Cities and Principal Centres, 199. —Industry and 
Commerce. Highways of communication. Open Ports, 200. — Note, 201. — 
2°. Kwangtung : Area. Population. Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other 
Prefectures, 202. — Aspect and Characteristics. Geological constitution. 
Orography, 203. — Climate. Hydrography, 204. — Fauna and Flora. 
Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 206. — Population (People). Language. 
Towns and Principal Centres. 207. — Note (Hongkong, Macao, Kwang- 
chow-wan). Industry and Commerce. Highways of communication, 211.— 
Open Ports, 212. — Beferences, 213-216. 


The Coast Region (Fokien and Chekiang), 217-237. 

Fokien and Chekiang Provinces, 217. — 1°. Fokien: Area. Population. 
Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other Prefectures, 218. — Aspect and Charac- 
teristics. Geological constitution. Orography. Climate, 219. — Hydrography, 
220. — Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 221. — Popu- 
lation (People). Language. Cities and Principal Centres, 222. — Industry 
and Commerce. Highways of communication, 225. — Open Ports. Note, 
226.-2°. Chekiang: Area. Population. Name. Boundaries. Capital. Other 
Prefectures, 227. — Aspect and Characteristics. Geological constitution. 
Orography, 228. — Climate. Hydrography, 229. — Fauna and Flora. Agri- 
cultural and Mineral Wealth, 231. — Population (People). Language. Cities 
and Principal Centres, 232. — Industry and Commerce. Highways of 
communication. Open Ports. Note, 235. — References, 236-237. 


Preliminary observation, 238. — 1". General Notions: Extent of the coast- 
line. Its configuration. Seas, 239. — General remarks on the seas of China 
(the Yellow Sea, Eastern China Sea, South-China Sea), 241. — Nature of 
the coast, 2'j2. — Coast winds. Winter and Summer Monsoons, 243. — 
Cyclones. Continental landstorms. Typhoons, 245. — Fogs. Lighthouses, 
buoys and beacons, 246. — Tides, 249. — 2°. The Coast of Chihli : The 
Poh-hai. Gulfs. Island.. Ice, 251. — Winds. Nature of the Coast. Ports, 
252. — 3°. The Coast of Shantung : A. The N. \Y . Coast. B. The Miao-tao 
Islands, 253. — C. The Coast of the Shantung Promontory. Bays. Capes, 
254. — Islands, ice. Wind. Tide. Nature of Coast. Lighthouses, 255. — 
Coast-towns (Chefoo, Weihaiwei, Ts'ingtao), 25*;. — 4°. The Coast of Kiang- 
su : A. The Coast to the N. of the Yangtze. B. The mouth of the Yangtze 



and the Port of Shanghai, 261. — Islands and sand-banks. Channels, 262. 

— Lighthouses. Tides, 263. — Woosung Inner and Outer Bars. 264. — 
Height of water on Woosung Bars, 265. — Shanghai (Historical sketch. 
Population. Industries and Manufactures. Trade. Shipping and Tonnage. 
Table of Shipping. Inland Navigation), 266. — C. The Coast to the S. of the 
Yangtze, 271. — 5°. The Coasl of Chgkiang : I". Bay of Hangchow and its 
barrier of Islands, 272. — Lighthouses. 2°. Coast of Chekiang, S. of Hang- 
chow Bay, 273. — Bays, 274. — Islands. Lighthouses. Coast-towns, 275. 

— 6°. The coast of Fokien : Bays. Islands, 276. — Lighthouses. Coast-towns, 
278. — 7°. The Coasl of Kwangtung: Bays . Islands, 281. — Tides. Currents 
Lighthouses, 283. — Sea-ports (Hongkong, Canton, Macao, Kwangchow- 
wan), 284. — Time-zones on the Coast of China. Note. 292. — References, 



Government and Administration. — Revenue and Expenditure. — Imperial 
Maritime Customs. — Army and Navy, 295-888. 

1°. Government and Administration: The Emperor, 295. — The Empr< 

Manchu Administration. 296. — Central Government, 297. — Provincial 
Administration, 301. — Provinces of China and their Capitals. 304. — 
Territorial Sub-divisions of the Provinces, 306. — Number of territorial 
divisions in the 18 Provinces, 312. — General appellation of officials. 
The Yamen, 31.3. — Rank and degrees of Officials. Hereditary reward 
for Merit, 314. — 2°. Revenue and Expenditure: Chinese Currency, 316. 
Cash. Sycee. Various kinds of Taels, 317. — Gold equivalent of Haikwan 
Tael (1870-1906), 319. — Necessity of uniform Currency. 320. — Revenue 
of the Empire. Taxes (land-tax, salt-tax, likin, native Custom dues, opium-tax, 
miscellaneous), 321. — Expenditure of the Empire. Foreign Debt, 324.— 
3°. Imperial Maritime Customs: Origin and development. Organization, 325. 

— Ports and Marts open to Foreign Trade. 326. — Revenue collected by 
I. M. Customs, 327. — Apportionment of Revenue between Foreign and 
Home Trade. Ports where trade is most important, 328. — '-,". Army and 
Navy : Manchu or Imperial Army (The Fight Banners), 329. - Provincial 
Forces or Army of the Green Standard, 330. — irregulars or Rraves. The 
New Chinese Army scheme, 331. — Reorganization of the Army, 332. — 
Effectives of the Provincial Army down to 1904. Navy, 333. — Arsenals and 
dockyards. Ports, 334. — References, 335-338. 


Population (People). — Languages. — Religions. — Education, 389-392. 

1°. Population (People), 339. — Physical and moral characteristics of the Chi- 
nese Race, 340. — Aboriginal tribes and remnants of former Races: Lolos,342. 

— Miaotze, Ikias, Hakkas, 343. — Hoklos. Yao or Yu tribe. Sai. Si or Li 
tribe, 344. — Mosus (Musus), Lisus. Minkias. Sifans. Distribution of the 
Population, 345. — Foreign (Commercial) Population in China. 346. — 
2°. Languages : The Chinese Language, 347. — Mandarin. Varieties of 
Mandarin. Dialects (number of persons conversing in each . 348. — Charac- 
teristics of the Chinese Language. Chinese writing. 349.— Dialects and writing 
of the Aborigines. Chinese Literature. 350. — 3°. Religions: Confucianism. 
Taoism, 351. — Buddhism, 352. — Ancestor worship. Shamanism, 353. — 
Catholicism. Catholic Missions in China. 354. — Protestantism, 358. — Pro- 
testant Missions to China, 359. — Mahomedanism, 362. — Judaism. 363. — 


4°. Education: Old System of Education, 364. — Competitive examinations 
and degrees, 365. — Modern System of Education, 367. — Grades of Schools 
and Degrees in new System, 368. — Normal and Special Schools. Admi- 
nistration of the Schools. Private and Mission Schools, 369. — Old Style 
military examinations. References, 370-392. 


Agriculture, 303-401. 

Chinese Agriculture, 393. — Methods. Distribution of Crops. Various 
agricultural products, 394. — Plants cultivated for food, utilized in industry, 
395. — Tea. The Poppy-plant, 396. — The sugar-cane. The cotton plant. 
Useful trees, 397. — The Bamboo. Fruit-trees. Domestic animals. 
Pisciculture and fishing, 398. — References, 399-401. 


Mining and Industry, 102-406. 

Mining: Coalmines. Iron ore. Copper, 402. — Zinc. Tin. Quicksilver. 
Gold. Silver. Argentiferous lead mines. Kerosene. Salt. Mining regulations. 
Industry: 403. — Porcelain. Silk. Silk-filatures. Cotton-spinning and wea- 
ving mills. Sugar refineries. Arsenals. Mints. Printing establishments, 
404. — References, 405-406. 


Trade and Commerce, 407-424. 

Home Trade, 407. — Trade with the outlying Dependencies. Foreign 
Trade. Its Importance, 408. — Annual value of China's Foreign Trade 
(1891-1905). Principal Foreign Countries with which China trades. Annual 
value of the Direct Trade with each country (1903-1905), 409. — Principal 
Imports from Foreign Countries, 411. — Principal Exports to Foreign 
Countries, 412. — Principal Re-exports. Value and Importance of the 
principal articles of Trade (cotton piece-goods and yarn), 413. — Sorts of 
Opium imported. Net Importation into the Principal Ports, 414. — Principal 
Exports from China : Silk and Tea. Sorts of silk exported. Total Export 
of silk for the past 10 years, 415. — Sorts of Tea exported. Total Export 
of Tea for the last 10 years, 416. — Tea : Exportation direct to Foreign 
Countries. Principal Marts for export of Tea, 417. — Share taken by each 
Foreign Country in China's Trade. Shipping. Carrying trade between the 
Treaty Ports, 418. — Trade of Shanghai (1903-1905), 419. — Traders and 
Trading Houses in China. Trade and population of the Open Ports (1903- 
1905), 420. — References, 422-424. 


Means of Communication, 425-442. 

Roads and Bridges, 425. — Government Courier Roads, 426. — Modes 
of conveyance and travel. Waterways, 427. — Canals. The Grand Canal, 
428. — Railways, 430. — Railway lines completed and working (1907), 
431. — Under construction, 433. — Projected, 434. — Postal Service, 435. 
— Present Tariff: Imperial Post Office, 436.— Postal Sections and Work, 
437. — Telegraphs, 438. — Steamship Companies trading to and from China, 
439. — References, 441-442. 


Rise and Progress of the Chinese Empire. — Foreign Relations. — 

Chinese Emigration, 443-485. 

1°. Rise and Progress of the Chinese Empire. /°. The Mythical Period, 
443. — II . The Ancient or Legendary Period : 1°. The Five Sovereigns. 


2°. The Three great Emperors (Yao, Shun, Yu),445. — ///". The >' Dy 
nasties: 1°. The Primitive Dynasties, 445. — The Chinese Imperial Dy 
nasties, Table of, 446. — The Hsia dynasty. The Sham; or Yin dynasty, 
448. _ The Chow dynasty, 449. —2°. The Ancienl Dynasties : The Ts'in 
dynasty, 450. — The Han dynasty, 451. — The Minor Han. The Tsin 
dynasty, 453. — The Unsung dynasty. The Three Short-lived dynasl 
454. — 3°. The Medieeval dynasties, 455. — The T'a The 

Five Ephemeral dynasties. The Snug dynasty, 457. The Yuen or Mongol 
dynasty, 459. — 4°. The Modern dynasties: The Ming dynasts. 160. 
The Tats'ing dynasty, i61-471. — II". Foreign Relations, 471. Famous 
Travellers to and from China, 472. — Intercourse of Western Powers with 
China from the XVI th century to L842, p. 173. - Relation- oi China with 
Foreign Powers from 1842 (Treaty of Nanking , i75. - III". Emigration 
(Chinese abroad), 478. — References, 179-485. 




Manchuria or • ho Manchu Country, 486-608. 

Note. Area. Population. Name, 480. — Boundaries. Capital. Provinces 
and Prefectural divisions, 487. — Aspect and Characteristics. Geological 
constitution, 488. — Orography. Climate. Hydrography, i89. Lakes. 

Coast-line, 491. — Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 
492. — Population (People), 493. Language. Religion. Towns and 

Principal Centres, 494. — Industry and Commerce. Highways of commu- 
nication, 501. — Railways in Manchuria, 503. — The Palisade. Adminis- 
tration, 504. — Open Ports, 505. — Historical sketch, 506. — RefereB 


Mongolia or the Mong-ku Country, 609-522. 

Area. Population. Name. Boundaries, 509. — Aspect and Characteristics. 
Geological constitution, 510. — Orography and Hydrography. Region of 
Kobdo and Urga, 511. — Region of the Mongolian Desert or Gobi, 512. — 
Region of the Great Khingan (Hsingnan). Ordos Plateau Region, 513. 
— Alashan Region. Climate, 514. — Fauna and Flora. Agricultural and 
Mineral Wealth. Population (People), 515. — Religion. Language, 516. — 
Towns and Principal Centres, 517. — Industry and Commerce. Highways 
of communication, 519. — Postal service (Russian overland i. Administra- 
tion. 519. — Army. References. 520-522. 


Chinese Turkestan or the New Dominion, also called Sinkiang*, 523-537. 

Area. Population. Name, Boundaries. 523. — Prefectural divisions. 
Aspect and Characteristics, 524. — Geological constitution. Orography. 
525. — Depressions. Passes. Climate, 526. — Hydrography. 527. — Fauna 
and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth. 528.— The different Regions 
and their Towns, 529. — Population (People). Religion. Language. Admi- 
nistration, 533. — Industry and Commerce. Highways of communication. 
534. — Historical Note. References, 535-537. 



Tibet or Sitsang-, 538-557. 

Area. Population. Name. Boundaries, 538. — Aspect. Geological consti- 
tution. Orography, 539. — Climate, 541. — Hydrography, 542. — Fauna 
and Flora. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth, 545. — Government and 
Administrative divisions: Kingdom of Tibet, 545. — Kuku-Nor. Population 
People and Races). Religion, 547. — Language, 548. — Taxation, tribute 
and '-urrency. Army. Towns and Principal Centres, 549. — Industry and 
Commerce. Highways of communication, 553. — Postal communication. 
Open Trade-marts. Historical Note. Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan. British Expe- 
dition to Lhasa. 554. — References, 555-557. 

List of the Prefectures and Sub-prefectures (Departments and Districts) 
in the 18 Provinces, arranged under their respective Provinces and supple- 
mented by the Indendancies administered by a Taot'ai), 558-581. 

Prefectures and Sub-prefectures of Manchuria and Chinese Turkestan 

Alphabetical List of the Cities, Towns and Open Ports of China and 
Dependencies, 586-639. 

Appendix I. Signification of the Principal Chinese Geographical Terms 
,, II. China's Foreign Trade in 1906, p. 645. 

III. Statistics of Protestant Missions in China for the year ending 
1905, p. 657. 
,, IV. The Woosung Bar, Hwangp'u Conservancy and Approaches 

to Shanghai. 659. 
,, V. Work and Progress of the Imperial Post Office in 1906 p 

Index (alphabetically arranged , 663. 
Corrigenda. 712. 


in Text, 
Fig. Page 

1. Sketch-plan illustrating Formation of (he Soil of China 2 

2. Geological Map of Northern China according to Richthofen, 

Pumpelly and A. David 

3. Rough sketch-plan of the Cpper Hwang-ho 

4. Sketch-plan showing changes in the course of the Hwang ho. 

5. Section of the Richthofen M t9 at their Southernmost Pass. 
(1. Loess Plateau of Shansi Recording to Richthofen 

7. Section of the Mountains of Western Eionan, proceeding from 

Hwaik'ing Fu to Nanyang Fu 

8. Map of Northern Chihli and Approaches to Peking 

9. Plan of Peking, with Index 

10. Sketch-map of Tientsin 

11. Geological Map of Shantung according to Richthofen. 

12. Sketch-plan, Port of Ts'ingtao 

13. Section of the Mountains from Tatsienlu to the ,Min River Plain, 

l'i . Sketch-plan of Ch'ungk'ing 

15. Wuch'ang, Hanyang and Hank'ow 

10. Sketch-plan of Shanghai, with Insel of P'ootung 

IT. Geological sketch-map of tin' Chinese Provinces bordering on 

Tongking, by M. A. Leclere 

18. Approaches to Canton 

19. Section of Yunnan and Kwangsi Plateaux 

20. Sketch-plan of Canton and the Pearl River 

21. Sketch-plan of Foochow and the Min River 

22. Sketch-plan of Amoy Harbour 

28. Section of the Pacific Ocean along the 20 th parallel. \. 

24. Diagram illustrating the Winter and Summer Monsoons. 

25. Lighthouses on the N. Coast of China 

26. Lighthouses on the S. Coast of China 

27. Sketch-plan of the Lower Peh-ho and its Mouth 

28. Sketch-plan of Chefoo Bay 

29. Sketch-plan of Weihaiwei Harbour 

30. Sketch-plan of Kiaochow Bay 

31. Diagram showing swirl at mouth of Yangtze at flood and ebb 


32. Shanghai and the Hwangp'u River 

33. Diagram showing Height of water on the Outer and Inner 

Woosung Bars (1897-1902) 

34. Sketch-plan of Samsa Sanshaj Bay. 

35. Sketch-plan of Hongkong including Kowloon and New Territory. 

36. Sketch-plan of Macao with Dependencies of Taipa and Colo wan. 

37. Sketch-plan of Kwangchow-wan 

38. Railway system of Manchuria 

39. Section of Asia, following Meridian of Lob-Nor and Turfan. 

40. Sketch-map of Southern Tibet 

41. Height of Water on the Outer and Inner Woosung Bars (1902- 


42. Shanghai and the Hwangp'u River 

In Pocket. 

1. Large Map of the 18 Provinces, in 7 colours (27 x 21 inches . 

2. Physical and Political Map of China and Dependencies, in 5 colours 

(15 x 10 h inches). 

3. Map of the Hupeh Plain, in 5 colours ( ( .» \ x 8 inches . 

4. Map of the Lower Yangtze Basin, in 5 colours (9 | x 8 inches). 



















Area and Population of the Chinese Empire 

Area and Population of the 18 Provinces. 

Distance (nautical miles) of Yangtze Ports from Shanghai 

Hank'ow shipping Table 

Foreign Population of Shanghai 

Gross and Net Values of the Shanghai Trade (1900-1905) 

Custom Dues collected at Shanghai 1900-1905) 

Share of Dues contributed bv G. Britain, Germany etc. 

Shanghai shipping Table (1900-1905) 

Gross and Net Values of the Canton Trade (1900-1905). 

Total Value of junk trade between Hongkong and Macao (1900 

1905) ... : 

The 10 Ministries or Metropolitan Boards 

The 8 Viceroyalties 

Provinces of China and their Capitals 

Provincial Government 

Territorial sab-divisions of the Provinces 

Number of territorial divisions in the iS Provinces. 

Insignia of Official Bank 

The 9 Banks of hereditary reward for Merit 

Table exhibiting the sub-divisions of the Tael. 
Gold equivalent of the Haikwan Tael (1870-1906). 

Revenue of the Chinese Empire 

Expenditure of the Chinese Empire 

Ports and Marts open to Foreign Trade 

Customs Revenue (1900-1905) 

Share of Duties paid by Foreign and by Home Trades 

Ports where Trade is most important 

Banner Garrisons in the Provinces 

Effectives of the Provincial Army down to 190 
Table showing increase of Chinese Population 

Foreign Trading Houses and Traders in China 346,420 

Population speaking Dialects of the East and South of China 
Number of Syllables in the various Dialects of China. 

Statistics of Catholic Missions in China, 1906 

,, ,, ,, ,, in Korea and Japan, 1906.... 

Statistics of Protestant Missions in China. 359-360; 657 

M. A. Graduates in each Province, 1903 
L.L.D. Graduates in each Province, 1904 

Grades of Schools (New System) 

Degrees conferred in New System 

Annual Value of China's Foreign Trade, 1891-1905-1906. ... 409 
Annual Value of direct trade with each Country, 1903-1905-1906. 409 
Principal Net Imports from Foreign Countries, 1903-1905-1906. 410 

Principal Net Exports to Foreign Countries, 1903-1905-1906 

Principal Be-exports, 1904-1905-1906 

Importation of Cotton piece-goods and yarn — 

Importation of Cotton yarn 

Opium imported 

Silk exported for the past 10 years 

Tea exported for the past 10 years 














Tea : Exportation direct to Foreign Countries, L905-1906 
Shipping: Vessels entered and cleared. L 903-1 905-1 901 


'orts. I 'jo', i '.to;, i 


. rade between the Treat v , 
Shanghai. Cross aod .\ei Value of its Trade, L903 1905. 
Annual Net Value of the Whole Trade of each Open Port, 


Government Courier Roads or Postal Highways.... 
Railway Lines, completed and working. 1907. 

,, under construct ion . 1907 

projected, 1907 

Costal Tariff; Imperial Pos1 Office, L907 

Head and Branch Offices, Imperial Pos1 Office, L901 L905 L90( 
Costal Sections and Work. 1904 1905-1906. ... 

Telegraph Cables in China 

Steamship Companies sailing to or from China 

Coast and Riverine S. S. Companies 

Imperial Dynasties of China 

Emigration Statistics 

Newchwang : Gross and Net Values of Trade, 1901-1906. 




... 119 


... 126 


... 133 

... 134 

... 136 




... 139 


... 146 

... 478 

... 199 





Geography. — Geography is nothing else than a description of the earth. 

The Geography of China will consist therefore in describing that part of Asia 
which is called China. 

But the description of the earth cannot be made without some preliminary 
notions of geology, that is to say, of the science of the earth, its formation, its cons- 
titution and its various modifications. By means of this study we can give a readier 
account of the surface, of the distribution of (the waters, and also of the fauna and 
flora of China. 

Formation of the earth. — The whole universe has been, in its elements, 
created by God, that is to say made from nothing by His Almighty Power. 

According to the hypothesis the most generally held among scientists, the 
sun and its planets formed at first a single nebulous body, that is to say, an enormous 
spheroidal mass of gas occupying an immense space. 

This mass, animated with a slow movement of rotation, condensed in concentric 
rings, turning around the common centre in the plane of its equator. Each of the 
rings broke up. The fragments, forming in their tarn small spheres, continued, while 
condensing, to turn around the principal mass. In tin's way the planets were formed. 
The earth is one of these planets. 

Separated from the sun, the eai'th, continuing to cool, passed slowly from the 
gaseous to the liquid state. Blocks of solid matter soon began to float upon its sur- 
face, as ice does on the surface of ponds, when the temperature has fallen for some 
time below 32 degrees Fab.. Then these blocks fused together, forming like archipela- 
goes upon the liquid mass, and incrusted this burning sea, somewhat as in the new egg 
the shell hardens although the interior remains fluid. 

Modifications of the crust of the earth. — But this mass continued to 
cool down, and its crust, which is none other than the shell of our globe, remained of 
slight thickness. Hence splits and depressions, and when the compressed interior gases 
found vent through less resisting parts of the crust, violent eruptions took place. These 
covered the crust with volcanic outbursts, or upheaved within it what have been called 
the eruptive rocks. This action, intense in the first ages of the earth, continues down 
to the present day. Certain portions of the earth rise up, others become depressed ; 
islands suddenly emerge or disappear; earthquakes shake this or that part of the crust; 
volcanoes cast around them fiery or liquid matter, issuing from the bosom of the 

Formation of new lands. — Simultaneously with this interior work another 
went on, and still continues on the exterior of the crust of the earth. As the central 













core of the earth condensed by cooling, there occurred a similar condensation of some 
of the constituents of its gaseous envelope. Heavy mists and abundant rains developed 
over the crust an immense sheet of water. This mass, consequent on the never-ending 
changes wrought on the surface of the crust, withdrew, now in one cavity, now in 
another, thus forming mighty seas above which rose continents. 

Upon these continents, as in the seas, living beings subsequently appeared; 
plants, fish, birds, and quadrupeds. Some of these still exist, others have disappeared, 
leaving their traces beneath the soil. Thanks to these marks, we can discover the age 
of such or such strata of the earth. These strata are, in order of age, nnd beginning by 
the oldest : 

strata (without trace of life) or primitive, 

Igneous and sedimentary rocks.— In 1 ] I wo kinds of rocks n re found : 

igneous rocks, of which the Azoic strata are formed, and sedimentary or st ratified I 

The igneous (or Plutonic) rocks are formed by the solidifying of tlie exterior 
layers of the molten matter : gneiss, mica-schist. 

The sedimentary (or Neptunian) rocks are formed by the disintegration 
igneous rocks. These debris deposited at the bottom of lakes an" 'ether 

with the remains of animals, form, through a proci of drying and hardening new- 
rocks [clay, sand-stone, limestone . 

This rapid and very incomplete sketch of the formation of the earth will enable 
us now to studj 7 the formation of the soil of China. 

Formation of the soil of China. — China, as we stated in the beginning, 
forms a part of Asia, the South-Eastern. From primitive times two portions of Ask, 
seem to have emerged. In the North, in the region of Irkutsk and extending as far 
as Korea, was the continent called Eurasia (formed by Europe and Asia), which soon 
continued to the North by Anga- 
ra. This continent occupied a 
large portion of present Siberia. 
In the South, in the present 
peninsula of Hindustan, and 
extending to Australia, was the 
land of Gundwana (so called 
from the ancient flora of Gund- 
wana, common to its different 
parts). Between these two conti- 
nents, occupying consequently 
nearly the whole space now 
forming China, was the central 
Mediterranean sea, called some- 
times Thetys (the sea). In the 
primitive period,therefore,China, 
except Manchuria, the Western 
border of Mongolia and some 
parts of Tibet, was buried be- 
neath the water. 

Formation of.the soil of China. 

J Sea. [gj Land. 

In the North, Eurasia. 
In the South, the land of Gundwana. 
Between the two the Central Mediterranean 


China in the different geological periods. — At the close of the Primary 
period, the greatest portion of China emerged, save the South-Western. 

During the whole of the Primary period and the first part of the Secondary 
period, China remained under water. It then emerged definitively. Subsequently 
came foldings and dislocations, which evolved hollows like that of Sungaria,or emerged 
in peaks like those of the Altai' mountains, T'ien-shan, K'uenlun, Nan-shan and Tibet. 

Several of these summits, the K/uenlun and Nan-shan for instance, were formerly 
very high, but erosion has greatly lessened them. Of the sedimentary coating that 
covered the high summits, there remain but fragments in the less elevated parts, as 
in the South- Western portion of China. 

After the first half of the Secondary period, the geological constitution of China 
was nearly completed. No trace is to be found of jura-limestone and chalk formations, 
such as were formed elsewhere at the end of the Secondary period. 

During the Tertiary and Quaternary period, China, now completely out of water, 
underwent but modifications of its surface, and developed no new rocks. 

Formation of coal and sandstone. — At the close of the Primary period, 
immense deposits of coal formed along the coasts of Eurasia and Gundwana, in the 
place now occupied by Yunnan, Kweichow, Honan, Shensi and Shansi. 

Great lakes occupied a portion of Eastern China from the Secondary period. 
When these disappeared, they left behind a thick bed of rocks deposited in their depths; 
to these rocks has been given the name of sand-stone, so abundant still in many pla- 
ces of China, and particularlj 7 in Szechw'an and throughout the whole of Southern 

Modifications wrought on the surface. — At the same time the mountain- 
tops were attacked bj' glaciers, winds, frosts and torrents, and the debris borne away; 
lakes were filled, the gentler hills became plains, islands like Shantung were joined 
together, and there were deposited in the North those thick layers of yellow and 
fertile earth, called loess, which we shall have more than once occasion to speak about. 

Volcanic Action and Eruptions. — Volcanic action does not seem to have 
been intense. There remain traces of it however in the neighborhood of Nanking, in 
the North of Peking, in some regions of Mongolia and in Tibet. 

The eruptive rocks play a more important part. These rocks, the principal of 
which are porphyry and granite, were spread over a great part of China. The moun- 
tains of Fokien, for instance, are mostty composed of porphyry. 

Present geological action. — This work of geological formation still goes on 
at the present day, and is more especially to be seen at the mouths of the great rivers 
where new lands, called deltas, are continually forming. 

Predominant Rocks of the Chinese soil. — From what has been said upon 
the geological formation of China, it is easj 7 to account for the rocks that predominate. 
For the most part the strata are either Primary or Secondary. The Azoic strata are 
scarcely represented, covered over as they are by the others. Coal takes up a large 
place, and loess covers a vast portion of Northern China, extending from Kansu to 
Shantung and Kiangsu. 

A peculiar kind of limestone, known as China limestone, and formed before the 
coal-beds, is found all over China. Its thickness is at times 10,000 ft. and sometimes 
more. It is the rock the most widely diffused throughout China. 

New modifications wrought on the surface of China. — It may be said 
in general, that the surface of China slopes from West to East, the highest peaks being 
found in Tibet and the vast low-lying plains in the East. This slope is moreover 


clearly indicated, by the general direction of the great rivers. But it lias not always 
been thus. Many actual mountain-masses : Tibet, Szeohw'an, Yunnan, were onoe great 
table-lands, tbat sloped in course of time to the East. It is thus that the same layer 
of rocks is found in the sea, on the coasts of Tongking, and at an elevation of 6500 It in 
Yunnan and Szechw'an. Other parts, now immense plains, wore formerly mountains, 
but the unceasing action of alluvion-charged rivers, and sand-laden winds gradually 
filled up the valleys, leaving nothing henceforth emerging but the highest peaks. The 
table-lands were also vigourously attacked by the combined action of climate and 
water which constantly eroded and disintegrated them. Mighty glaciers, like those 
nowadays in Tibet and Eastern Turkestan, dug out deep valleys; long frosts rent tin- 
rocks; and the water, to find an issue, worked a passage through the least resisting 
parts of the strata. 

Lakes, encircled by a girdle of rocks, deposited there heavy alluvion, and then 
filling up, overflowed their low banks. This action of the water gradually wore way 
the rocks, rapids dug deep gorges, until at last the lakes were drained, and left behind 
a fertile soil, which brought prosperity to it- possessors. 

Flora and fauna of the Aral ages.— What were the primitive fauna and 
flora of China? This we can learn by studying its rocks. Suffice it to state thai copious 
vegetation once covered its high peaks; it is this vegetation which, buried in the 
depths of the earth, has formed the present coal-fields. Animals, much Larger than 
these of to-day, among others the mammoth, inhabited the country. 

The first inhabitants of China. Their place of origin — Who were the 
first inhabitants of China ? In the present state of science, an answer to this question 
is impossible. Did they come from the S.-W. by Burma? From the N., by the greaf 
plain of Siberia, or from the N. W. by the valley of the Hwang-ho? In the absence of 
trustworthy documents, we will follow the Chinese traditions, according to which the 
hundred families, the black-haired race, came from the West. 

The first Chinese inhabitants (according to their ancient descriptive chara- 
cters). — When the race first entered the country, they found it still covered with 
swamps, and transformed it little by little into agricultural land. They had also to 
dwell temporarily in mountain eaves, and wage constant war against wild animals : the 
lion, rhinoceros, elephant, tiger, panther, bear, wolf etc... all these being then more 
numerous than now. They came likewise into contact with a half-savage population, 
frequently hostile, with whom they had at times to dwell together, but were compelled 
oftener to fight. Several of these races are still extant in China, in the S. especially : 
the Lolos, and the Miao-tze. Others, the I, seem to have been driven Northwards and 
thence to have crossed over to America. 

What were the life, manners, language, and religion of these first Chinese ? 
They were nomads, shepherds and hunters, but settled down gradually and cultivated 
the soil. Covered at first with the skins of wild beasts, they learned later on to ma- 
nufacture cloth and make garments. 

Their food was meat and afterwards grain, when they became tillers of the soil. 
They had a knowledge of copper and knew also how to work in wood. Shells, soon 
replaced by ingots of copper fulfilled the office of money. They were fond of noise, 
dancing, and music. To preserve the memory of great events, they made knots on 
cords, and later on, notches on sticks. Their writing first consisted of rude outlines. 
At their head was a chieftain, whom they considered as the medium between heaven 
and earth. Around him gathered several clans. The laws were very harsh and paren- 
tal authority reigned supreme in the family. 

Their religion recognized and honoured a Supreme Lord. They paid great 


attention to natural phenomena, and tried thereby to ascertain the will of heaven; for 
this purpose, they also applied fire to the carapace of the tortoise, and tried to discover 
the future by the lines that resulted therefrom. They feared the influence of evil genii. 
They did not bury their dead, but wrapping them up in bundles of hay, watched over 
them until decomposition set in. 

Actual China. — Having briefly examined ancient China, how its soil was 
formed and shaped, and what were its first inhabitants, it now remains for us to study 
what actual China is. 

Situation. — By the Chinese Empire is understood all that part of Asia which 
lies between 53° and 10° N. latitude, proceeding from N. to S.,and going from W. to 
E., the whole region extending between the 74° and 134° longitude E. from Greenwich. 
Divisions. — In this vast Empire, certain parts are governed more or less 
immediately by the Emperor of China. Some are merely tributary states. The most 
important region is called CHINA PROPER, and comprises the 18 Provinces. It 
is this latter which will be the principal .theme of the present work. Manchuria, 
Mongolia, Eastern Turkestan or the New Territory (Sinkiang) and Tibet will afterwards 
be studied, each in turn. 

Boundaries. — China is bounded on the 
N. and N.W. - By Siberia, 
W. — By Russian Turkestan, 
S.W. — By Hindustan, 

S. and E. — By Tongking and the Pacific Ocean, 
N.E. — By Korea. 
Area and Population. — The population of the Chinese Empire, according to 
the latest official census taken in 1902, is said to amount to 430,000,000 inhabitants. 
These are distributed over the 4,278,352 square miles which form the country, as follows : 

Population. Square miles. 
China Proper (i.e. the 18 Provinces) 410,000,000. 1,532,800. 

Manchuria , 8,500,000. 303,700. 

Mongolia 2,580,000. 1,367,953. 

Chinese Turkestan 1,200,000. 550,579. 

Tibet 0,430,000. 463,320. 

Reasons of the unequal distribution of inhabitants. — The climate, the 
mountainous character of the country, the nature of the soil, explain this unequal distri- 
bution of inhabitants in the different parts of China, as we shall see further on, when 
studying in detail each of its Provinces. Manchuria, cold and hilly, is far from affording 
its people the resources which abound throughout the rich and sunny plains of the 
18 Provinces. Mongolia and Turkestan, frozen in Winter, excessively hot in Summer, 
and swept continually by sand-storms exhibit but few fertile spots, wherein the bare 
necessaries of life are found. Tibet, with its snow-capped summits, is a fit abode for man 
only in those deep valleys where milder air is to be found. 

Diflieulty of a collective view. — It is by examining each of these countries 
in detail, that we can study their mountains, plains, table-lands, the distribution 
of their waters, their climate, resources, and administration, in a word, everything 
which constitutes their geography. Their different features vary too much, and 
thereby hinder anything like a general view. 

Study of the 18 Provinces. — The 18 Provinces forming the most important 
nart of the Empire will be the object of a mure special sfauly. 


References : 

S. W. Williams. — The Middle Kingdom. 

London, 1883. 
Cordier. — Bibliotbeca sinica. Paris, 1904, 

Cordier. — Les Etudes chinoises. Leide, 

1895, 1898, 1903. 
T'oung-pao (from 1890). 
Bulletin du Comite de l'Asie francaise. 
Revue francaise d'exploration. 
La Geographic 
Annales de Geographic. 
Geographical Journal. 
Richthofen. — China. Berlin, 1877-83. 
Boulger. — History of China. 
Du Halde. — Description geographique 

de 1' empire de la Chine. Paris, 1735. 
Memoiresconcernantrhistoire,les sciences, 

les arts etc. des Chinois. Paris, 1776. 
Gro^ier. — Description generale de la 

Chine. Paris, 1818-1820. 
' J.F.Davis.-— The Chinese. London. 1857. 
Pauthier. — Chine modorne. Paris, 1853. 
Wieger. — Textes historigues. Hokien 

fou, 1903 (Introduction). 
Mcsny. —Chinese Miscell. Shanghai, 1895, 

9G, 99, 1905. 
Ball. — Things Chinese, 1905. 
Giles. — A glossary of reference. 
Pr.Kuropatkin — The orography of Asia 

(Geog. Journal, 1904 p. 176 

For geology : 

Biehtholen. — China, and also : Letters. 

Shanghai, 1873. 
Stiess. — La face de la fcerre. Paris, 1897 

et 1900. (2* part ch. VII, VIII et \ I! 3 d 

part, ch. III). 
de Lappa rent. — Lecons de geographie 

physique. Paris, 1890 (22« lecon : I - 

terres asiatiques). 
Leprince-Binguet. — Etude geologique 

sur le Nord de la Chine. Paris, 1901. 
Leclere. — Etude geologique et miuiere 

des provinces chinoises voisinea du Ton- 

kin. Paris, 1902. 

Pumpelly. — Geological researches in 

Ties-sen — ( 'hina,da£ Reiche derachtzehn 
Provinzen. Erster Teil. Di< allgemeine 
geographie des Landes. Berlin, 1902. 

On the Ohineat Empire, see also passim : 
Echo de Chine, North-China Daily News, 
( ihina Bevies , Journal asiatique,Bulletin 
de l'Eoole francaise d'ExtWrne-Orient, 
Far Eastern Review, Ost Asia, Chine et 



r+ A W\ 


Names applied to tlie country and its people. — We 

shall call the principal part of this vast Empire China proper 
or the 18 provinces, for such is the division that prevails at the 
present day. The country is also called China, presumably on 
account of the Ts'in |jj£ dynasty, under which it became better 
known to the nations of the West. This name underwent various 
tranformations such as : Jin, Chin, Sina, China. The Romans 
called it Serica or the silk-producing land. In the Middle-Ages, 
it received the name of Cathay* It is also known as the Middle 
Kingdom (Chung-kwoh 4» |j||), this name being applied by the 
Chinese to the central part of their country; and as the Ilowery 
Kingdom (Hwa-kwoh ^g). The Chinese are often called Han- 
jen (^H A)i men °f Han, this being the name of a celebrated 

Situation.— China Proper lies between 18° and 43° North 
Latitude, and extends from 98° to 122° longitude East from 

Boundaries. — China proper is bounded on the 

N. By Mongolia, 

W. By Chinese Turkestan and Tibet, 

S.W. By Burma, 

S. By Tongking % ^ and the Gulf of Tongking, 



S.E. By the South China Sea, 
E. By the Eastern Sea, 

N.E. By the Yellow Sea, the Gull of Ohihli ]£ $», 
and by Manchuria. 

Sliape. — China is shaped like a Can, the handle ol" which 
would be N.W. Kansu "jf ||f, and the semicircular edge, the 
coast-line with two horns standing out at the two extremities. 
To the N.E., is the Shantung \\j jfc Promontory, and to the 
S.E., that of Leichow Fu gf )]] Jflf, terminating in the sea by 
the island of Hainan $$ ]f . 

Area and Population. — The area of China Proper is 

1,532,800 square miles, and its population 410 000 000 inhabi- 
tants, distributed as follows, according to the olficial census of 



Area in 




Per so,, mim;. 

Chekiang $f tL 

36 680 

II 580 OOO 


Chihli ft gfe 

115 830 

20 930 OOO 

1 So 

Fokien fg ^ 

46 332 

22 870 OOO 


Hon an fnf "$f 

67 954 

25 317 820 


Hunan $ ^ 

83 39S 

22 169 OOO 


Hupeh M 4b 

71 428 

35 280 000 


Kansu -fr ^f 

125 483 

10 386 OOO 


Kiangsi ft ® 

69 498 

26 532 OOO 


Kiangsu fl M 

38 610 

23 980 230 


Kwangsi }£ ffi 

77 220 

5 142 000 


Kwangtung ^ ^ 

100 000 

31 865 200 


Kweichow J| jjfl 

67 182 

7 650 000 


Nganhwei* gfjfc 

54 826 

23 672 300 


Shansi \\\ Hf 

81 853 

12 200 OOO 


Shantung \\\ ^f 

55 984 

38 247 900 


Shensi ^ ® 

75 290 

8 450 000 


Szechw'an 0J )\\ 

218 533 

68 724 800 


Yunnan H j^ 

146 718 

12 721 5OO 


* Also written "Anh 

ai" and "Anhwei". 


It may be seen from the above tableau that the largest 
Provinces are those of Szechw'an and Yunnan, and the smallest 
one, that of Chekiang. The Provinces of greatest population are 
those of Szechw'an and Shantung. Kwangsi has the least num- 
ber of inhabitants. It is in Shantung and Kiangsu that the 
population is most dense, while it is thinnest in Kwangsi. Gene- 
rally speaking, the N. W. and S. W. Provinces are those in 
which the inhabitants are the least numerous. This arises 

According to Richthofen, Pumpelly and A. David. 


Alluvion. Yellow earth. Red alluvion Paleozoic. Metamov- Volcanic. Carboni- 

of A. David. phic. ferous. 


principally from the mountainous and less fertile nature of the 
country, and also from the various Mahomedan rebellions, which 
overran these regions. In regard to mining prospects, as we 
shall see subsequently, those latter are the richest in mineral 
deposits. Industry, perhaps, will give them a new lease oi 
life and activity, which will place them for wealth in equal 
rank whith the others. These abound especially in agricultural 

Geological constitution. — We have seen above how 
the formation of the soil of the Chinese empire was effected. 
It is especially in the N. W. and in the W. that China has 
undergone the greatest upheaval, in the S. of the Yangtze - 
kiang jg- ^f- ££, the vast calcareous table-land developed there, 
sloped towards the E. sinking dovvn however towards its centre, 
in the portion occupied by the Siang-kiang JSfg £r\ a tributary 
of the Yangtze-kiang, and by several of the tributaries of the 
Si-kiang || ££ : the Liu-kiang $]] J£, Yuh-kiang $£ ft, and 
Tso-kiang £ ft. 

This calcareous table-land, nowadays much intersected 
by the rivers that flow through it, offers the most varied and 
fantastic features : table-lands, mountains, peaks, spurs, conical- 
shaped hills, pinnacles, and castellated forms. The parts that 
have offered the greatest resistance to the work of erosion are 
limestone, sand-stone, clay and the eruptive rocks. Those com- 
posed of slate, on the contrary, have been deeply indented, and in 
places completely eaten away by erosion. In the Western part 
of this region are abundant deposits of coal, occupying a qua- 
drilateral, whose corners are Laok'ai ^ [#], Yunnan Fu :gt pg Jff, 
Tungchw'an Fu ^ )\\ Jft and Kweiyang Fu j| |*§ /fr. ' 

The coast region of Kwantung Jjjg iff, Fokien jjjg $j:, 
and Chekiang }#f j£ presents quite a different geological com- 
position and belongs to another period. It is in great part 
composed of granite and porphyry, the granite prevailing along 
the coasts. Several islands are of volcanic formation. 

To the N. of the Yangtze-kiang Jffi ^ ££, the geological cons- 
titution varies. In the N. W. the great upheavals, half covered 
with a layer of loess, prevail. They continue Eastwards, sloping 
down towards an immense alluvial plain, which partially 
encloses Shantung |Jj i|f , formerly an island, composed of azoic 
and primary rocks. 

Orography or Mountain Systems. — The massive and 
elevated table-land of Tibet forms the centre or backbone from 
which all the mountains of China branch off throughout the 


To the North, the Eastern K'uenlun J£ ^ throwing out 
numerous chains into Kansu jf ^. and splitting up towards 
the E. into 3 principal systems : 

1° The Alashan (Holan-shan jtj [fjfj |Jj) range, running 
North-Eastwards through the Ordos plateau into the bend of the 
Hwang-ho J| -/pf, then continuing through the Shansi [if ]|f 
plateau, the In-shan f& |JLl mountains and Inner Hsingngan J&. 
Jj£. The Alashan range attains towards the South an elevation 
of more than 9800 ft. The Ordos plateau averaging in height 
from 4,900 to 5,200 ft., slopes down in its Northward part. 

The Shansi plateau, whose average height is from 6,500 
to 8,000 feet, attains towards the N. an elevation of 11,500 ft. 
The In-shan mountains extend S. E. of Mongolia and separate 
it from China. We shall deal with them when describing this 
high table-land. 

To this system may be attached the Kansu itj$J mountains, 
N. of the Ku-ku Nor region, their elevation frequently sur- 
passing 16,400 feet. The range here inclines from the N. W. 
towards the S. E.. 

2°. The Eastern K'uerilun j=[ ■$$- properly so-called. This 
range separates the basin of the Hwang-ho ipr ftij from that of 
the Yangtze-kiang |g ^ fx.> ana " takes successively, as it runs 
from W. to E. the names of the Sik'ing-shan *g (J jlj, Ts ; inling- 
shan |g $| il|, Funiu-shan f£ ^ |ij and Hwaiyang-shan Jjg |JJ| 
\\\. These mountains have a descending slope from W. to E. 
and attain an elevation of 13,000 feet, in several parts of the 
Ts'inling, whose average height is about 6,500 feet. They rise 
again to the same elevation in the Funiu range, which averages 
only 2,600 feet in height. Further on, to the Eastward, they can be 
easily crossed in the Hwaiyang range, which attains an average 
elevation of 3,200 feet, and has a few peaks double this altitude. 
As far as the Hwai-shan range, the K'uenlun mountains form 
a strong barrier between the Hwang-ho and Yangtze rivers. 
These various chains cannot be crossed except near their extre- 
mities, and the passes over them are all very steep, 

3° The Min-shan ([{)£ |Jj and Kiulung % || ranges. The 

12 BOOK I. THEJ8 provinces. 

former runs along the Northern limit of Szechw'an, the second 
separates the Han-ho g| '/pf from the Yanglze-kiang ^ ^ ft. The 
Min-shan attains an average elevation of 8,200 feet, and rises even 
higher as it advances Westwards. The Kiulung has an average 
height of 11,400 ft. Between these two mountains, there is 
but one pass, that which the Kialing-kiang j& g§ jf. lias chosen 
and whereby it enters Szechw'an (ft| J||. 

In the Centre we find the high table-land of Szeclvw'an, 
or rather of Ch'engtu jfc %$. composed of red sand-stone, excee- 
dingly fertile. It reaches in elevation about 1,640 ft, and is sur- 
rounded on the N.,E., and principally on the W., by high moun- 
tains. These rise to an elevation of 19,680 ft and incline East- 
wards as may be observed by the course of the rivers rising in 
their midst. Their passes arc difficult. The principal one is 
that of Tats'ienlu fl* $J )£, near Pat'ang £ j| . 

In the South, the mountains of Eastern Szechw'an )\\ 
run from the N. W. to the 8, E. and continue towards the \V. of 
Yunnan |j| "j§, where they expand to the N. and E. into the 
immense table-lands of Yunnan, Kweichow JJ $\\ and Kwanysi 
Jjf "g"* A-ll three slope gradually from W. to E.. The Yunnan 
plateau is the highest, and reaches an average elevation of 
7,600 ft. while those of Kweichow and Kwangsi attain only 
4200 ft. and 1000 ft. respectively. 

These 3 table-lands continue between the Si-kiang |f ft 
and the Yangtze-kiang in the form of hills, the elevation of which 
seldom exceeds 6000 ft. We shall call them the Nan-shan -jfe 
|i| or Southern mountains, a rather irregular mass, running 
at first from N. W. to E., and which finally takes at the E., 
a North-Eastern and South-Western direction. The Nan-shan, 
though not a very high range, forms to some extent, a barrier 
between the basin of the Yangtze-kiang and that of the Si-kiang. 
Three principal passes unite the 2 basins. The Kwei-Uua g: 
U pass, between Kwei-lin ^ jfa and the valley of the Siang- 
kiang Jft ft; the Cheh-Ung jg £ pass, between the basin of 
the Siang-kiang and the Pei-kiang ft ft, a tributary of 


the Si-kiang; the Mel-ling $f^ pass, between the basin of the 
Kiang-si j£ |g and the Pei-kiang. 

Otlier Systems. — Besides the above systems, which cover 
nearly the whole of China, there are 2 other important ranges 
extending along the coast, one to the South, and the other to 
the North, forming the Shantung \\\ ^ promontory. 

1° The Tayu-ling ^ Ji| |jf covers a great part of Fokien 
Wi ft an( * of Chekiang ffi '(£. The range runs parallel with 
the coast, North-East and South-West, and forms the boundary 
line between these two Provinces. Its elevation ranges from 
6500 ft to 9800 ft. The geological constitution of these moun- 
tains is porphyry and granite. 

2° The Shantung \\\ jj^ liills are formed by several groups, 
whose highest peak, the T'ai-shan ^ []], attains 5,060 feet in 
height. Gneiss and granite abound in them, and their passes 
are less steep than those of the Yii-ling. We shall examine 
these mountains more in detail, their structure and their divi- 
sion, when describing the Provinces in which they are found. 

Historical or Sacred Mountains. — Let us mention, 
before concluding the orography of China, its 5 Sacred Mountains, 
(Wu Yoh 3L?gfi) famous in the annals of the country. These are 
the following : the T'ai-shan ^ j[j, in Shantung |jj ig ; Hang- 
slian 'Jgtlj, in Shansi |i| |§* ; Sung-shan ^ [Jj, in Honan fpj "p£f ; 
Htva-shan \[\, in Shensi [i$]g; Heng-shan |Jf jjj, in Hunan 

M It- 
Several other mountains are also famous. The principal are: 

the 3 peaks of Dokerla, near Atuntze, N. W. of Yunnan ft j§ ; 
Ngomei-shan |I$ jg j]j, in Western Szechw'an pj J|| ; Wut'ai- 
shan 3£ jf \\\, in the N. of Shansi \\] "g". 

Plains. — The Great Plain lies to the N. E. of China, and 
occupies the greater part of Chihli jg ||, Honan jpj ]§, Ngan- 
hwei j£ ;jg[, Kiangsu fx M- an d Shantung \\\ ^f. It is slightly 
undulated and is of alluvial or loess formation. 

Besides the Great Plain, there are others of lesser impor- 
tance, the principal of which are : the Tungt'ing Lake plain j|H| |g, 
that of Hank'ow j|| □ and of the P'oyang Lake f[J %, all of which 


are situated in the Yangtze %^ valley. The plains of Hangchow 
Fu j^i >}\] }$f and of Canton are much less important. 

Climate. — Speaking in general, it may be said that China 
enjoys two quite distinct seasons : 1° That produced by the 
J?ort7i-ivinds. This becomes more rigourous as one advances 
Northwards. The weather is generally dry when dust-storms 
prevail over the plains of the North. It lasts from November to 
April. 2° That resulting from the South ern-uriivds. The chief 
features of this season are its excessive heat, which is moister 
and more unhealthy along the coasts, while in the interior, it 
is greater, but healthier and less depressing. Rain falls fre- 
quently during this season and rivers overflow their banks. 

Between these 2 Seasons are a short Spring and Autumn. 
The winds change their direction and the temperature is un- 
steady. Spring is generally ushered in by spells of increasing 
warmth; Autumn, on the contrary, is mild and agreeable, and 
lasts from the end of September till the middle of November. 

At T'ientsin ^j^Jff the thermometer falls in Winter to — 4 
Fahrenheit, and rises in Summer to 100 F.. 

At Shanghai h jffc it reaches in Winter 17°5 or occasionally 
10°5 F. and rises in Summer to 96°5, and sometimes to 102° F.. 

At Canton it rarely falls in Winter below 32° F., while in 
Summer the maximum varies from 96°8 to 100°4 F.. 

Taken on the whole, China enjoys a rather dry climate, 
that is, it rains less there than in other climates lying within 
the same limits of latitude. Szechw'an /|| and the neigh- 
bouring regions : lower Yunnan jj ]§, Kweichow jtj; fi\, the 
South of Kansu "{J* ^ and of Shensi gjj ff are however exce- 
ptions, the climate of these Provinces being foggy and rainy. 

These features of the climate of China are especially due 
to its situation, on the South of the vast and lofty table-land of 
Mongolia. Hot air tends by its nature to ascend to the higher 
regions of the atmosphere, while cold air, on the contrary, tends 
to descend. In Winter, the high table-land of Mongolia, deprived 
of the warmth of the sun, pours its cold air upon the regions 
of China that are less elevated and whose air is warmer; there 
is then produced a current of air coming from the N.. In 
Summer, on the contrary, the sands of Mongolia are heated bv 


the sun. They are thus covered by a warmer layer of air 
than that of China, cooled by its rivers and the sea that bathes 
it. A current then sets in from the 8.. As the sea changes 
its temperature more slowly than the land, the coasts of China 
undergo less variation in their climate than the interior. 

These two great movements, bear also close relation to 
the variations of the atmospheric pressure, and belong in fact to 
the great phenomenon of the monsoons, to which the whole 
Asiatic continent is subject. 

Hydrography. — No country in the world is so well 
watered as China. Her river system, like her mountain system, 
is intimately connected with Tibet. Her rivers rise there like 
her mountains and run in a West to Easterly direction. China 
possesses 3 great rivers. 

In the North, the Hwang-ho (Yellow River ^ Jpj), which 
rises South of the Ku-ku Nor or Ts'ing-hai flf $J, takes an 
extensive Northerly sweep round the Ortos plateau, forms the 
Western boundary of the Shansi (Jj ]g plateau, and flows into 
the Gulf of Chihli jf *£. Its total length is about 2,700 miles. 

In the Centre, the Yangtze-kiang ^j ^ fji (Yang Kingdom 
river), called also the Blue River. The Yangtze rises to the S. 
of the Hwang-ho. and runs at first Southward, under the name of 
the Kinsha-kiang (Golden sand river 4£fp£tf, then takes a North 
Easterly direction, leaving to the North-West the Szechw'an 
P9JH plateau, and flows into the Tung-hai Jj^ff$ or Eastern Sea, 
a little to the North of Shanghai _fc$J. Its length is 3,200 miles. 

In the South, the Si-kiang (Western river "jflif £rj, which 
rises in the Yunnan ||t ^ plateau, and empties itself near Can- 
ton into the South China Sea, after a course of 1,250 miles. 

Of the minor rivers, which water through themselves, or 
through their tributaries, the greater part of China, the most 
important are the 3 following : 

1° The JPeh-ho (White river Q fpf) rising in Mongolia, 
runs through the Chihli ]g[ ^ Province and flows into the Gulf 
of Chihli. 

2° The Hwei-ho '^Jpf which drains the Provinces of Honan 
'M 1§ an( * Nganhwei £ $fc and flows into the Hungtseh lake 



3° The Min-kiang f$ ft, which flows through Fokien 
and empties its waters into the China Sea, N. of Formosa. 

The Mekong or Lants'ang-kiang }g| ^ ft and the Sal/ween 

or Jju-kiang }jg ft, are also important streams, but they drain 
only the lower and less considerable part of Yiinnan jj: jg. 

Of all these rivers, the Tang-tze ^ ^ is by far the most 
important, being an excellent water highway of communication. 
The Si-kiang "jg ft offers a good network of navigable chan- 
nels but of less limited extent. The Hwanff-ho ${ -jpj is navigable 
only in some parts. The waters of all three, rise exceedingly in 
Summer when heavy rains fall, and the snows melt on the 
mountain sides. The waters of the Yangtze then rise to 30. 45 
and even to 80 feet above the ordinary level, transforminG; 
marshes and even simple ponds into immense lakos. 

Lak<s. — The principal lakes are found in the Yangtze 
valley, and are the following : the Tnngt'ing }|B] j^ lake, in 
Hunan $Jj "rft ; the P'oyang f[) % lake, in Kiangsi ft |Rf ; the 
T<aihu ^ $J] in Kiangsu ft M 

To the N. of the Yangtze-kiang, the most important is the 
Hungtseh §t^f, which lies partly in Nganhwei % $fc, partly in 
Kiangsu ft j||. This latter Province is the one that possesses 
the greatest number of lakes and water-courses. Let us mention 
also the lakes of the table-land of Yunnan -ji $1' * ne ^ w0 prin- 
cipal of which lie, one near the town of Yunnan Fu ji ~$j ){>f , 
the other near Tali Fu ^ gg Jfr. 

Coast-line. — The coast is low and straight along the 

Chihli ]j§[ *)£ Province, but indented and abrupt along the Shan- 
tung ilj Iff Promontory, while it falls again to a low level and 
almost straightens out till it reaches Chekiang JJff ft. From 
Chekiang to the Gulf of Tongking ^ Tjt, it is very steep, 
indented and studded with numerous islets. It is here and along 
Shantung, that the finest and deepest bays are found, and facilities 
afforded for opening well protected and promising ports. 

Fauna and Flora. — As the fauna and flora of a 
country bear close relation to its climate and soil, we shall finr 
the animals and vegetation of China varying according to both. 


The lower portions of the Southern region alone possess a 
tropical climate, and consequently the fauna and flora of 
the tropics. The valley of the Yangtze-kiang % ^ ft, 
although very warm in Summer, is loo cold in Winter for the 
animals and plants of the tropical region to live there. Still 
less can they live in the region of the Hwang-ho JlrjpJ, covered 
as it is during several Winter months with ice and^ snow espe- 
cially in the high mountains of the W.. We shall study' sepa- 
rately, the fauna and flora of each of these regions. A few words 
only on the principal animals and vegetation of China, and 
how they are divided. 

Fauna. — Wild animals. Neither the lion, elephant 
(except in Southern Yunnan jl ]f) or rhinoceros, are met with 
in China. The tiger, panther and bear infest the mountainous 
regions. The wild bear, the wolf and the fox abound through- 
out the country. Several varieties of monkeys are found in the 
regions bordering on Tibet. In the South-Eastern mountains 
near Tibet, the yak or grunting-ox exists. 

There are also in China several varieties of deer, the camel 
and wild-ass (in the regions bordering on Tibet), the hare, the 
rat, the gerboa etc. 

Domestic animals. China's domestic animals are princi- 
pally the horse, ass, mule, camel, cow, zebu or humped ox, 
water-buffalo, yak, sheep, goat, dog, cat, pig, rabbit etc... 

Birds. There are a great number of birds, perhaps more 
than in other countries. About 800 species are indigenous to 
the country. The principal are the eagle, vulture, crow, magpie, 
and pheasant, and among the tame birds, the duck, goose, 
hen and pigeon. 

Reptiles. The large and venomous kinds of reptiles are 
rarely encountered, except in Kwangsi J^t "jftf and Kweichow 
jf; jH[. Various kinds of turtle and the salamander abound in 
fresh and salt water. 

Fish. Fish of various kinds are very plentiful, both in 
the numerous inland lakes and rivers, as well as on the sea- 
coast, and furnish excellent food for the people. China has no 
lobsters but instead has an abundant supply of shrimps and 
fresh-water crabs. 


Flora. — In the Northern region, or that of the Hwang- 
ho ^r jfij\ the Winter is generally too severe to allow the 
development of perennial tropical vegetation ; however a good 
number of annual (living only a year or a season) plants proper 
to the tropics are raised, such as cotton, rice and sesamum. The 
vegetation of this region is, in general, poor and little diversified. 
The principal crops produced are indian-corn, millet, sorghum, 
buckwheat, peas and wheat. The trees are few and include the 
poplar, willow and pine. (The bamboo is not indigenous to 
this region, it being never found growing wild.) Fruit-trees 
abound especially in Shantung |Xj ^£, and in the Western 
Provinces. The principal are the peach, pear, and apple-trees. 
The apricot, chestnut, walnut and cherry-trees are also found. 
(The persimmon and plum-tree are imported from the South.) 

In the Central region, that of the Yangtze |g ^f , the Winter 
being generally milder, more varieties come to maturity. 
Perennial tropical plants are however found only exceptionally 
in some well shaded parts of Szechw'an E9JII an d Hunan $Jjf£f. 
In this region are found the bamboo, the persimmon or date-plum, 
the orange, the tea-plant and the camphor-tree. Rice and cotton 
are cultivated throughout all the lowlands. Here also flourish 
the gum, tallow, wax and varnish-trees, with the mulberry so 
dear to the silk-worm. It has but one kind of palm-tree which 
is indigenous. 

In the Southern region, that of the Si-kiang fEj" j£, tropical 
vegetation makes its appearance, though it is confined to the 
lowlands. Summer rains are more frequent, and vegetation 
luxuriant, without being however much diversified. The charac- 
teristic plants are the sugar-cane, the banana and palm-trees, 
the lichee, pine-apple, ebony, mahogany and teak-wood trees. 

Diffusion of tlie Population. — From what has been 
said so far, it is easy to see that the regions, which offer the 
most favourable conditions of existence, are the Yangtze ^§ ■? 
valley, the Great North-Eastern plain and the country along 
the coast. It is there also that the population is densest. The 
North-Western regions: (Kansu •g*^", Shensi f$ g, and Shansi 
llj B)> and those of the South-West: (Yunnan |j ]§. Kweichow 
jl j]\ and Kwang-si ^f]£p. are less populous, The Chinese raep 


occupies almost exclusively the Hwang-ho ^ fpf region and that 
of the Yangtze valley. In the valley of the Si-kiang J3J yX, *t is 
otherwise, and we find there several races mingled together. 

Present division of* China. — For administrative pur- 
poses, modern China is divided into 18 Provinces. In past times, 
this number has frequently varied. Some divisions are relatively 
recent, for instance that of Kwantung Jf ^ and Kwangsi Jjr]g : 
that of Hupeh $J] 4fc and Hunan $jj $j, that of Kiangsu j£ M 
and Nganhwei 4g ^. 

These six provinces formerly made but three. Kansu fl 1 ||f 
is a Province of still more recent formation. 

Tlie three Regions. — To render our plan easier, and 
also because it is the natural division of the country, we shall in 
this work, divide China into 3 regions or spheres, each of 
which we shall study successively: the Northern region, the 
Central, and the Southern region. On general lines, these 
comprise : 

1° The Northern region: the basins of the Hwang-ho ^ ^nf , 
and of the Peh-ho £ fpf . 

2° The Central region: the basin of the Yangtze-kiang ^ 

* a- 

3° The Southern region: the basins of the Si-kiang }g| jl, 

and of the Min-kiang gQ J£. 

To avoid dividing the study of a Province into two, we 
shall at times be obliged to encroach upon a neighbouring 
region. It is thus that the South of Shensi ffi ]|f belongs rather 
to the Central region ; in the same way. the North of Kiangsu 
& j§| belongs rather to the Northern region, lower Yunnan 
H ^ to the Central region and also the North of Kweichow 

To facilitate likewise the work, we shall group in the same 
study, those Provinces which are administratively connected. If 
at times they have similar characteristics, it may be said that 
they are oftener widely divergent. This will have the advantage 
of impressing the main features of those Provinces more vividly 
on the reader's mind. 

Tables exhibiting the administration, ways of communica- 
tion, and sources of wealth, will combine in a general view, 
various notions scattered over the chapters describing each 
Province in particular, and thus help to remember them better 




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Paris, 1884-1888. 

Bureau et Franchet. — Plantes nouvel- 
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(Journal de Botanique, 1891). 

Natural History of North-China compiled 
chiefly from the travels of Pore Armand 
David. 1893. 

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tion of all the plants known from China. 

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tre de la Chine (Nouvelles archives du 
museum d'histoire naturelle t. VII, VIII, 
IX et X). 

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en Chine. Paris, 1875. 

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vir a l'histoire naturelle des mammiferes. 
Taris, 1808-74. 

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Chine. Paris, 1878. 

Proceedings of the zoological society of 
London (passim). 

The Ihis (passim^. 

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naturelle de l'empire Chinois. 

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vatoire magnetique. — Chang-hai, 1871 
and sq.. 

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(From 1903). 

P. Frot*. — L'atmosphere en Extreme- 
Orient, son etat normal, ses perturba- 
tions. (Extrait des Annales hydrogra- 
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Raulin. — llegenfall in China. 1886-1892. 

Hatzel. — Schnee and Eis in siidchina in 
Jan. 1893. 

China sea Directory (for the climate of the 


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wei, 1904 (characters and romanisation). 

Bretschneider. — Map of China. S 1 Pe- 
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Service geographique de l'armee. Asie. 

Service geodesique de PEmpire japonais. 
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von Ost Asien. Gotha, 1900. 

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Diane oni — Carte speciale de la Chine. 
Paris, 1900. 

Oxenham. — Historical Atlas of the Chi- 
nese Empire. Paris, 1900. 




HWANG-HO m fpp 

Characteristics of* this Region. — Among the numerous 
characteristics of this region, the following are the principal : 

1. The region lies immediately to the South of the Mongolian 
table-land, the average height of which is 5000 feet. Its effects 
are therefore felt more than elsewhere in China, hence the Winter 
is exceedingly cold, and the Summer very hot. 

2. Loess or alluvial lands are found there in abundance. 
These are very fertile when rain falls sufficiently, but in case of 
drought, the country is exposed to famine. 

3. Towards the West, the region is mountainous, but level to 
the East. Communications with the neighbouring regions are 
very rare, except in the South-East. 

4. The rivers and canals are scarcely navigable, hence the 
great difficulty experienced in travelling, and the necessity of 
using carts in the plain. During Summer, these vehicles sink 
deep into the mud, while in Winter they raise clouds of dust, 
anything like good roads being totally lacking. 

5. The country is very much exposed to inundations, on account 
of the erratic nature of the Hwang-ho jf ffl, the waters of which, 
flowing above the level of the surrounding plain, are maintained 
with the greatest difficulty within their loo weak embankments. 


Provinces comprising tliis region. — Proceeding from 
West to East, we find them to be the following : 

Kansu # !"• 

Shensi |^ Jg, 

Shansi ll] ]g, 

Honan j^J j|j, 

Chihli a *&, 

Shantung |il M- 
Of these Provinces, three, namely Chihli, Shantung and 
Honan are partly level; and the others : Kansu, Shensi and 
Shansi, mountainous. 

Geological Constitution. — The three mountainous Pro- 
vinces are to a great extent covered with loess. In the others, 
which are chiefly of alluvial formation, loess is but partially 

Shantung however is an exception, being of granitic con- 
formation almost throughout. Loess deserves special attention 
because of its prominence in this region. What is "I*oess" and 
what are its qualities? 

Loess or Yellow Earth (Ilwangt'u ijff J^). — Loess is a 

solid but friable earth of a yellowish or reddish colour, very 
fine and of great cohesion. It is rather porous, while its mass 
is, as it were perforated by very fine tubes which branch out 
in the shape of grassroots. Water permeates it like a sponge, 
but does not transform it into mud. It is filled with the remnants 
of extinct organic matter. It is not superposed in stratified 
layers, and has a great tendency to split vertically, especially 
when a river has undermined its basis. Inundation and currents 
dig beds into its surface, and the inhabitants find shelter and 
protection in the numerous caves of its perpendicular cliffs. As 
to its formation, it seems to be accounted for by the remnants 
of countless generations of plants, embedded under sand and 
dust, blown over from the desert. In some parts, it forms a 
stratified mass, to the depth of about 2000 ft, and imparts to 
the country which it covers, a monotonous yellow hue; trees, 
houses, fields, water-courses, all, even the very atmosphere, is 
permeated with this yellow dust. The soil notwithstanding is 
fertile, and would produce abundant crops, were the climate a 
little moister and the region better wooded. Decomposed by 
rain, loess resolves itself into 3 parts: Carbonate of lime, sand, 
which forms a rather barren element, and clay, which imparts 
fertility to the soil. 

Alluvial Elands. . — Alluvial lands are those formed bv 


the deposits which rain, rivers and glaciers constantly accumu- 
late. The great Eastern Plain has been thus formed by a certain 
species of clay, sand and debris of various kinds borne along by 
the waters of the Hwang-ho ;gf ftf, the Peh-ho £3 fpj and very 
likely by other more powerful rivers. This plain extends 
constantly Eastwards, and in all likelihood, the Gulf of Chihli 
jg[ *£ will in the near future, be filled up by the continuation of 
the said plain. Like the loess or yellow country, the alluvial 
lands are fertile, provided the clay casts off the rain, and does 
not transform the country it occupies into immense marshes. 

Orography. — No special feature requires to be added to 

what we have stated above (p. 10 etc.), when speaking of the 

mountain systems of China. We shall enter into more ample 

details when describing each Province in particular. Suffice it at 

present to call attention to the fact, that a girdle of mountains walls 

in the Hwang-ho |ff {pf , and precludes every outlet, save through 

the Chihli fit || plain, situate to the E. of Honan fpf pg", a course 

which in fact it formerly followed. 

Climate. — The climate of the region is very severe and 
dry in Winter. The thermometer then descends frequently to — 
4° F. in the Chihli jj[ ^ region, and the rivers remain frozen 
during several months (an exception to this rule is to be made 
for the S. of Kansu ^ j$ and Shensi gJJ g, where the climate 
is mild but rainy). To withstand the cold, the inhabitants are 
obliged to resort to the use of Stove-beds or K'angs %Ji, upon 
which they lie down to rest for the night These Stove-beds are 
entirely unknown throughout the two other regions of China 
(Central and Southern regions), where it is sufficient to be a 
little more heavily clad during Winter. The Summer, although 
very hot, is not unhealthy, for it is less damp than in the re- 
gion of the Lower Yangtze ^ ^f £j\ 

Dust-storms, so uncongenial to the traveller, and accompanied 
by cold winds, are also a characteristic of this region. Their 
violence is generally spent out when they reach the Nganhwei 
-^iffc Province, and the North oi'Kiangsu J£j|£, where nevertheless 
they are still dreaded by the inhabitants. 

Hydrography. — All this region is watered by the Hwang- 
ho lirjpj and its tributaries, except Chihli ]£[ J§£, drained by the 
network of the Jt*eh-7io £3 JpJ , and Honan Jpf ]§, watered almost 
throughout by the Hwai-ho Jg jpj. We shall deal in detail with 
this latter river, when describing the Central Region. As to the 
Peh-ho g JpJ, its natural place will be found, when we shall 



study the Chihli Province. At present, we shall speak only of 
the Hwang-ho. 

The Hwang-ho (Yellow river ^ ?pj), length 2,700 miles. 
Like the Yangtze % ^ Jt, it rises in Tibet, South oi' the Ku-ku 
Nor region, and the K'uenlun |[ $ range. Here, at an altitude 
of more than 13,800 feet, in the midst of jagged hills, towering 
a little beyond the plateau, the mighty river has its source. 

Its course may be divided into 3 parts : the upper, middle 
and lower. 

1° Upper Course. — In this part, which extends from its 
source until it leaves the Kansu -\\-ffa Province, it is interrupted 
by cascades and rapids, teems with boulders wrenched from its 
banks, and is seldom navigable. 



It rises a little above the two neighbouring lakes of Khchara 
(Charing-nor) and Khnora (Oring-nor). Both are connected by a 
channel and are situated at an elevation of 14,000 ft. It may per- 
haps be at first confounded with the Djaghing-gol, a river 110 
miles long, which flows from the South, and empties itself into 
the channel joining the two lakes. The plateau where it originates 
possesses but a scanty vegetation. The river issues forth in two 
successive bends, towards the N. E.; and is first called Machu, 
but is soon known as the Hwang-ho H/pf. The first bend winds 
round the Amnemachin Mountains, the second, round the Ku-ku 
Nor or Ts'ing-hai ^f $$ lake, which lies at an elevation of over 
10,000 ft. Swollen by the torrents of this region, and attaining a 
width of 220 yards, the Hwang-ho then flows through a large 
valley. As it enters Kansu tfJlf > ^ breaks its second bend, and 
is deflected to the East by a spur of the K'uenlun jg,-^. It main- 
tains however a general SW.NE. direction till it leaves Kansu. 
When entering this Province, it flows at an altitude of 8,200 ft; 
on reaching Lanchow Fu gffj )]] /jj, it has fallen to 5,800 ft. 

Throughout the whole of Kansu ^f ^", it makes headway 
with the greatest difficulty, through the prolongation of the K'uen- 
lun Jf!-^ mountains, which compels it to adopt a circuitous course 
and obstructs its career with fallen rocks, beneath which it even 
disappears at times. It receives in this part of its course 2 
important tributaries : the Sining-ho g *jjf Jpf , which passes at 
Sining Fu "g" ^ ffi, and is joined afterwards by the Tatfung-ho 
jt 5j| jpj*, and the T*ao-ho gfg fpf, this latter watering the South- 
West of Kansu ^ j|*. Before leaving Kansu, the Hwang-ho ^ 
Jpf flows along the high chain of the Alashan (Holan-shan ^g 
jflj |Jj) mountains, and is forced by the Ordos plateau to take 
a Northward bend. If it is not navigable in Kansu, it is never- 
theless a source of wealth for the Province, as owing to its 
waters, conducted by canals of irrigation, immense plains are 
fertilised. It leaves the Province after watering the rich Ning- 
hsia ^ J[ plain. It then flows at an altitude of about 3,300 ft. 

2° Middle Course. — This part extends from the place 
where the river leaves Kansu fl 4 ^", till it reaches the moun- 
tains of Honan fpj ]f and Shansi fjj ]§, that is to say to near- 
ly the North of Honan Fu }pf ]f fft. After having taken a 


northerly direction, the Hwangho % jpf is forced Eastwards by 
the mountain range, which forms the Southern limit oi" Mongolia. 
Soon again the table-land of Shansi mj "g compels it to flow 
Southwards, until meeting the Ts'in-ling |g §j chain, it is obli- 
ged to force a passage for its waters between the mountain and 
the Shansi jjj W plateau. In this part of its course, up to 
its Southward bend, it attains a width of over 125 yards, 
becomes occasionally navigable, and is not obstructed in its 
channel as it was previously. In its bend from the N. of the Ordos 
country, it has changed its course several times, and left its 
former bed, which is covered with a rich layer of alluvion and 
produces a plentiful harvest. 

As it advances from N. to S. . it skirts the Shansi [Jj "jR} 
Province, which it separates from the Ordos country and from 
Shensi ^ U . It is from this latter Province that it receives 
its principal tributary, the beautiful and turgid Wei-ho jpf fpf. 
We shall have occasion to speak of it, when describing Shensi 
|&$c |g. Somewhat higher up, but on the left bank, it receives 
the Fen-ho ffr ftfi tne great river of Shansi jjj ]fff. It runs 
afterwards along the Hwa-shan \[\ mountains, and follows the 
direction of the Wei ho {}" JpJ", hemmed in between two cliffs of 
yellow earth. The loess held in suspension by its waters im- 
parts to them a yellow hue. Thus far, its bed is pretty high, 
almost 1,300 feet above the sea-level. 

3° lower Course. — On leaving the T ; ungkwan Pass Jf? 
fH, the river enters the lowlands. Henceforward it takes suc- 
cessively a twofold direction : W. to E. till it reaches a little to 
the N. of K'aifung Fu ||g gj- Jft, when it swerves from South- 
West to North-East, and pursues this direction till it enters the 
Gulf of Chihli jj[ ^. In its first part, it divides Shansi [\\ "g" 
from Honan -]p[ ^, then bisects the Northern extremity of Ho- 
nan ; in its second part, it runs along the great plain, North- 
West of Shantung nj ^. Throughout its whole lower course, 
its waters run through the plain. Here it is most to be dreaded, 
because the mud and sand carried down by its stream, conti- 
nually raise the bed of the river, which is several yards above 
the level of the surrounding country. 


To hinder its overflowing, embankments have had to be 
raised. These hem it in, some nearer, others farther, ranging one 
behind another at variable distances. In this manner, if one gives 
way, another prevents the inundation. In its present state, the 
work is still very inefficient, the dikes being weak, and cons- 
tructed with materials that offer little resistance. The mud and 
sand, which frequently obstruct the Hwang-ho, render it also very 
difficult of navigation. The only portion where it can be availed 
of, is to the N. of Honan -JpJ ]J, and in the last 25 miles of its 
course. But even in this part, a shoal prevents junks drawing 
more than 6 ft. of water from passing. 

From the T'ungkwan }jj gg bend, ferry-boats ply on the 
river, and take from one side to the other thousands of travellers, 
carts, animals, and a vast quantity of general merchandise. In 
crossing, the oar or sail is ured, or even if a suitable place is 
chosen a long pole. In Summer when the waters are swollen, 
the current renders the passage difficult; in Winter on the con- 
trary, water is lacking, and there is danger of running aground. 

Throughout all this part, the Hwang-ho jj| fpf receives no 
important tributary. The only ones needing special mention are : 
the Loh-ho ^}pf, flowing into it from the right, through Honan 
: M iSi an d the TsHn-ho jjjj JpJ. which rises in the Shansi Jj "g" 

Variations in its Course. — The Hwang-ho j|jf ^pf has not 
kept regularly to its present course. In the past it has changed 
many a time across the vast North-Eastern plain. Frequently 
it has run to the N. or to the S. of the Shantung (Jj ^ mountains, 
flowing in turn, either into the Gulf of Chihli ||[ JfJ or into the 
Yellow Sea. 

Formerly it followed the bed of the lower course of the 
Peh-ho £3 Jpf. Its last important deviation dates from 1851. 
Previously to this, it flowed towards the South, in the Northern 
part of Kiangsu jj£ jgfc, whence it emptied itself into the Yellow 
sea. In that year, its dikes gave way to the N. E. of Kaifung Fu 
EIS^F- For two years, its course varied considerably, and finally 
leaving the South, it definitively followed the bed of the Tsi-ho ^ 



jpT, a river so far of little importance. Since then its embankments 
have burst several times. In 1877, it inundated an immense 
region, and caused the death of a million of people. In 1898, 
1,500 villages to the N.E. of Tsinan Fu j$f jfr Jj&f, and a still 
larger region to the S.E. of the same town, experienced 
its ravages. These changes of bed and the terrible 
inundations that followed, have deserved for it the name of 
"China's sorrow, 9 ' "the Ungo- 
vernable," "the Scour f/e of 
the sons of Han", all of which 
are indeed but too well merited. 
The Mongols call it Karamuren 
(black river). The name 
"Hwang-ho" (|f( fpj yellow 
river), has been given it, becau- 
se of the yellow land which it 
traverses, and which imparts to 
its waters a yellow tini>e. 

Sketch, &ho\* [ng the 

various changes in the course of the 


Neither along its middle or lower course, is there any 
important city built on its banks. Such a terrible neighbour is 
always dreaded and therefore avoided with the greatest care. 

Flow. — The flow of the Hwang-ho jK jpj varies much with 
the season. It has been reckoned to be a little over 4,000 cubic 
yards per second, in its middle portion, near Tsinan Fu (Shan- 
tung |Jj jg) The flow is three times greater in the flood season. 
It is on the whole relatively small for such a great river, but 
this is accounted for by the waste of the water that filters 
through the embankments or escapes through other causes. The 
mud and sand, which it unceasingly deposits in the Gulf of 
Chihli jiCj|, constantly lessen the depth of this latter, and form 
there new alluvial lands. Opposite the former mouth of the 
river (1851) it can be seen what great quantity of sediment it 
carries in its waters. 

TUe Great Wall. (10,000 li rampart ^ J. ft ^ Wan- 
licli'aiig CU'^ng). — The great Wall extends along the 
Northern Provinces, from Chihli jj| *| to Kansu -# JJ , skirting 
them all to the N. : we shall therefore describe it briefly 


here. It was built by Shih Hwcmgti ffe ^ ^ (246-209 B. C), 
of the Ts'in ff§ dynasty, as a means of defence against the 
Hun tribes, and was repaired under the reign of Hsientsung 
H#; (1465-1487 A. D.), of the Ming iyj dynasty. In a straight 
line it is about 1,300 English miles in length, and with its 
windings, over hilly districts and mountains, some exceeding 
4000 feet high, it measures a distance of 1,500 miles. Its 
height varies from 15 to 30 feet. At intervals of 200 yards, are 
towers some 40 feet high. It is still in a fair state of pre- 
servation, except on the Western slope, where it has in some 
places entirely crumbled, this part being principally faced with 
yellow earth. On the Eastern side, the bricks with which it has 
been constructed, have enabled it to resist better. It attains in 
this latter part, a thickness of over 20 feet at its base, and is fully 
12 feet wide at its summit. The Great Wall has nowadays little 
military importance, and serves only as a geographical boundary. 
The passes are the only places where military posts are main- 
tained. The most important of these are the following : the 
Shanhaikwan Pass (li|f§f$j] mountain and sea Pass or Barrier) 
at the Eastern extremity; — the JKalgan Pass (Ohangkia k ; ow 
M % P) at the N - W of Chihli Jg|^; — the YSnmen Pass (goose 
pass JjH ft]) at the N. of Shansi jjj "g ; — the Kiay'd Pass 
(Kiayu kwan ^(t^H), at the extreme West leading to Barkul. 
It is noteworthy that in speaking of China, one meets frequently 
with such expressions as "within the Great Wall" (Kwan-nei 
HJjjfKj); and "beyond the Great Wall" (K'ow-wai P £f»), meaning 
the region or country on the outer side. 

A few other Particulars concerning tlie Northern 
Region. — We will but mention them here, as they are to be 
described further on. 

The Grand Canal (jg JpJ Yuu-ho. Transport river) con- 
nects the basins of the Hwang-ho J| -jpj and Yangtze $ ^p in 
their lower Course. 

The Peking-Hankow Railway will also connect Ohihli Jj| 
|&, Honan fij $3, Hupeh ?g] ;ffc and the whole Western region, 



while the line from Peking to Manchuria will henceforward 
facilitate communications with Europe. 

The great highway, which crosses Shansi jij |Ef, and con- 
tinues through Shensi [5$ H and Kansu •# jflf, connects the 
Northern Region with Central Asia, while that of Kalgan and 
several others, starting from the Northern Provinces, lead into 

(For further details, see: section V. ch TV. Highways of 

Among the mineral wealth of the N., the principal is pit- 
coat* It abounds chiefly in Shansi |Xj !§\ Shensi f^ "g", Shan- 
tung |Jj ]fc and Ilonan jpj jg. Iron is also found extensively 
(See : Section V. ch IV. Mining and Industry). 


GuiKlry. — China present and past. Lon- 
don, 1895 (ch. 15, the Hwang-ho, p. 413 

Ney Elias. — (Journal of the Geog. Soc. 
1870. Feb. — On the Hwang-ho). 

HoulVai t — The Yellow river, 1898. 

MetchnikOflf. — La civilisation et les 
grands fleuves historiques. (c. XI. Le 
Hoang-ho et le Yang-tse-kiang) Paris, 

Imbault Huart. — Une excursion a la 

grande muraille do Chine (Magasin 

pittoresque. 1888). 
Larrien. — La grande muraille de la Chi- 
ne (Revue d'Extreme Orient. 1885). 
Martin. — La grande muraille de la Chine 

(Revue scientifiq. 1891). 
Williamson — Journey in North China. 

London, 1870. 
China : Imperial maritime customs. I. — 

Statistical series: N°6. Decennial reports. 

1892-1901. Shang-hai, 1904. 



(KANSU f If AND SHEN8I ^ ||). 

The Provinces of Kansu ^ j§' and Shensi g£ ]§, are both 
governed by the same Viceroy, styled the Viceroy of Shen-Kan 

These two Provinces are traversed from N. W. to S.E. by 
spurs of the K'uenlun j| ^ range, and are for the greater 
part mountainous. Loess covers all the Northern part of Shensi, 
and the North-Eastern part of Kansu. To the N. of both, lie the 
elevated buttress-ridges of the Mongolian table-land. Influenced 
thereby, their climate is dry and very cold towards the N., while 
it grows milder and enjoys more rain in the S., this part being 
included in the basin of the Yangtze |§ ^f. Highways of com- 
munication are difficult from one Province to another, and even 
within the same Province, should one wish to travel from N. to 
S. or in the contrary direction. 

Another remark not to be forgotten, and which applies 
equally to the aforesaid Provinces. Fifty years ago, they were by 
far richer, and more populous than at the present day. The 
reason is, because they have been overrun and laid waste by a 
twofold rebellion. The first, that of the T'aip'ings -j^ 2f, which 
lasted from 1830 to 1864, and affected especially the Yangtze region, 
in the South. The second, still more disastrous, devastated the 
whole of the N.. This was the Mahomedan revolt, which broke 
out there in 1861, and was completely put down only in ISIS, 
after the taking of Khotan, the last stronghold of the rebels. The 
number of those who were then killed in the two Provinces, is 
estimated to be about 10,000,000. It was chiefly through the 
agency of Tso Tsungt'ang £ ^ ijg, that order was established, 


1°. Kansu # 

Area. — 125,483 square miles. In this respect, it is the 
third province of China, being surpassed only by Szechw'an 
)\\ and Yunnan || ]g. 

Population. — 10, 386,000, thus giving 82 persons per 
square mile. Kwangsi $! W alone is less thinly inhabited. 

Name. — It is so called from two of its principal cities : 
Kanchow Fu "^ f\] jfr and Su Chow H )>[\. 
Boundaries. — On the 
N. — Mongolia, 

\Y. — Sinkiang #j- i$| and Tibet, 
S. — Szechw'an [KJ j||, 
E. — Shensi |S$ ]g. 

Ca-ital.— LAXCHOW FU %\ ft\ Jfr, situated almost in the 
centre of the Province, on the right bank of the Hwang-ho fjjpj. 
Other l*refectural Cities. — These are 7 in number : 
On the left bank of the Htvang-ho ^ Jpf, skirting the 
Northern frontier, and proceeding from W. to E. : 
1" Kanchow Fu fl" >)\\ Jft, 
2" Leangchow Fu Ui #| /ft, 
3° Nmghsia Fu ^ & 1ft; 
Between Ku-ku Xor an<t T.anchow Fu : 

4° Sining Fu W ^ tff . 
On the right bank of the Hwang-ho, going from N.E. to 
S.W. : 

5° K'ingyang Fu M M fft, 
6° P'ingleang Fu *p ?& Jft, 
7° Kungch'ang Fu $ H /ff. 
There are also 6 independent Chow >)\\ cities : Knyuen 
Choiv @Jfgj'H, King Chow jgjft, Kiai Chow pgilfl, Ts'in Chow 
fg )]], Sn Chow )Jf >}\], Ngansi Chow % ]g >}\\, and owe me7<?- 
pendent T'ing Jf§ C*«y .* Hwap'ingchiv'an T'ing ft ^ )\\ |j. 
(Independent Chows and T'ings, closely resemble Prefectural 
cities, although of the 2 nd and 3 rd order. We shall therefore 
place them generally after the Fu jj^ 1 cities, or Prefectures of 
the first order.) 


Aspect and Characteristics. — The immense course of 
the Hwang-hojflfif runs through the Province from S.W. to N.E., 
making headway with great difficulty, its bed strewn with rocks, 
and navigable only from the spot where it touches on Mongolia. 
On its left, are long chains of mountains, sloping from N. W. to 
S.E. and reaching an elevation of 6,500 to 20,000 ft. On the 
right, towards the N., is an immense loess plateau, into which the 
Wei-ho jff Jpf and its tributaries have cut deep channels. To 
the South, are 2 parallel ranges, prolongation of the K'uenlun 
II lifi an d following the same direction as the mountains on 
the left bank. The populatioyi swarms towards the centre, in the 
environs of Lanchow Fu [|fj >}\\ /jjSf , and to the South. Another 
chain, bordered by important cities, ibises towards the N., near 
the Great Wall. The climate, dry and cold in the N., tones 
down as one advances to the S., where it becomes mild and rainy. 
Being an important place of transit, Kansu *{J jjjf lacks neither 
mineral nor agricultural resources and may subsequently become 
prosperous and densely populated as in former times. 

Geological constitution. — Kansu is sandy in its Northern part, schistous 
and granitic in its mountain chains, which are a prolongation of the K'uenlun range. 
It is also for the most part, especially in the E., covered over with rich loess terraces 
which the inhabitants excavate for dwelling purposes. In several sandy plains, as at 
Ninghsia Fu, Lanchow Fu and Su Chow, a well organised system of m-igation makes 
the soil yield splendid harvests. 

Orography. — To the N.W. 3 principal chains, running 
in the same direction, N. W. to S.E.. They continue a little 
on the right bank of the Hwang-ho J|f }pj, and fall gradually in 
elevation from N.W. to S.E.. They are the prolongation of the 
Eastern K'uenlun jg ^ range, and are sometimes called the 
Nan-shan ^ Jj mountains (not to be confounded with the Nan- 
shan range on the S. of the Yangtze ^ ^f). These chains are: 

To the N. of the highway leading from Leangchow Fu jjg 
>}[\ Jjvf to Kanchow Fu ~# >}[\ ^ : the Shantan ]\\ -ft mountains. 

To the S. of the same highway, the JRichthofen or T'ien- 
shan (celestial mountains 5^ |i|) mountains. This chain which 
rises in the N.W. to an elevation of over 20,000 ft, is crossed 
with difficulty. Several of its peaks are snow-clad, and covered 
with glaciers the whole year round. The most important pass of 




the N., that of Lagiobo, is nearly 
10,000 ft high. From its North- 
Eastern slopes run down, in Spring 
and Summer, torrents which give 
fertility to the country. 

Further to the South, between 
the Hwang-ho ]gr jpj and the Ta- 
t'ung-ho ^jJSF' are the lat'ung 
^ jjj mountains, an irregular 
mass, but better watered and 
covered with woods and forests 
on its sides and valleys. 

Quite to the S., two principal 
chains, the more Northern of which 
is the SihHng-shan |§ fijj \[\ , inter- 
sected in its centre by the T'ao- 
ho $[c fpf ; the other further to the 
S. is the Min-slvan |I[j£ |]j , called 
also the Lao-ling ^g $| by the 

These two chains run in the 
same direction, from W. to E.. 
They are difficult to cross, and reach 
an elevation of 6,500 to 10,000 ft. 
Their summits are rather barren, 
and one of them, the Shagolo moun- £* £ £ 

tain in the extreme South, even 8 o ? 

o « --" 

exceeds this elevation. 

To the West, between the Sik'ing-shan |f f(|j jlj, and the 
Hwang-ho ^ fpf, is an irregular mass of mountains and hills. The 
road however from Singan Fu "gf § Jfr (Shensi |^ "gjf) to Lan- 
chow Fu jfjlj ]ft\ Jft crosses it by passes which reach nearly 10,000 
ft. The whole is a mountainous region terminating in the N. by 
a great table-land of loess with deep gorges. 

To the N,E. is the continuation of the Richthofen mountains 
sloping North-Eastwards, while the Niutfu-shan 4 1 ± llj« stands 


out opposite the Alashan (Holan-shan j|j||j \[\), and exceeds even 
10,000 ft in height. These two chains hem in the Hwang-ho j^ 
-/pj, as it issues from Kansu -^ J|J, while a long and very rich 
plain lies to its left. 

With the exception of a few plains to the North, the Province 
of Kansu is therefore very mountainous. 

Climate. — During the long Winter months, Kansu is covered with snow and 
ice ; all the rivers are frozen over, and the inhabitants though clad in skins, protect 
themselves with difficulty from the cold. A bleak wind also blows from the table- 
land of Mongolia. In Summer, the thermometer rises at times to 104 degrees F.. At 
this period, vegetation is luxuriant, and crops grow with great rapidity. An exception 
however must be made for the South, which is very wet, owing to the rain-laden clouds 
that are wafted up from the same direction. In some valleys, the climate there is so 
mild, that the fruits of Southern China come to maturity, as the medlar or p'ip'a and 
the persimmon. 

Hydrography. — The greater part of Kansu "Q*^ is watered 
hy the Hwang-ho jir Jpf and its tributaries. We have already 
described this river (see ch. I). Its chief tributaries in Kansu 
jj" ;jjf are the following: 

On the left bank, and flowing from the Southern side of the 
Richthofen chain and the Tat'ung ^ jjj \\\ mountains, is the 
Sining-ho g flj ^pf , to which the Ulan-muren or Tat'ung-ho ^ 
3g fpf joins its waters. (A vast number of torrents and rivers 
water the whole region of the Tat'ung ^ jg \[\ mountains). 

On the right bank, its principal tributary descends from 
the Sik'ing ]g fig mountains, which it crosses. It is called the 
T'ao-ho $fc fp[, a long and winding stream, which empties its 
waters into the Hwang-ho J| }pf, a little beyond Lanchow Fu 
It W iff* O n tnis bank, many other rivers flow into it from the 
Sik'ing mountains, from the hilly region of the E. and from 
the table-land of the N.E.. 

In their South-Eastern portions, these two latter regions are 
watered by the Wei-ho »}f jpj and its tributaries. (For the 
Wei-ho, see the description of Shensi.) 

The extreme S. is watered by the Kialing-kiang H |§? j£, 
which flows almost immediately into Szechw'an [2J J||, and 
traverses the whole N.E. of the Province before emptying itself 
into the Yangtze-kiang :gj ^f- jj£. 

In the N.W., skirting the Richthofen mountains, is the Mei- 
ho H JpJ, a water course of little importance save in the Sum- 


mer season, when it is swollen by the torrents which descend from 
these lofty snow-capped mountains. Its waters, mingled with those 
of the Estingol, flow into a lake on the table-land of Mongolia. 

Fauna and Flora. — Kansu lias remained one of the wildest regions of China, 
on account of its isolation, its severe climate, and the difficulty of its means of commu- 
nication. A great number of tigers, leopards, bears, wild hoars, wolves and foxes, 
are accordingly found there, as well as eagles and vultures. Came is plentiful. 
Throughout the whole of the moist and wooded region of the S.E., numerous and 
various kinds of birds abound. The flora of all this region, as well as that of the 
Tat'ung mountains is also very rich: the pine, birch and beech thrive at the bottom of 
the valleys and on the mountain sides. Higher up is found the rhododendron or rose- 
bay, and flocks of sheep and goats are reared on the slopes. 

Agricultural Wealth. — Although the elevation and steep 
slope of the mountains render cultivation difficult throughout a 
great part of Kansu, in other places, as at Ninghsia Fu ^ 
J Jfr, Lanchow Fu §j j^ Jjjf, Kanchow Fu ^ >}\] j{f and Su 
Chow 5|f >H>|, abundant crops are found : corn, millet, sorghum, 
Indian-corn and even rice. In several parts, there are even two 
harvests annually. The cultivation of rhubarb, formerly thriving, 
has nowadays much diminished. On the other hand the cultiva- 
tion of the poppy has increased, and tends to become universal. 
Even in the Han-ti (dry lands ip. J^), which the people cover with 
stones and shingle to maintain them moist, the poppy is largely 
cultivated, as also the water melon and the common melon. 

Fruit is the great wealth of the region. Besides the jujubo- 
tree found almost everywhere, apples, pears, apricots, walnuts, 
plums, strawberries and myrtles abound. 

Mineral Wealth. — So far, it is but little known. Ex- 
tensive coal-fields exist at the N.E. and E., and especially in the 
vicinity of Kungch'ang Fu |g || Jft. Iron-ore, gold, silver, 
and petroleum are also found. 

Population. — The population of Kansu is chiefly composed of Chinese, a great 
number of whom are Mussulmans. The country surrounding Ninghsia Fu is largely 
inhabited by Mongols. They are likewise found throughout the whole of the N. W. 
and in the neighbourhood of Sining Fu. In this latter region there are also many 
Tanguts or Fan-tze and inhabitants of North-Eastern Tibet. In the S. a great number 
of immigrants from Szechw'an have settled down. 

The population swarms especially in the S. where it is very dense, as also 
towards the centre and E.. — The people of the S. are gentler and more cultured than 
those of the N., but the latter are hardier. They are for a great part illiterate. 

Language. — Chinese is spoken throughout the greater part of the Province, 
save in the regions inhabited by the Mongols and Tanguts. Turkish does not begin to 
be spoken until further W., in Chinese Turkestan. 


Cities and principal Centres.— LANCHOW ' FU% )\])ft, 
population, 500,000. 

Capital city of the Province, and residence of the Viceroy 
of Shenkan ^ *^*, is a very commercial city. Its environs are 
well cultivated : gardens, orchards, tobacco-plantations, poppy- 
fields etc.... Corn is imported from Sining Fu "gf |ff ffi, the 
land near Lanchow Fu being considered too valuable to culti- 
vate it thereon. A bridge of boats is established every Summer 
over the Hwang-ho jijf fpf , instead of the ice which has then melted. 

Sining Fu ^§ ^ ffi at an elevation of more than 7,000 feet, 
and with a population of 60,000 inhabitants, has important 
commercial relations with Tibet. The Governor-general of Ku-ku 
Nor has his residence there. The town was recaptured from 
the rebels only in 1872. 

Ninghsia JEu ^ J[ jjvf, population, 12,000, — laid waste by the 
Mahomedan insurrection, but rising slowly from its ruins. The 
enterprising spirit of the Mussulmans has seized upon all the 
sources of gain which exist in the country. The city is situated 
in a vast plain, 125 miles in length. It is well watered by a skilful 
network of canals, abounds in fields of rice, corn and poppies, 
and is studded with numerous villages nestling amidst luxuriant 
clusters of trees. Unfortunately, it is ill protected from the 
inundations of the Hwang-ho jpf jjjf , which has again devastated 
it in the year 1904. 

Leangchmv Fu }# $1 j^f, population, 200,000.— The largest 
agglomeration of the Province after Lanchow Fu jffj >}\] JjJ. The 
city stands at an elevation of over 6,000 ft. 

Kanchow Fa [[ >|fl ffi. — A wretched town, built upon 
moving sand, Its importance is especially due to its position 
upon a frequented route. 

Su Chow^j\\, — in the North- Western extremity ofKansu, 
and in the W. of perhaps the most fertile region of China. 
In Spring and Summer it abounds with rice, wheat, millet, 
maize, melons... jujubes, pears, peaches. 

KHngyung Fu Jg ff jjj — had formerly 300,000 inhabitants, 
but possesses now only one unimportant street. 


Among the other towns may be mentioned. Chungwei hsien 
4 1 ftHfo a commercial place where the Hwang-ho i§| Jpf begins 
to be navigable; — TsHn Chow^fc>}\\, 150,000 inhabitants, to the 
S.E. of Kungch'ang Fu |g g ffi. It is perhaps the most impor- 
tant market place of the Province after Lanchow Fu jfjg >)]\ fff. 

Kumbttm, to the S.W. of Sining Fu jg <pg Jff, is an exten- 
sive lamasery, possessing a living Buddha. People come there 
from afar on pilgrimage. 

Industry and Commerce. — These are of no great 
importance. Lanchow Fu [j@ )]] J^f * s tne on ^y remarkable centre 
of industry, and manufactures chiefly cloth. The principal 
export articles are: opium, tobacco, furs, musk, wool and 
medicinal plants. The imports are stuffs and salt. 

Higliways of communication. — Communication is very 
difficult except by the few roads that cross the Province. 
Carts may be used on them. Outside these ways nearly all 
traffic is carried on upon the backs of men, the roads being too 
difficult even for animals. The Hwang-ho ig| fpf is not really 
navigable until below Chungwei hsien cf* $j Jjjg, although rafts 
are employed elsewhere. The principal roads are: 

1° The road from Singan Fu |f %J$f (Shensi |S^]lf) to Lan- 
chow Fu DiJMfl^- This follows the valley of the King-ho gg f|ff , 
passing by P'ingleang Fu 2$ \% fft, and continues beyond by 
Sining Fu |jf flf ffi as far as Tibet. (Another road leads from 
Singan Fu (Shensi) to Lanchow Fu, passing more to the S. by 
Tslnchow Fu J| >)]\ j£f. The way is very difficult.) 

2° The road from NingJisia Btf |)jj to Su Choiv |f >)i] . 
This passes by Leangchow Fu ^j'fljjfr and Kanchow Fu "JfjN'l/jsf, 
and continues beyond into Sinkiang ^pf Jj[. 

3° A third road starts from Lanchow Fu [|tj >}\\ ffi, skirts 
the Hwang-ho and joins the preceding. 

4° The road leading from Lanchow Fu^>))\J$ to Szechw ( an 
P9 j||, and passing by Minchow jl|g j\\ (Kungch'ang Fu |p J| /jrf). 

Difficulty of conveyance and communication is the greatest 
hindrance to the development of Kansu -# ~j$- 

Note. — Kansu *tt|JF, formerly made only one Province with 
Sinkiang gf |g, but was separated from it in 1882. 


2°. Shensi M V§ 

Area: — 75,290 square miles. 

Population : — 8,450,000, or 112 per square mile. 
Name : — It is so called because this Province is situated 
to the West of the famous T'ungkwan ^J || pass. Shensi 
means to the "West of the Pass. 9 ' 
Boundaries. — On the 

N. — The Ordos plateau, which is the Southern extension 
of the Mongolian table-land. Shensi is separated 
from the Ordos country by a portion of the Great 
W. — Kansu # If, 

S. — Szechw'an )\\ and Hupeh $] 4fc, 
E. — Honan }pj "^j and Shansi |1| ]HJ. The Hwang-ho 
]|jf |pf separates it from this latter Province. 
Capital. — SINGAN FU % % jft, near the right bank of 
the Wei-ho fg }pj and almost in the centre of the Province, as 
Lanchow Fu ff *Jfl ffi in Kansu ^ 5§f. 

Otlier Prefectures. — These are O in number : Along 
the Wei-ho f|j Jpf, proceeding from W. to E.: 
1° Fungsiang Fu JE % ft, 
2° T'ungchow Fu U ffl M- 
To the N. of the Wei-ho, the first in the extreme N., the 
second mid-way between the Great Wall and the Wei-ho fg fpj : 
3° Yiiling Fu li # ft, 
i» Yenngan Fu 'Z& £ ft. 
To the S. of the TsHn-ling J| ^ mountains and along the 
Han-ho §| *jpj, as it runs Eastwards : 
5° Hanchung Fu &L $ ft, 
6° Hsingngan Fu % £ ft. 
There are also in Shensi |S$ "g 5 independent Chows >)\\ : 
Shang Chow jgj >}[\, K'ien Chow tfc >}[\, Ping Chow % >}\\, Fu 
Chow }%\ >)\\, Soeiteh Chow gg fig %• 

Aspect and CHaracteristics. — The country is exactly 
divided into 2 parte by a well-marked chain of mountains which 
may be crossed only with difficulty at its Mo extremities.. All 


activity is centered upon the 2 rivers, which flow one on the N., 
and the other through the S. The 2 valleys, especially the 
Northern one, afford important passages to those travelling West- 
ward. On the N. of the Wei-ho fjfj fpf a long plateau of yellow- 
land rises gradually towards the N.. To the S. of the Wei-ho and 
especially of the T'sin-ling |{| ^ mountains, the yellow earth 

Geological constitution. — The Ts'in-ling mountains are composed of granite, 
schist, limestone rock and sandstone ; the granite however predominates. On both 
sides extends an immense layer of quaternary strata, which continues towards the N. of 
the Wei-ho under the form of loess. To the S. of the Han-ho it takes the shape of schist, 
sand-stone and the limestone rocks of Kiulung. 

Orography. — It is easy to remember and is most char- 

On the N, of the Wei-ho ffj jpj" exists an extensive plateau 
of loess, which rises from the S.E. towards the N.W. and is 
more and more furrowed by ravines as one moves away from 
the S.E.. This plateau terminates on the North side in a series 
of chains which support the Ordos plateau, and rises on the S. 
to an elevation of more than 4,000 ft. 

On the South of the Wei-ho, rises the massive chain of the 
Ts'in-ling |j§ $■[ mountains, a prolongation of the K'uenlun 
jg i*j- range. It runs from W. to E., reaching in height 9,000 
ft, which it even surpasses in several places. One of the most 
celebrated summits, which stands out a little to the W., is the 
Tapeh-slwm ^ g Jj with an altitude of 11,500 ft. With 
its steep rocks, perpendicular paths, its torrents and gloomy 
forests, the Ts'in-ling §f§ ||j is crossed with great difficulty. 
Two passes are easier of access, one to the W., the other on 
the E.. The Northern slope is the steepest and descends quite 
abruptly upon the Wei-ho ffj Jpf, the other inclines gradually 
towards the Han-ho ^Jpf. Richthofen compares the Ts'in-ling 
to a heavy bar applied slantwise upon a wrinkled cloth with 
parallel folds, and which would then be moved in a direction 
perpendicular to its axis, till the folds deviated completely from 
the point of contact. 

Oti the South of the Han-ho ^ }pj originates the Hitilung 


fa f| chain. It is less massive than the Ts'in-ling range, runs 
along the whole North-East of Szechw'an |7E| )\\ and continues 
the Min-shan |Ig \\\ of Kansu it)|f Province. It attains more than 
12,000 feet in height. A pass traverses its Northern extremity 
and connects through the Witting 3£T pass, — [4,000 ft. high] 
— the upper valley of the Han-ho Q|jpJ with Szechw'an J||. 

Climate. — The climate is widely different in the N. and in the S. of the 

In the N., it resembles that of the region of the Hwang-ho, with its dry cold, its 
dust, and its violent storms. 

In the S., it is rather like that of Szechw'an without Northern or Southern winds, 
these being prevented from blowing by the two mountain ranges. From February to 
October, the sky is overcast and the atmosphere damp, while excessive heat prevails in 
Summer. The cold sets in only at the end of November. It is the fine season of the year. 

Hydrography.— On the &., the Wei-ho fpj }pj and numerous 
streams, running N.W. to S.E. All flow into the Hivang-ho 
tK }pf, which skirts the E. of the Province, and is navigable only 
from the place where it receives the Fen-ho ffi jpf from Shansi 
|Jj ffi- The most important of these rivers is the Loh-ho jg. jpj. 
None however are navigable. 

On the S., the Han-ho |j| jpj*, which receives numerous 
torrents from the Ts'in-ling |ff || mountains, but is not navigable 
in Shensi. Till it leaves this Province, it runs through steep 
gorges where it is obstructed with rocks and rapids. Junks of 
small tonnage avail themselves of the flood season to travel to 
Hanchung Fu gj efi Jft (For the Han-ho gj jpf , see section II, 
ch. III.) 

The Wei-ho Jpj jpj. The Wei-ho is the principal tributary 
of the Hwang-ho jgr jpj\ Its sources are in Kansu -g* ;ff, near 
the mining region known as Kungch'ang Fu 3lgi$f . It runs like 
all its affluents on the left bank — these are the most numerous and 
important — through the loess plateau of the N.. in which it cuts 
deep channels. These beds diminish in depth as they advance 
towards the S.E.. As it enters Shensi $£ jg, the Wei-ho }pj jpj 
runs at a depth of 600 feet, amidst those towering stratified 
cliffs so characteristic of the loess region. It then widens and 
swerves gradually from the loess land. It is navigable after 
llsingp'ing hsien |g{ ^ Jgjji. Henceforward up to the bend of. 


the Hwang-ho H jpj", near T'ung-kwan }'J g||, boats of shallow 
draught ply on its waters, for although it is pretty wide in this 
place, it never runs deep. — Its chief tributary is the King-ho 
gC }pf, an important river, which with its affluents, waters the 
whole North-Eastern part of Kansu -$* ^. 

Fauna and Flora. — These differ completely in Northern and Southern Shensi, 
the ridge of the Ts'in-ling constituting almost the dividing line. In the N. the fauna and 
flora are those of the Hwang-ho; in the S. those of the Yangtze (See Preliminary Notions : 
fauna and flora, p. 10, 17). Wild animals are less numerous than in Kansu, though 
they are extensively met with on the Northern loess plateau and in the Ts'in-ling. 
Aquatic birds teem in the valley of the Wei-ho : the wild goose, heron, ibis, and snipe. 

Agricultural Wealth. — Agricultural products abound 
in the 2 plains of the Wei-ho Jg fpf and of the Han-ho j|| fpf , 
as well as on the loess plateau, wherever it can be tilled. 
In certain parts of the Wei-ho plain, rice and cotton are cultiva- 
ted, and there are 2 harvests every year, that of Spring yielding 
corn, and that of Summer, cotton. Elsewhere, the crops raised 
are those peculiar to the Northern region : barley, pulse, peas, 
lucerne, hemp, tobacco and Indian-corn. The valley of the 
upper Han-ho ^ jpj perhaps much richer, produces besides 
various fruits, abundant crops of corn, cotton and tobacco. Silk 
is manufactured, and the mulberry, palm, bamboo and even 
orange -tree are found there in abundance. Throughout the whole 
Province, the cultivation of the poppy is the all-absorbing pursuit 
of the inhabitants. 

mineral Wealth. — The Province is exceedingly rich in 
coal mines but they are little worked. Iron, salt of inferior 
quality (towards the N.), quartz veined with gold, nickel and 
magnetite (in the upper valley of the Han-ho j^ JpJ) are also 
found. Stones for building (marble, granite, and porphyry) 
abound, especially in the Ts'in-ling ^ ^ mountains. 

Population. — The population is very dense in the two valleys and hecomes 
thinner as one travels away from these two centres. The people are largely agiven to 
agriculture. As in Shansi,many skilful hankers are nevertheless found among them. The 
alien element is scanty: Mongols (in the N.),Szechw'an and Hupeh immigrants(in the S.). 

Like Kansu, though for a shorter period, Shensi suffered exceedingly from the two 
rebellions : that -of the T l aip l ings to the S. of the Ts'in-ling: and that of the Mussulmans 
to the N.. The city of Siugan Fu was almost the only one which held out in the North. 

Language. — It is only in the N. that a little Mongol is heard. Everywhere 
else-, Mandarin is common tongue. 


10 20 30 40 50 
I I J L__ 1 I 


English Miles. 

Reference to Colouring. 

I o to i ,300 ft. above Sea level. 
1,300 to 3,200 ft. ,, ,. 
















Tow iin and chief Centres. 

In Northern Shensi g$* "jftf : 

SINGAN FV If % /£f , a lew miles to the S. of the Wei-ho, 
at an elevation of 1, 600 feet. — Population, about 1, 000, 000. 
It is the capital and one of the most important cities of Shensi, 
perhaps even of all China, not only because of its historical remi- 
niscences, but also because of its site, the number of its inhabi- 
tants and its wealth. Singan Fu or a neighbouring city has been 
the capital of China under several dynasties. It acquired its 
greatest celebrity especially during the T'ang J£ dynasty. It 
was then called Siking (|f TjC Western Capital). Inl900, when the 
Boxer insurrection broke out, the Court withdrew there for a time. 
A short distance from it, towards the E., the Annals of the Empire 
were burnt under Shih Hwang-ti #£ Mlfr (246-209. B. C). The 
Mussulmans who are said to have arrived there about the VIII th cen- 
tury, occupy quite extensive quarters and have a famous mosque. 
Not far from the city, towards the W., is found a slab bearing date 
from the VIII th century, and testifying that the Nestorians, an 
heretical christian sect, were established there at that time. A cele- 
brated museum, called the Pei-lin (1^ # forest of slabs or stone- 
tablets) is rich with the remnants of ancient civilisation. The city 
has its Tartar quarter, which is surrounded by a high wall. In the 
centre of the town there is a large agglomeration of petty shop- 
keepers. The Eastern suburbs is a very populous and rich quarter 
where cloth, silks, porcelain, foreign-made articles and iron are 
stored. In the year 1899, a cotton-mill was established within 
the city. 

Hsienyang listen ^ |||)|| This town is not far from Signan 
Fu, and owes its importance to its being the terminus of naviga- 
tion on the Wei-ho ^fjpj, hence great traffic is carried on there. 

T'ungchow Fu |f] >}[\ )#. — On the Loh-ho fg. -jpf. 

T'ungkwan hsien\^ §| Jjjji. — At the bend of the Hwang-ho 
jff ]pf. It is rather a garrison town than a commercial place,, 
and owes its importance chiefly to its position which borders on 
the Western regions. 


Hivayinmiao gjl jig Jfj. — This is a pilgrim resort and has 
a famous shrine. It is here that people start when making the 
ascent of the Hwa-shan ijl [lj, one of the 5 sacred mountains 
of China. 

Fungsiang Fug$fiffi. — It is picturesquely situated upon a 
high loess terrace and on the Kansu ^ ^ road which follows 
the course of the Wei-ho ^ }pj. 

Ting Chow jj-g )\\. — On the King-ho -gg jjj. It is renowned 
for its excellent fruit. 

Tiilin Fu ft^jc^- — In the extreme N.. A garrison town 
and important market place for furs. 

In Southern Shensi : 

Hanchung Fu g| f{j ffii on the banks of the Han-ho and 
at an elevation of 1,600 ft, like Singan Fu "gf *$ )ff, — population 
80,000. — It is a large commercial city and important centre in 
the midst of a plain over 90 miles in length and from 25 to 10 
miles wide. 

Hsingngan Fu $L # ffi. — A more important commercial 
centre than Hanchung Fu. Commerce is carried on with Sze- 
chw'an |53 J||, Kansu jj jjf and Southern Shensi $j£ |f. 

Industry and Commerce. — These are more developed 
than in Kansu ^ jjj, but are however in a rather backward 
state. Besides ihe somewhat industrial centre of Singan Fu ]g 
^ fff, a certain number of towns exist along the lower Wei-ho 
m ?rTi which engage in special branches of industry: T'ungkwan 
hsien ^ g| jjji, tin-ware; Hwayinmiao gj| [|£ Jjj, straw-shoes: 
Ch'ihshui iff 7jt, incense sticks and bamboo articles ; Weinan 
hsien fg ^ jgji, a large coal-mart.... 

To the S., Sihsiang hsien jg jg£, S.E. of Hanchung Fu 
M tf* Jffi ana " famous for its manufacture of gum. 

Shensi |5$ g imports silks from Chekiang $f ft and Sze- 
chw'an ffl J||, tea from Hupeh $j ft and Hunan $J] ]g, and 
sugar from Szechw'an ]$)]]. It exports opium, skins and furs. 
Besides it is a place of transit for all goods coming from Tibet 
and Central Asia, or going to these two regions. - 


Shensi holds perhaps the first rank for the varnish-tree which 
supplies varnish and vegetable tallow. 

Highways of communication. — Two roads connect Si- 
ngan Fu jg^J^f with Zancliotv Fu |g j\] ffi (Kansu ~H*^). The 
most important of these is the Northern one, passing by P'ing- 
leang Fu ^p \^ ffi (Kansu). It is a very beautiful road, and was 
formerly bordered with trees like French boulevards. It was 
constructed by Tso Tsungt'ang ;£ g: ^, the General who put 
down the Mussulman rebellion. Besides these 2 roads, three 
other important highways deserve special mention. 

1 st . The road leading from Singan Fu g ^ jj?f to Thing- 
kwan hsien -jf| §| J^. At this latter place, it branches off into two, 
one going at the S. of the Hwang-ho jir Jpf to Honan Jpf "^ ; 
the other, crossing Shansi ]\\ ]|f, following the course of the 
Fen-ho ^ fpj, and leading to Peking ;|fc jf». 

2 d . The road connecting Singan Fu "g" %£ ffi with Sze- 
chw'an. This passes at the Western extremity of the Ts'in-ling 
§g|||, over the T'iensha-ling J% $? ^ pass, (3,300 ft. above the 
Wei-ho, and 5000 above the level of the sea) and at the North- 
western extremity of the Kiulung -fc f| mountains over the 
Wuting 3£ ~y pass (4000 ft. high). It is the famous road of the 
golden ox (Kinniu-tao ^^jl) built at such enormous expense. 
(According to local legends it was constructed in order to seize 
oxen on the mountain, as it was thought their fodder was changed 
into gold.) 

3 rd . The road connecting Singan Fu with Chang Chow $j 
>}[\. This passes to the E. of the Tsin-ling, and connects the 
capital of Shensi ^ |g with South-Western Honan }pj ~$j and 
the middle course of the Han-ho ||| jpf. 

We have previously mentioned the navigable rivers. 

Note. — Shensi is considered as the cradle of the Chinese 
race. It is here that it grew up, developed, and expanded 
to the E. and S.. Shensi commands all passes of the great 
Eastern plains leading to Central Asia, and thanks to the Sze- 
clvw'an |7UJ )\\ road, connects them easily with the whole South 



of the Empire. The valley of the Wei-ho $| Jpf is especially 
of unparalleled importance in the history of China. 


Rockhill.— The Land of the Lamas. New- 
York, 1891. (ch. I.). 

Grenard.— Mission scientifiquedelaHaute 
Asie. Paris, 1898. (II d p. pp. 451-472, 
note on the ethnography of Kansu ; —I st 
part. p. 371 sq., from Sining to Peking). 

Prjevalski. — Mongolie. Paris, 1880 (Ch. 
IX. Province of Kansu). 

Potanine. — Expedition dans le Kan-sou. 
1884-1887. St Petorshourg, 1891. 

Von Kreitner. — Die Chinesische Pro- 
vinz Kan-su. 1888. 

Journal des Missions Beiges de Mongolie 
et du Kan-sou, from 1892. 

Rous&et — A travers la Chine. Paris, 1 878. 
(ch. 13 to 19 : Kansu and Shensi). 

Lauwaert. — Observations barometriquea 

faites au S. du Kan-sou. S* Pe'tersbourg, 

Richlhofen. — Letters. Shang-hai, 1873. 

(p. 70-74, Shensi; p. 9G-110, Northern 

Shensi; j>. 111-114, Southern Shensi). 
David. — Journal de voyage. Paris, 1875. 

(vol. I. oh. 7 to 17 and vol. II. ch. IS 

and 19). 
Leprince Ringuet. — (Tour du monde. 

1902 p. 347 sq). 
Sven Hedin. — Travels. 
P. Havret. — La stele de Si-ngan fou. 

Chang-hai, 1895 et 1897. 
Hogg.— Hsi-an (Singan). (Written for the 

North-China Daily News). 



(SHANSI il| |f AND HONAN fl[ )£.) 

The Provinces of Shansi |Jj "gf and Honan $\ jg do not 
depend on the same Viceroy as Kansu ^ ^ and Shensi |^ j|f. 

Each of them has its own Governor. 

If we study them in common, it is because the mountains 
of these 2 Provinces constitute a powerful barrier on the W. of 
the Great North-Eastem Plain. Both also hem in the Hwang-ho 
Jf jpf below its last great bend, and before it enters the lowlands. 
Moreover, both abounding in coal and iron, are partly covered 
with loess or yellow earth, especially Shansi |J_I Hf. Finally they 
have been in former times the residence of the Emperor of China 
and the seat of the Capital. 

The differences existing between them are very prominent : 

Shansi |Jj |f is mountainous throughout; Honan ffi ^f 
only in part. Shansi is very rich in mineral wealth : Honan in 
agricultural products. Access to Shansi is difficult save through 
a few highways; Honan on the contrary, except on the N.W., 
is rich in means of communication. 

Both Provinces have suffered from the T'aip'ing ^ £p 


1°. Shansi Uf H 

Area. — 81,853 square miles. 

Number of Inhabitants. — 12,200,000, or 149 per square 

Name. — Shansi |1] jflj signifies "West of the Mountains." Hut 

what mountains are meant? Perhaps the peaks which bound on 
the E. the entire plateau of Shansi. It would however be more 
exact to say that they are the mountains on the W. of Chihli 
jj| *|£ as Shantung jjj ^ means E. of the same range, that is 
of the T'aihang-shan ^ If lU- 

Roiiiidaries. — Shansi is bounded on the 
N. — By Mongolia, 

W. — By the Ordos plateau (being part of Mon- 
golia and Shensi ^ "Uf, 
S. — By Honan /|ij ]g, 

E. — By Chihli jjl &. — The Hwang-ho -Jj ffl 
fixes exactly the boundary line on the W. 
and 8.. 

Capital city. — T'AIYVFN FV ± Jg /£f, which is situated 
in the centre of the Province and on the left bank of the Fen- 
ho » fpj. 

Oilier Prefectures or First class cities. The*/ are S. 

namely, To the N. of T'aiyiien Fu -fc J$ }ft : 
1° Shohp'ing Fu ffl *p /ft, 
2° Tat'ung Fu ^ 1^ M, 
3° Ningwu Fu ^ R /fr. 
To the S. of T'aiyiien Fu, and along the right hank of 
the Fen-ho %fr Jpf as it runs into the Hwang-ho : 
4° Fenchow Fu & *N jfr, 
5° P'ingyang Fu ¥ il Iff, 
6° P'uchow Fu m 'M ffi. 
At the S.-Eastern extremity, proceeding from N. to B.. 
7° Lungan Fu & & M, 
8° Tsehchow Fu W #1 Jft. 
There are besides in Shansi \[\^ 10 independent Choirs j\] : 




According to Richthofen. 



I*ingting Chow Zp fe ^|, jSsin Chow fjf W> rj " ai Chow f£ WU 
JPaoteh Chow ftf^W, Boh Chow ^t'}\\, Hsiai Cfiow |$ jfl, Kiang 
Chow $fc >)\\, Sift Cfcow PH >|'H, T«**n C7*ow j£> >}\\, Leao Chow jgg JH- 

Aspect and characteristics. — Shansi is a plateau ascen- 
ding in gradual terraces and intersected by mountain-ranges towards 
the N.. It has long monotonous ridges of yellow land and several 
alluvial plains very rich and fertile. There is great difficulty of com- 
munication. The people are industrious, but the soil is rather poor, 
and this compels them to seek elsewhere the prosperity they lack at 
home. Coal and iron abound, but up to the present, the absence 
of good roads has rendered the working of the mines rather 
unprofitable. The Province has also a lengthy river, the F^n-ho^fr 
m> which runs through its centre and develops there, more than 
in the other parts, wealth and prosperity . Such are in brief, the 
most striking features of Shansi. 

Geological constitution. — A layer of limestone covers a rich bed of coal. 
Over the layer itself are found sand-stone and yellow earth. This latter reaches in the 
H. a depth of 2,000 ft. In the N. there are*long mountain-chains of granite, schist and 
porphyry. In the Centre, skirting the Eastern hank of the L Han-ho $|?pJ\ is the Hoh- 
shan § ll|, a granitic and metamorphic mountain. 

Orography. — Shansi is formed by a strong mountain 
ridge, which, more or less wide, inclines gradually from N. 
to S.. This large plateau, varying in elevation from 2,600 
to 5,000 ft., is flanked on the E., N.E. and N. by peaks 
Which rise to a still higher altitude. Its steep slopes have 
been deeply furrowed and eroded, and disclose to the eye at 
the present day the calcarious and coaly deposits which cons- 
titute its base. On the N., long chains traverse it from S.W. to 
N.E., and continue the massive crest of the Southern Ordos 
table-land. These attain an elevation of 3,600 feet in the 
Wut'ai-shan 3l 2 ill • The M-shan 15 Ul or O^aihang-shan 
J!t If ill* which stretches along the plateau to the S.E., rises 
only to 3,200 ft., although it appears to look higher when viewed 
from the Ghihli ]j§; ^ plain. Further to the W., running along 
the left bank of the Fen-ho $> ?pf , is the Hoh-shan ^ (]], the 
height of which is 7,860 ft. In the centre of the Province 
there exists a series of depressions inclining in the direction of 


N. to S. and separated from each other. These are the dried- 
up beds of former lakes, which have disappeared, leaving behind 
a thick alluvial sediment more fertile than the surrounding loess 
or yellow land. The number of these lakes is 7, and upon their 
principal sites stand the following cities : Tat'ung Fu ^ |g) $f, 
(3,900 ft. high); T'aiyuen Fu % B Jfr (2,600 ft. high); P'ingyang 
Fu Zp $§ fft (1,800 ft. high). The Southernmost, that of Hsiai 
Chow j§? >H), attains an elevation of only 1,200 ft. 

In the S., is a mountain of sufficient importance to be men- 
tioned, the Chungtfiaoshan ffcl^U] (3,300 ft. high), which must 
have been separated by an earthquake from the Hwa-shan ^ ]\\ 
(see section I. ch. I. p. 26.), which lies opposite to it. The 
Hwang-ho now flows between the two. 

Climate. — The climate of Shansi is severer than that of the N. taken in 
general. This results from the mediocre elevation of the country. Snow covers it 
during the long Winter months and the thermometer falls to — 4 degrees F. and even 
further. At T'aiyuen Fu, the lake was frozen over from November to March in 1903-04. 
The thermometer then fell to — 9 degrees F. and reached in Summer 82 F.. 

Hydrography. — In the S., there are two important 
rivers, the FSn-ho ^ Jpf and the Ts'in-ho jjjjj jpf, both tributaries 
of the Hwang-ho ipf Jpf. In the N», the Province is traversed 
by several large affluents of the Peh-ho £| Jpf . In the W., a vast 
number of streams cutting deep ravines in the soil empty their 
waters into the Hwang-ho Jjr }pf. 

The Fen-ho •$}> JpJ is the largest river of Shansi. It rises to 
the S. of Ningwu Fu ^ j£ j£f, and after leaving T'aiyuen Fu 
jk J& $fi waters the most fertile part of the Province. It is 
navigable only up to Kiang Chow j|| Jfl, but from T'aiyuen Fu 
to the latter city, a very frequented road traversing numerous 
important centres, runs along its banks. It crosses the two richest 
plains of Shansi Jj "jg : that of T'aiyuen Fu ^fcjg ffi and that of 
P'ingyang Fu ^ ^ JjJ. Its waters are wont to rise suddenly 
and devastate the adjoining region. 

The Ts%n-ho f£>'[pf, which descends from the S.E. of the pla- 
teau is of less importance. It waters however one of those regions 
richest in mineral wealth: Tsehchow Fu j^Wffi', and one of the 
most fertile and populous of all China : Hwaik'ing Fu <|j{ J| fft 
(Honan }pf j§). 


Fauna and Flora. — There is nothing special to mention, save the hunting- 
grounds in the North, which are reserved for the Emperor. 

Agricultural Wealth. — Agricultural products are confined 
to a great extent within the valleys of T'aiyuen Fu ic^iff and 
Kiang Chow $£ }>|'|, and consist mainly of corn, tobacco, cotton 
and sometimes rice. The climate is too severe to obtain two 
harvests, so Shansi £Xj H is compelled to procure from the 
neighbouring plains the products it lacks itself. 

Even as regards opium, reputed to be the best in China, 
the crop is insufficient. — Shansi grows excellent grapes from 
which wine is made, unequalled it is said, throughout China. 

mineral Wealth. — Minerals are the great wealth of Shansi 
|Jj m Province. They consist especially of pit-coal and iron. 
No part of the world is perhaps so rich in coal-fields. The three 
principal mining-centres are the following: the basin of T'aiyuen 
Fu •% Jg $f, that of P'ingting Chow ^ % >ft\ and the country 
around Tsehchow Fu ^ ft\ Jj£f. On the S., to the E. of Hsiai Chow 
fffl. }\\, there is a salt lake called Luts ; un ^>H* which has consi- 
derable importance. A Taot'ai is in charge, to superintend 
the collecting of taxes upon the salt, which is afterwards sold 
extensively throughout Shansi \\\ "jg". Shensi gj£ "jfif and Honan 

Population — Shansi is hospitable, industrious and eager in the pursuit of 
gain. The best bankers of China and her shrewdest merchants are recruited from tliis 
Province. Nearly the whole commerce of the South of Mongolia is carried on by Shansi 
traders, some of whom even go as far as Tibet. When enriched, they return to settle 
down at home, bringing back with them the means of comfort, if not of luxury. 

In the N., the population is large!}- made up of Mongols, who number 500,000. 
They have their sacred mountain, the Wut'ai-shan, where they lovingly bury tho 
remains of their relatives. A large Mongol lamasery occupies its summit. They have 
also their own town, Kweihwa ch'eng, or the Blue City, called in Mongol Ku-ku Khoto. 

Language. — Mongol is spoken throughout the N.. Everywhere else the Man- 
darin dialect is prevalent. 

Cities and Principal Centres. — T'AIYVJEN FU ^ J^ 

J]?f, with a population of 230,000 inhabitants, is the capital of 
Shansi [lj fEf and the residence of the Governor. It is situated 
at an elevation of 2,600 ft., on the N. of a vast plain studded 
with populous villages and neatly constructed houses. The valleys 
which open out on the plain have nearly all mines, occupying 


each about 200 workmen, while rows of carts drawn by oxen 
and wheelbarrows bring the coal daily to the capital. Formerly 
this city manufactured defensive weapons on a large scale, and 
even at present it possesses an arsenal. It has its Tartar quarter 
and important barracks for the soldiers. It is surrounded by 
beautiful gardens and orchards. Its commerce is very brisk. In 
several places throughout the plain, pit-coal, iron and sulphur 
are found ; there is also in a neighbouring village a famous 
spring which has been turned to advantage by the people. 

To the JV. of T'aiyiien Fu -fr JK iff : 

Kweihwa ch'eng g§ ffc jf$.— population, 200,000 inhabitants. 
— The Blue City or Ku-ku Khoto comprises two towns, the one, 
religious and military, with its schools and its Lama monas- 
teries (the grand Lama of Mongolia, actually at Urga, resided 
formerly here) ; the other, largely commercial, is an important 
market for skins and camel-hair ropes, imported from every part 
of Mongolia and exported chiefly to T'ientsin ^ $t ffi. The 
environs are covered with fruit-trees. 

Tat'ung Fu ^ ftfijff. — A town situated 4,000 ft. above the 
the sea-level, in a long plain of scanty fertility where several 
volcanic peaks arise. There are important deposits of coal and 
sodium carbonate in the vicinity. 

To the S. of T'aiyiien Fu : 

Fenchoiv Fu ffr >|fl ffi. — An important town, near a rich 
valley abounding in coal. 

JPHngyang Fu Hpj^jff. — population, 19,000 inhabitants. — It 
is one of the oldest cities of China (tradition states that the 
Emperor Yao gg resided there), but of its ancient splendour, the 
only remnant to-day is a magnificent city-wall. It is situated in a 
vast alluvial plain where the system of irrigation is unrivalled. 

Kiang Chow %$.>)\\. — Within the bend of the Fen-ho $HnJ, 
towards the W.. — It is a prettily situated town, the terminus 
of navigation and the principal market-place of Shansi. It lies 
in a plain of considerable fertility and is in the neighbourhood 
of coal-mines. 


To the B. of T'aiyUen Fu % % Jfr, descending towards 
Chihli % g* : 

Fingting Chow t$ % ffl. — 20,000 inhabitants. — A great 
manufacturing (gold and silver-ware, iron) and commercial city. 
In its vicinity is the rich coal-mine known as Shihpuhtsui %j 

h It- 
Two other cities deserve also to be mentioned. They are 

situated in the T'aiyuen Fu jkj&fff plain : I*ingyao listen 3* jgJH, 

population, 60,000 inhabitants, — an important market for exports 

into Honan -/pf }f ; and K'i hsien fj ££, a ver y commercial 

town with a population of 30,000. 

To the S.E. : 

Tsehchow Fu ^ >}\\ JjJf, situated in a district which abounds 
in coal and excellent iron-ore. As moreover, its communications 
with the plain are numerous, it is the centre of a very industrial 
region, principally iron-works. 

Industry and Commerce. — In both of these, Shansi 
holds a prominent place. This is the natural outcome of the 
industry of its people, its rich mines and the poverty of its soil. 

Several cities and large villages devote themselves specially 
to industry. We have mentioned above P'ingting Chow ^p % 
j]\, famous for its goldsmiths'work ; others are engaged in the 
paper, iron, and sulphur industries. Kiang Chow $£ j\\ has 
started lately a cotton-mill. 

The export articles are principally : coal, iron, salt and 
products from Mongolia, such as skins and ropes. The imports, 
which seem to exceed the exports, consist of corn, silk, woollen- 
goods, tea and salted provisions. 

Highways of Communication. — The communications 
are difficult through lack of good roads. Transport is extensively 
made upon the backs of animals : camels, mules and asses. — 
The principal roads are : 

Two carriage roads. — If they can be so called, for they 
are very impracticable. — These are : 

1° The road leading from Chengting Fu JE % }ft (Chihli 


W.W *> Shensi gfc|f, passing by T'aiyiien Fu ± % Jfr, P ; ing- 
yang Fu ^p (^ ^f, P'uchow Fu fjjf j)\ fft and T 4 ungkwan hsien 
?1 H f£ (Shensi). (At P'uchow Fu one may also cross the 
Hwang-ho ^r JpJ, and proceed by T'ungchow Fu to Singan Fu 
SSI, Shensi). 

2° The road leading from T'aiyiien Fu izf&fff to Tatfung 
Fu JS 1*3 iff- It passes by Yenmen-kwan )jjj P^ |H, a famous 
and much frequented gate of the Great Wall. Here the road 
branches into two : one branch going by Shohp'ing Fu $j3*$f 
to Kweihwa ch'eng §§ ffc $$; the other leading to Kalgan (Ohihli). 
Two other roads or rather pathways are less frequented : 
1° One from Tsehchow Fu f|| jfl ffi to JFingyang Fu. 
2° A second from Tsehchow Fu to T'aiyiien Fu, passing to 
the W. of Lungan Fu }JJ ^ jfr. 

The only good Water-Highways are: th.Q Fen-ho ^jpJ",from 
Kiang Chow $jjj >H»| to the Hwang-ho ^ jpj ; and the Hwang-ho. 
This latter is navigable from P'uchow Fu fff >Jfl JjSf to T'ung- 
kwan hsien ^j? U§ |f , and in several places to the W. of Shansi 
llj H, especially near its North-Eastern bend. 

Extensive traffic is carried on upon the road leading from 
Ohihli ]t H to T'aiyiien Fu ^jgjfr. From 2,000 to 3,000 mules 
and asses, and 200 to 300 camels, pass every day opposite a 
fixed place. The same activity exists in the N., at the Yenmen 
Hj| P*j pass. The railroad from ChSngting Fu J£ % $f (Ohihli) 
to T'aiyuen Fu, connecting the capital of Shansi |Jj |f with the 
great trunk-line from Peking ^ /Jf to Hank'ow ^J| P (Hupeh 
M 4fc)- wi ^ afford easy tranport for the rich mines of Shansi, 
and at the same time increase its wealth. 

Note. — We have seen above that P'ingyang Fu 2p g| 
JjJ was the capital of the celebrated sovereign Yao ||, in the 
early times of the Chinese empire. In the S.E., the present 
district town of Hsia hsien J| $g (Hsiai Chow fft >|fl) had in its 
midst the court of the Emperors of the Hsia ]j dynasty, the 
first that governed China (2,205 to 1,766 B. C). 


2°; Honan P I 1% 

Area. — 67,951 square miles. 

Population. — 25,317,820 or 373 per square mile. 
Its Name. — Honan fpj ]$f signifies South of the river, 
and in fact the greater part of the Province lies to the South 
of the Hwang-ho J|[ fpj" , while only a small tract of land extends 
beyond it on the North. 

Boundaries. — Honan is bounded, on the 

N. — By Chihli g ^ and Shansi lU ft*, 
W. — By Shensi $$ ffi and Hupeh $| #, 
S. - By Hupeh JM ft, 

E. — By Nganhwei t£ $fc, Northern Kiangsu ft 
jj£, Shantung |Jj j)C and Chihli ft ^. 
Capital. — K'AIFUNG FU ffl Jj-Jft, situated in the Norlh- 
East of the Province, and towards the South of the last great 
bend of the Hwang-ho iff ftFf. 

Other Prefectural Cities. — These number 8, three of 
which are to the North of the Hivatig-ho. They are, proceeding 
from the West to the North-East : 
1° Hwaik'ing Fu tg Wt Jfr, 
2° Weihwui Fu $ U Jfr, 
3° Changteh Fu % W. fit. 
The 5 others lie along the Southern course of the Hwang- 
ho 3| }pj, one to the N.W., another to the S.W., and the rest 
in the basin of the Hwai-ho f<£ jpj. 

4° Honan Fu wT ^ Jfr, 

5° Nanyang Fu ^f [§ /ft, 

6° Juning Fu & ^ Jfr, 

7° Ch'enchow Fu U *H tif, 

8° Kweiteh Fu gg 3g Jfr. 
Honan has besides 5 independent Chow cities : Hsu Chow 
j£ #j, Shen Chow $$ ^Jfl, Kwang Chow % <}\\, Ju Chow $c jffl, 
and Cheng Chow 1$ fl\. 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Honan is a vast fertile 
plain, but exposed to the cold winds of the North. It has no 
natural separation on the East from the neighbouring Provinces, 


but is closed on the S. and principally on the W ., by a semi- 
circular chain of mountains, which allow only few passages 
towards the Yangtze ^^ valley, and that of the upper Hwang-ho 
£j( [pf. Its fertility, compared with the other Provinces of the N. 
has deserved for it the name of "Land of tlie Central Flower", 
and perhaps the designation of Chung-Jcwoh FJ3 ^ or "Middle 
Kingdom? 9 given to the whole of China, may be traced bach to 
that origin. It affords also, excepting however the mountains of 
the West, coynmodious highways, and can exchange its products, 
especially agricultural wealth, although coal is not lacking, 
better than the other Provinces which we have previously studied. 
The railway which runs through it and connects the basins of the 
Hwang-ho ^ }pj and the Yangtze-kiang ^ ^ }£, will henceforth 
attract thereto increasing wealth and activity. 

Geological constitution. — Yellow earth predominates in a large portion 
of the North, and is mingled with alluvial soil in the basin of the Hwai-ho ^ jpf. In 
the W., the Funiu Mountains are composed of marble, sand-stone and granite. The 
mountains which are their continuation to the S., are formed also of granite, schist 
and gneise. 

Orography. — On the North of the Hwang-ho J| jpf , the 

surface rises slowly towards the N. E., but more abruptly to the 
N.W., where it forms the first slopes of the T"aihang-shan ■fc^f 
ill range. 

On the South of the Hwang-ho Jjr jpj : 

Throughout the whole Western and South-Western part of 
the Province, the last branches of the Eastern iVuenlnn jj| ^ 
throw out numerous spurs, which are called, proceeding from 
N. to S., the Hwa-shan gj£ |Jj, Fnniushan f£ ^ |ij, and further 
Southwards, the Hwailung-shan Jjl fj [Jj and Hwaiyang-shan 
?H $|r lij. The whole mass varies from 2,600 to 3,000 feet in 
average elevation, though it exceeds at times the height of 6,000 
feet. The Funiu-shan reaches also an elevation of 7,800 ft. in 
the Pehyun-sJian £j ft Jj, while the Sung-shan j|£ [{j, an 
important mountain-mass advancing into the plain to the S. E. 
of Honan Fu }pf ^f ffi, rises likewise to the height of 7,800 ft. 
in the Yangch ( eng-shan % 1$ [Jj. The plain slopes slightly 
down as these mountains advance towards the E.. 




t i \ 

i i i 

r— r—r 



The climate of Honan becomes milder as one advances Southward. Here the 
same products grow as in the valley of the Yangtze. In the N., the cold and dust- 
storms are severely experienced during the Winter season. 

Hydrography. — The rivers may be divided into four 
different systems. 

1° On the iV. of the Hwang-ho jjr fpj, several streams, 
the principal of which is the Wei-ho ^j fpj, run into the Grand 
Canal. The Wei-ho is navigable up to Tao-k'ow jg 0, and 
throughout the greater part of the year, even up to Siuwu hsien 
#£ iR M near Hwaik'ing Fu '|ff j| Jj^f, considerably higher than 
Weihwui Fu HJ $p fff. Numerous and limpid streams fertilise 
all this part of Honan Jpf ]g. 

2° The following empty themselves into the Hwang-ho 

On the N., the Ts'in-ho jjjj -jpj, flowing down from Shansi 
Mj U (see description of this Province p. 51), and on the S., the 
Loh-ho $g. fpj. This latter waters a very fertile valley running 
parallel to the basin of the Hwang-ho and famous in the history 
of China. 

3° On the S.W. of the Funiu-shan f£ Q |lj, two rivers, 
the Yeh-ho Q }pf and the T ( ang-ho Jf Jpf , which water the 
whole region of Nanyang Fu "^ |JJ| ffi, and after uniting their 
streams, flow into the Han-ho }|| fpj opposite Siangyang Fu jj§ 
$§ )ff, in Hupeh }gj 4fc- T ne Peh-ho is navigable at all times 
up to Nanyang Fu. — Another river, the Tan-Jciang ^jX, runs 
a little further Westward into the Han-ho ^^f, and is navigable 
in Winter up to Kingtze-kwan ~j$] $| |j§, affording thereby a 
highway to Singan Fu "g 4£ ffi in Shensi |P$ |Rf. 

4° The Hwai-ho ?|| fpf and its tributaries, the principal of 
which is the Sha-ho fj? Jpf. Nearly all its affluents flow from 
N.W. to S.E.. The Hwai-ho, after flowing for a time from W. 
to E., but impeded in its course by the mountains of Western 
Nganhwei j£j;f§£, runs in a North-Eastern direction upon entering 
Nganhwei,and there empties its waters into the Hungtseh Lake 
$t gg. It is navigable below Sinyang Chow f= % >)\\ (Juning 
Fu & $ Jfr). The Sha-ho is so likewise below Cheukia-k'ow ^% 
P, where it receives the Kialu-ho jf || }pf and the Yti-ho ^ ftj". 


The Hwang-ho, which bisects the Northern part of Honan 
p\ fSi is navigable from Szeshui hsien f£ ^ Jjg near K'aifung 
Fu pg ^ )ff, a little to the N.E. of Honan Fu, till it leaves 
Honan }pf $j. Navigation on it is however rather difficult. At 
low-water season, it is very shallow, and when the flood sets 
in, the current is too strong for junks. To the N.E. of K'ai- 
fung Fu, its former bed is still visible, and we shall deal with 
it when describing North-Kiangsu Jq M 

Fauna and Flora. — There is nothing deserving any particular mention, save 
that in the S. the fauna and flora of the Central Region begin to appear in some 


Agricultural Wealth. — The soil of Honan is very fertile 
and produces excellent crops : corn, millet, sorghum, Indian- 
corn, cotton and opium. The most fertile parts are 1° the region 
of Hwaik'ing Fu JUJlJj-f, a rea ^ g ar> den with numerous planta- 
tions of trees and shrubs; the soil is well irrigated. 2° the 
region of Nanyang Fu ]§ |^| ^, which produces cotton, opium, 
and a little silk. 3° the Loh-ho $£ JpJ valley, a splendid alluvial 
country, growing corn, fruit and the poppy in abundance. The 
Western mountains alone are barren, being for the greater 
part destitute of trees. The Funiu^^ 1 mountains are however 
partially covered with dwarf oaks, upon the leaves of which 
numerous silk-worms are fed. The rearing of the silk-worm is 
the chief source of prosperity of this region. 

Mineral wealth. — The mineral wealth consists prin- 
cipally of coal-mines (between Lushan hsien $li|j|| and Ju Chow 
iftffl)* Iron, tin and argentiferous lead-ore are also found. 

Population. — The people are principally given to agriculture, and few 
alien elements are found among them. K'aifung Fu had formerly an important colony 
of Jews, hut they have now dwindled to only a few members. The population is very 
dense everywhere, but particularly to the N. of the Hwang-ho, and in the country sur- 
rounding Nanyang Fu. An exception must however be made for the mountainous 
district of the W.. 

Language. — Mandarin is spoken throughout the whole Province. 

Cities and Principal Centres. —K'AIFUNG FUffl^fff. 

— population, 200,000 inhabitants. Situated to the S. of the bend 
of the Hwang-ho 3| jpf, it was formerly a city of great impor- 
tance, but is nowadays without either commerce or industry. 


Despite the numerous embankments which surround it, it is 
much exposed to the inundations of the Hwang-ho, to which it 
has already fallen many times a victim. 

To the North of the Hwang-ho ^ jpf : 

Hwaik'ing Fu UlUJff- — a large city but doing no trade. 

T&inghwa chen ^p}ffc|i. — a few miles to the East of 
Hwaik'ing Fu, is a large emporium and carries on a consider- 
able trade in coal and iron. It is moreover a very populous 
city and an important transit centre. Steel instruments are 
extensively manufactured there, and it is the chief market for 
the medicinal plant called "Ti-hwang» ffc ^ (a medicinal root, 
perhaps allied to cumfrey and used as a febrifuge. — Williams.), 
the sale of which realises C 160,000 annually. 

Taoh'ow chen J1| P |i. — to the N. E. of Weihwui Fu. A 
considerable commercial mart upon the Wei-ho ^ fpj, which is 
always navigable up to this place except when the ice has formed. 
By this river, a large portion of the mineral and metallurgic 
products of South-Eastern Shansi jjj |lf, and also corn from 
Hwaik'ing Fu «|g jijjfr, are exported to the N.E. Taoh'ow chen 
is the terminus of the Honan Jpf "ffi railway. 

In the part S. of the Hwang-ho ^fpjf. To the N.W. and W.: 

Honan Fu }pf "j^f flj. — In the rich valley of the Loh-ho 
^ }pf. The city is advantageously situated at the crossing of 
the highroads leading to Singan Fu |f ^ j£f in Shensi $jf|f. 
It is nowadays of no importance. To the 8., rises the sacred Sung- 
shan gg ijj mountain, and to its W. is the famous defile known 
as Lung-men f| f^, whose banks are adorned with pagodas and 
ancient sculptures carved in the limestone rock. Several of the 
statues of Buddha are over 60 feet in height. 

Ju Chow JjfcjHJ. — A. town situated in the midst of splendid 
scenery and in a well-watered valley. The environs were 
formerly very industrial, but have lost their activity. The 
manufacture of common pottery is still carried on and gives it 
some importance. 


lM8lmn hsien § [Jj $$. — Centre of the silk trade in this 
district. Paper is also manufactured as well as pottery and 
waggons with cast-iron wheels, much in demand throughout 
the whole of this region. 

To the S. E. and S. : 

Nanyang Fu ]f % }ff. — An important city, hoth as a 
transit place and as 1he centre of a populous and fertile region. 

Sh£k% chen jj£ ;jfi $i. — A very important commercial 
centre between the Provinces of the N. E. and those of the W. 
It has large warehouses. 

Sinyang Chow fg^-jWI- — ^ n important town and the head 
of navigation on the Shih-ho jjfjjj }pj, a tributary of the Hwai-ho 
ffi M- I* is tne terminus of the high-road which comes from 
the N., and continues Southwards over the mountains by a 
mule-path. Numerous rafts bring salt from the maritime Pro- 
vinces. The Peking-Hankow railway t£ ^ which passes near 
it, gives it a still greater importance. 

To the E. : 

Cheukia-k'ow )*) % q . — to the W. of Chenchow Fu gj(#| 
){f. — The most important commercial centre of Eastern Honan 
}pf ^. It is situated at the confluence of 3 rivers. The Sha-ho 
ffi Jp[ is navigable up to this place the whole year round, and 
all three are navigable in the flood season. 

Industry and Commerce. — If we except its iron and 
earthenware trade, Honan is not a very industrial Province. 

Its export trade consists chiefly of agricultural products : 
corn, cotton and opium, while its imports are textile fabrics 
from Hupeh $Jj # and Tientsin Fu ^ ^ $f (in Chihli It H), 
and iron supplied by Shansi [lj |Ef. 

Highways of communication. — Communications are 
easy, save in the W. . We have seen to what extent the Hwang-ho 
ig Jpf, Wei-ho $j jpj, Hwai-ho fH Jpf and Peh-ho g fpf are 
navigable. (The T'ang-ho g fp[, which joins this latter, is also 
navigable as far as Shek'i chen g£ ^ ^). The principal roads 
are : 


1° The road from Peking ft ^r to Hank'ow f|| p (Hupeh 
$j ;)£), passing by Changteh Fu % |g jff, Weihwui Fu ff {g 
/flf, K'aifung Fu ffl §j ^, Cheukia-k'ow J^ % p and Sinyang 
Ohow ff H Jt| (Juning Fu # f| /ft). 

2° The road leading /rom K'aifung Fu to Singan Fu |f 
jg /fr (Shensi $£ !f), passing by Honan Fu jpf pfj ^ and then 
skirting the right bank of the Hwang-ho H fpf . 

3° The road leading from Honan Fu to Siangyang Fu |||H 
JjSf (Hupeh $J]:|fc), on the Han-ho $|}pf, traversing Ju Ohow, Lu- 
shan hsien and the Nanyang Fu gf [Sj§ ffi pass. This pass stands 
at an elevation of 1,500 ft., and is situated between two moun- 
tains whose altitude varies from 4,000 to 5,000 ft. It is nearly 25 
miles in length, but offers no difficulty. 

4° The road leading from Weihwui Fu $j $|f j^f to Honan 
Fu, passing by Hwaik'ing Fu '|gf Jf| f[f. 

5° The road leading from K'aifung Fu to Fungyang Fu 
JU, H /ft in Nganhwei ^ $g, passing by Kweiteh Fu |f fe fft. 

The Peking-Hank? ow railway passes by Yungtseh hsien 
tfe % |g$, Shenchow Fu g£ >}\\ Jfr, Hsu Chow |^ >Ifl, Yench'eng 
hsien |ft J$ ||, Sip'ing hsien H ^p |$, Suip'ing hsien ^ 2|S 
JU, K'iohshan hsien $1 ^j Jg$ and Sinyang Chow f= |^ >H'|. 

Another line, that of Honan Jpf ]^, runs from Sinhsiang 
hsien ff £§p Jjgg to Taok'ow chen $g p |g on the Wei-ho ^ff. 

^t f^irc? line, recently opened, runs from Cheng Chow 1$>}\] 
to K'aifung Fu |fg JJ /ft. 

Note. — The ancient capital of China stood several 
times in Honan jpf "j^". It was situated in the valley of the Loh- 
ho $JfpJ, in the environs of K'aifung Fu ^ itJft? or at Kweiteh 
Fu |f @ Jft. If we believe the legend, Fuhsi $; || the first 
Emperor of China, had also his capital there. 


Grenard. — Mission scientifique cle la 
Haute Asie. Paris. 1897. (ch. VII, p. 423 
to 410). 

Leprince Ringuet. — Tour du Monde. 
1902. (p. 314 sq. and p. 347 sq.). 

Rockhill. — The Land of the Lamas. New- 
York. 1891. ch. I. 

Williamson. — Journey in North-China. 
London. 1870. (vol. I. ch. 9. and 10, Shan- 
si; ch, 15„to 19, Honan). 



Richthofen. — Letters. Shanghai. 1873 

(p. 18-40, Honan and Shansi. — p. 77- 

96, Chihli, Mongolia and ShansP. 
Kerval. — Deux martyrs francais (an 

Chan-si). Rome, 19^3. 
Rousset. — A travers la Chine. Paris. 1878 

(liv. II. ch. 11 and 12, HonaiO. 
Chavannes. — Le defile de Longmen. 

(Journal Asiatique. 1902). 
Williams. — The Middle Kingdom. Vol. 

I. 4 th Edit. New-York.. (Shansi. p. 78-79; 

Honan. p. 79-80). 
Grosier. — General description of China. 

London, 179."i. (Vol. I. Shansi. p. 83-87; 

Honan. p. 73-78). 
David. — Journal de voyage. Paris, 187"> 

(vol. I. ch. 5 and C). 
Tobar. — Inscriptions juives de K'ai-fong 

fou. Chang-hai. 1900. 
Murray. — Historical and descriptive 

account of China. Edinburgh. 1843. (Vol. 

III. Shansi. p. 21-22; Honan.. 27-28). 
Little A. — The Far East. Oxford. 1905. 

(Shansi. p. 29-33; Honan. p. 39-44). 
Mappa della Provineia di Honan fl)is<p;- 

nata da un alnnno della Missione Tta- 

liana di Kin-l<ia-kan). 



(CHIHLI jf *$ AND SHANTUNG \\\ %). 

These 2 -provinces, like the 2 preceding ones, are indepen- 
dent of each other. The former, Chihli J|[ |jj, has }\owever a 
Viceroy residing at Paoting Fu $J ^? fff, while Shantung \\\ ^ 
is ruled by a Governor, whose residence is at Tsinan Fu §|]|f/^f. 

Like Shansi jl| ]Hj a?id Honan jpj ]^, Chihli J§; ^ a??d 
Siiantung llj ^ chy/er widely from each other. Chihli j§[ J£ in 
times gone by, a gulf, but now filled up, is hemmed in by a 
semicircle of high mountains. Shantung, a former island, sur- 
rounded little by little by alluvial deposits, strikes boldly out 
into the ocean. Chihli has but one very shallow sea, which washes 
the coast, and is very little indented. The coast-line of Shantung 
is dotted with bays, several of which are of great depth. Chihli 
is traversed by long rivers, which descend in cascades and rapids 
from the mountains that surround it. 

Shantung has long rivers only in the N.W., and they all 
run in lowlands. The 2 provinces, as we shall see further on, 
have many other distinctive characteristics. 

Moreover, they are densely populated, and lack neither min- 
eral nor agricultural resources. Doth are importayit from an 
historical standpoint, Chihli possessing for several centuries the 
Capital of China, and Sliantung having given birth to Confucius 
(K'ung Futze iJL 5fe ^ • 551-479. B.C.), and to his principal 
follower, Mencins (Mengtze ^XJ- 372-289. B.C.). 


1° . Chihli 1ft %R 

Area. — 115,830 square miles. 

Population. — 20,930,000 inhabitants, or 180 to the 
square mile. 

It must however be remarked, that as the greater part of the 
inhabitants live in the plain, the density is greater therein. 

Name. — Chihli ft || signifies "directly ruled?', or "im- 
mediately obeying". It was formerly called Pei-Chihli ^ It |£ 
or Northern ChiJUi, in order to distinguish it from Kiangnan 
JX ^ (the present Kiangsu ft gfc and Nganhwei £ $&)» vvhich 
bore the name of Nan-Chihli $j fit ^£ or Southern Chihli. 

Boundaries. — The Province of Chihli is bounded on the 
N. — By Mongolia, 
W. — By Shansi |Jj ]g, 
S. — By Honan JpJ* $j and Shantung ]\\ ^, 
E. — By the Gulf of Chihli ]f 3$ and Manchuria. 

Capitals. — Two Capitals are to be distinguished in this 
Province : That of China, which is PEKING ;|fc p§r, also called 
Sliimt'ioii Fu jig J^ Jft, not far from the Western mountains, 
on a tributary of the Peh-ho £j fpj\ 

That of the Province of Chihli, which is PAOTJNG FV 
fS /£ M-> a ^ so on a tributary of the Peh-ho and situated to the 
S.W. of Peking. 

Other Prefectures. — These are 9 in number : 
To the N., in the mountainous region proceeding from W 
to E. : 

1° Stienhwa Fu s ft Jff, 

2° Ch'engteh Fu*^f, called also Jebol ( Jehho-eul ft ft ^ 

warm river), 
3° Yungp'ing Fu 7*. *p ffi. 
To the S. of Peking, on the Peh-ho g jpf : 

4° Tientsin Fu ^ # jft. 
To the W. of the Province, descending from N. to 8. : 
5° Hokien Fu ft ffl Jfr, 
6° Chengting Fu IE % Ms 


7° Shunteh Fu m '& M, 
8" Kwangp'ing Fu M *P M, 
9" Taming Fu Jz % ffi. 

There are besides in Ohihli ]j[ ^, il independent Chows : 
Tsunhwa Chow Jg ffc >}[], I Chow J*, jHI, Ki Chow % j>)\, Chao 
Chow fg >H1, Shen Chow gg >J>fl, <md Zttngr CA^ gr £ty- 

Aspect and Characteristics. — The traveller from Mon- 
golia, descending from the high plateaux abounding in pasture- 
lands, finds himself all at once in presence of mountains, which 
descend rapidly to a large plain, irrigated by turbid rivers, and 
nearly all unfit for navigation. This plain, covered in Summer 
with an abundant harvest, but also with thick mud, as soon as 
the rains set in, is swept in Winter by a cold blast, which covers 
it with a cloud of yellow dust. It is nevertheless inhabited, but 
by indigent families. The South-Western portion alone is remar- 
kable for its greater fertility and its richer vegetation. Consi- 
derable activity reigns throughout Chihli jj( *£, and is directed 
especially towards Tientsin 5^ $t ffi and Peking 4b S* ^ e *wo 
great centres of the Province. 

Geological constitution. — The great Eastern plain of Chihli is entirely 
composed of alluvium, deposited doubtless by the delta of the Yellow River (Hwang- 
ho) and by the Peh-ho. A small tract of yellow earth is found towards the W.. The 
mountainous region contains chiefly China limestone, and is traversed in many places, 
as it abuts on the plain, with volcanic streaks of porphyry and granite. Then further 
on, are found granite, schist, and gneiss, partially buried beneath volcanic eruptions 
and yellow earth or loess. Generally speaking however, especially in the volcanic region 
of the N., the China limestone is predominant, and is covered over with rich coal 
measures. The denuded layers are conspicuous in the mountains which lie to the \V. 
of Peking. 

Orography. — The plain rises gradually with only a few 
undulations up to the mountains. These then soar abruptly, 
running in the direction N.E. — S.W., and constitute the pro- 
longation of the chains, which we have already noted on the N. 
of Shansi \\\ "g. They form towards the W. several parallel 
lines, which are called, as they proceed from the plain towards 
Mongolia : the Hung-shan $1 |I], Siaowutfai-shan *\\ ill* 
Hwangyang-shan j| ^ [il, and the Kulu-shan ffi Jg |Jj. This 
latter extends to the N.W. of Kalgan (jjg % P Changkia-k'ow), 
under the name of the Yin-shan (^ \{\ and the Wei-shun jgj £[| 





Approaches to Peking. 


mountains. The Wei-shan has the highest peak in Chihli jj§L^: 
the Feh-ch'a gg, which attains an elevation of nearly 10,000 
feet. Towards the N.E. these mountains descend gradually, 
proceeding from the Peh-shan to Jehol (Ch'engteh Fu ^fc^Jft). 
In this very hilly region, there are large valleys, which are 
used for agricultural purposes, when they are covered with 
loess or volcanic earth. 

Climate. — The climate of Chihli is excessively hot in Summer, hoth on the 
mountains and in the plain. The Spring is dry; rain sets in only in July and August, 
and falls principally in the plain. It is very cold in Winter, and the rivers are frozen 
over from the middle of November. When snow falls, it melts quickly in the plain. 
The inequality of the rain-fall renders the harvests very precarious, and so the Provinse 
verges often on scarcity and suffers even from famine. Moreover, the Summer rains 
make the roads impracticable, and the dry persistent westerly gales of Winter, raise thick 
clouds of dust (the famous Peking dust-storms, March to June) throughout the plain. 

Hydrography. — Chihli j|[^ is exceedingly well irrigated, 
and its rivers How into the Gulf of the same name. The most 
important is the Peh-ho £j JpJ, with its numerous tributaries. 
The others are : to the 2V"., the Lwan-ho ||| jpf; to the S., the 
Hwang-ho H jpf, the Wei-ho jjf }pj and the Chang-ho %$: fpf . 
These latter streams traverse only the Southern extremity of 
the Province. The Wei-ho, as we have seen (see Honan fpf ^ 
section I. ch. III. p. 59). is navigable there, but the Hwang-ho 
is not. The Chang-ho, which comes from Shansi j]j Uf, and 
runs for a considerable distance beside the Grand Canal, into 
which it finally flows, is also unfit for navigation. 

The Teh-ho £j \ pj (white river). — The Peh-ho rises in the 
Yin-shan |5§£ \\\ mountains. After running parallel to the Great 
Wall, and descending suddenly between denuded mountains, it 
enters the plain to the N. of Peking ,|t jfC, already swollen by 
several torrents. It becomes navigable however only at T'ung 
ChowjJ^H- Henceforth, it runs S.E. and assumes great impor- 
tance at T'ientsin ^'j(:$f. From this city to the sea, it takes an 
Easterly direction, and empties its waters into a muddy bay. The 
bar which exists at its mouth, has only about three feet of water 
on it at ebb-tide, which renders the passage very difficult. 

It is at T'ientsin Ji WM^ anc * on its right, that it receives 


its principal tributaries : 1° the Satw7can-7io ^ $£ /pj, called 
also Yen-ho J# Jpf and YungUng-ho ^ % JpJ. 2° the »*«'©- 

/*» ?j| ?fe fpj", which comes from Northern Shansi ^ Hf. The 
Sangkan-ho receives on its right the Tze-ho §g jpf, a tributary 
of which, the Ttfingyuen-ho ffi $ji ?PI> is navigable as far as 
Paoting Fu fc £ Jfr. 

These two rivers have this in common, that rising in denuded 
mountains, and flowing down into the plain, they at times over- 
flow their banks and cover the country with an immense sheet 
of water. The region around Tientsin is especially exposed to 
these terrible inundations. Here also are found the principal 
lakes of the plain. 

The Jjwan-ho }§| jpf, after having made an immense sweep 
to the N. of Dolon-Nor (city in the N. of Ghihli H^. — Mongol, 
"seven lakes"), traverses from N.W. to S.E. the whole moun- 
tainous region of North-Eastern Ghihli [g ^, then passes to 
the S. of Jehol (Ch'engteh Fu ^ f* Jft), and flows into the 
Gulf of Ghihli, a little beyond Yungp'ing Fu jfc 3* )ft. 

No large river flows through Peking 4fc J,i but only two 
streams of little importance. 

Fauna and Flora. — The fauna and flora ot (Jhihli, are those of the Northern 
Kegion, interspersed as one advances towards Mongolia with the characteristics 
peculiar to those high tahle-lands. (see Book II. Mongolia : fauna and flora). 

Agricultural Wealth. — The agricultural wealth of Chihli 
consists in corn, barley, buck-wheat, millet, sesamum, beans 
and peas. Fruit grows plentifully in the S.W., especially grapes. 
— Horses, donkeys, mules, oxen and the Mongolian camel are 
found extensively throughout the country. In the mountainous 
region, cows, sheep and goats are reared, and largely supply 
the Chihli jj ^ markets with food. 

Fish is very scarce in the rivers and ponds of Chihli ; a 
few kinds however are caught in some of the lakes. 

mineral Wealth. — The mineral wealth of Chihli consists 
mainly of coal-mines, which are found principally to the W. of 
Peking, and atK'aip'ing jfH^P, near the railway, which runs from 
Tientsin 5R^Jfif to Manchuria. Kaolin and sand-stone are also 


found, as well as a great quantity of stone for building purposes. 

Population. — The population is very dense throughout the whole plain, and 
principally towards the S. W. — In the mountainous region it is centred in the most 
fertile valleys. 

The inhabitants of Chihli are hardier, more robust and braver than those of the 
Southern Provinces. This is due to the predominance of Tartar blood in their veins, 
the stimulating and cool climate, and their dry-grain diet : wheat, millet and 

At Peking, more than elsewhere, a large admixture of several races is found : 
Chinese from the 18 Provinces, Mongols and Manchus. Constant intercourse is main- 
tained with Mongolia, but much less with Sinkiang and Tibet. 

Cities and Principal Centres.— PEKING J{ffc, the Ca- 
pital of China, is built on the Tunghwui-ho, atributary of the Peh-ho 
£jfpj\ It received the name of Peking (Northern Capital), to distin- 
guish it from Nanking ]§ 75C (Southern Capital), under the Ming HJj 
dynasty (A.D. 1368-1644). Peking was originally founded by the 
Leao jg dynasty A.D. 920, and then called Yenking $6 ^r. The 
Kin Tartars or Golden Horde, conquered the House of Leao, and 
occupied the site of Peking from A. D. 1115 to 1234. The Kin 
Emperors were in turn ousted by the Mongols, who 'made it 
their capital under the name of ShuntHen Fu jfl^jfl 1 (city obedient 
to heaven). Its Mongol appellation, according to Marco Polo, 
was Kambalu (city of the Khan). In 1341. the Mongols were 
driven out by the native Ming Bfj dynasty. These established 
their first Capital at Nanking, but owing to renewed Tartar in- 
cursions, Tungloh ?fc ^ (1403-1425), the 3 rd Emperor of the Ming 
dynasty, removed in 1416 to Peking, which has remained the na- 
tional Capital ever since, about 500 years, without interruption. 

The actual city has a population varying from 600,000 to 
800,000 inhabitants. It stands upon a flat plain, and is composed 
of 2 parts, both forming a rectangle, and communicating with 
each other : the Tartar City on the N. and the Chinese City to 
the S. 

The Tartar City, called also the Interior City (ft J$ 
Nei ch'eng), comprises the Imperial Precincts (H j$ Hwang 
ch'eng) and the Red Forbidden City (^ *(f J$ Tzekin ch'eng). 
It has also numerous temples, courts and parks. The Legations 
are in the S.E. of the Tartar City. 





Imperial City (within the Tartar City). 

B. NEI CH'ENG ft & 

Northern or Tartar City. 

C. WAI CH'ENG 5r $. 

Southern or Chinese City. 





i. — Nganting men £ £ P"J. 
Peaceful Gate. 

2. — Tehshengmen % \% |"|. 

Gate of Victory. 

3. — Prefecture of Shunt' ienFu^%^. 

4. — Sichih men ptj jf ptj . 

Direct West Gate. 

5. - Setting m & 

Western Church (R.C.). 

6. — Tungchih men $i it | ,l j. 

Direct Kast Gate. 

7. — Tingan men jft ^ P*j. 

('.ate of Terrestrial Peace. 
S. — FeuctVeng men $. Jfc f u j. 

Gate of Abundant Wealth. 

9. — Singan men jTg ^£ p^J. 

Gate of Western Peace (Interior gate, 
leading to the Imperial City). 

10. — Sinpeitientsu-tang ^f4b^c±^- 

New Peit'ang (K. C. Cathedral). 

11. — Pei-hai Jfc \%- 

Northern L,ake. 

12. — Chung-hai i£ $f. 

Central L,ake. 

13. — Chaoyang men #j f^ f'^. 

Gate of the Rising Sun. 

14. — TaWing men -fc \% ?*]• 

Gate of Great Purity (reigning title of 
the present Manchu dynasty). 

15. — Chingyang men j£ % ft. 

.Meridian or Noonday Gate. 

16. — Raihvay station to Hank'ozu. 

17. — Railway station to Tientsin. 

18. — Iw reign Legations. 

19. — Si pi en men 0f §f f"J. 

West-privy Gate. 

20 — C/iangi men |£ ffc f"j. 

Gate of Pompous Ceremony. 

21. — Siienzvu men j|f jjft; P*J. 

Gate of Military Renown. 

22. — Ch'ungwen men * ]£ ( ,F J. 

Gate of Sublime literature. 

23. — Tungpien men % {jg f E J . 

Kast-privy Gate. 

24. — Kwangk'u men j^ fg p^j. 

Gate of the Large Canal. 

25. — Siennung-Pan % %_ fl|. 

Temple of Agriculture. 

26. — THen-t'an 3£ jjg. 

Temple of Heaven. 

27. — Yiungan men £y g£ p^. 

Gale of Peace (on the right). 

28. — Ynngting men fa % f»j. 

Gate of Perpetual Stability. 

29. — Tsongan men fe 5£ Pi- 

Gate of Peace (on the left). 

30. — Raihvay to Tientsin. 


The Chinese City contains 2 parks in which are the 
Temples of Heaven and of Agriculture. It is the great centre of 
industry and commerce. 

Both cities cover an area of 40 square miles, but there are 
many empty spaces. Two streams run through them, but are 
scarcely sufficient to supply the great city with water. Thick 
walls surround the Capital, and are so broad at the top, that 
one could drive several waggons on them side by side. 

The roads of the Chinese City are constantly crossed by 
caravans of camels, mules and asses, transporting wool, tea and 

Peking is not only the residence of the Ehnperor and his 
Court, but also the seat of the Grand Council, the Grand 
Secretariat, the various Boards, and the Court of Censors. The 
city has its special administration, distinct from that of Chihli 
j|[*|, and at the head of which is a Mayor or Governor called 
King-fu ^§r fft (Imperial Prefect) or Fu-yin JjSf f& (Metropoli- 
tan Governor). 

The Port of Peking is at a short distance to the E. and is 
called Tfung Chow jj§ fi\. It is situated on the Peh-ho. Rail- 
ways bring the capital into easy communication with Hank'ow 
$|P, the great central mart of China, and with Europe, through 
Manchuria. Tientsin connects it also with Japan, Shanghai, 
Canton, and the other important places on the coast. 

The Summer Palace of the Emperor is to the N. W. of 
the Tartar City, and is called the Yuenming-Yuen [g| PJj g| 
(round bright garden). The Emperor has also his private hun- 
ting-grounds to the S. of the Chinese City. They are called the 
Nan-Yuen ^ jgg (Southern Park) or Nanhaitze "^j $J <^p. 

Several reasons determined the Emperors of China to select 
this place, in preference to any other that seemed more central, 
such as Nanking ^ ^ or Singan Fu "gf t&c $f. In the eyes of 
the Mongol or Manchurian Emperors, it has been chosen, because 
of its proximity to their native country ; in regard to the Chinese 
Emperors, because of the greater facility it afforded to control 
both countries. Moreover, it is central with respect to the 18 

Chapter iv. chihli. 75 

Provinces, to Mongolia and Manchuria, the most important parts 
of the Empire. 

PAOTJLNG FU U%M- — Population, 80,000 inhabitants. 
Provincial Capital of Chihli, and official residence of the Viceroy. 
As a city, it is unimportant and devoid of activity, but the Pe- 
king-Hankow railway will undoubtedly arouse it from its torpor. 
A university was erected there in 1901. 

T'ientsin Fu Ji %fc Jft. — Population, 750,000 inhabitants. 

Tientsin is the most important commercial and industrial 
city of the whole N.. It is situated at the junction of the Peh- 
ho £| }pj witft tne Grand Canal, a little below the place where 
its principal tributaries enter the Peh-ho. Besides, the railway 
brings it into constant communication with Peking ^ %r and 
Manchuria. England, France, Germany, Italy, Austria, Belgium, 
Russia and Japan, have Settlements there. The Peh-ho attains 
there a width of 300 yards, while a wharf, nearly two miles long, 
affords steamers and junks every facility for coming alongside. 
Commerce in skins, bristles, furs, ropes and camel-hair fabrics 
is very important. T'ientsin exports also a vast quantity of wool 
and coal, while the market of rice and stuffs is very extensive. 
The city has vast stores of cereals, and an abundant supply of salt, 
of which it holds the monopoly, — The Viceroy, although not re- 
siding officially in the city, has his Yamen $ff P 1 ] there, and close by 
it, is an important arsenal. — As to industry, cotton mills deserve 
special mention. Since the Boxer Insurrection, in 1900, the aspect 
of the city has completely changed. Wide roads have been 
opened, the city-wall has been pulled down, the course of the 
river straightened out, electric lighting and tramways introduced, 
and a system of pure drinking-water established, so that the city 
of late shows all the signs of active development and progress. 

To the S. W. of Paotinff Fu fjg /£ /jf, on the road leading 
from Chengting Fu JE % fff to Shansi \\] "jftf : 

HwoJUuh hsien HUSH- — A market-place of great impor- 
tance from a commercial and industrial point of view. It is the 
trading centre between Shansi and Chihli. Excellent stoneware 
is manufactured there, and the article is in great demand. 



* » tit 


To the N. E. of YungpHng Fu jfc 3* flj : 

Sliaiiliai-kuan \\\ #| $ft (mountain and sea-barrier). 

Population, 30,000 inhabitants. It stands at a distance of 
two and a half miles from the sea, and is situated near a famous 
pass, which gives it importance. A military station is established 

JPehtai-ho. — A celebrated watering-place, some 22 miles S. 
W. of Shanhai-kwan, and 9 miles from the port of Ts'inwang-tao. 

In the Mountainous region, to the W. : 

Siienliwa Fu jf ffcjj$f. — Situated in a region covered with 
loess, and owing its prosperity to its being in the centre of a 
number of large valleys. Cereals, vegetables and fruit thrive 
well in the whole region, and supply largely the Peking markets. 

lialgaii or ChangMa-k'ow 35 % Q , with a population of 
30,000. It is one of the most important commercial centres in 
China, and the great emporium of the tea trade with Siberia and 
Russia, during the Winter season. Nearly half a million camels 
are employed in this transport. 

Dolon-Nor (Tolunnoheul % jffa gg f|J. — Mongol, "seven 

At a short distance from Shangtu _fc $$, the ancient Summer 
Capital of the Mongol Sovereigns, but now in ruins. Dolon-Nor 
has a population of 15,000 half-Mongol inhabitants, and is rather 
an encampment than a city. It is the great market for horses 
brought in from Eastern Mongolia. A few miles from the town 
are Lama monasteries, which have given to the place the name 
of Lama-miao (l$| PJjJ j^ Lama temples). 

To the North-East. : 

Jeliol #ft jpj g, (Jehho-eul, warm river). 

Formerly the cherished country-seat of the Chinese Em- 
perors. The park is surrounded by a battlemented wall, which 
has a circuit of 15 miles, while the palace and its appurtenances 
occupy a vast space. A great number of monasteries are built 
in the environs. The city, although abandoned by the Court, 
possesses still many officials and a strong muster of troops. 


The Prefecture of Jehol, called in Chinese ft fe Jft (Ch'eng- 
teh Fu), is governed, not by a civil officer, but by a Military 
Lieutenant-Governor or Tu-T'ung f|$ #£. 

Industry and Commerce. — Besides the industries already 
mentioned, several others may be quoted, though none attain 
any great importance. The principal are distilleries, dyeing 
works and cotton manufacturing. 

A very brisk commerce is carried on with Mongolia, Man- 
churia and Japan, the entrepot of which is Tientsin ^ pfc fft. 

The chief import articles are : fabrics, tea, rice, fruit, opium, 
skins, furs, timber, coal and iron. 

The exports are : skins, bristles, ropes, camel-hair carpets 
and wool. 

Highways of communication. — Besides the railway, 
the Grand Canal (see for both : Section V. ch. VI. Highways of 
communication), the Peh-ho £3 }pj and some of its tributaries, 
the principal ways of communication are : 

1° The road from Peking ft j^ to Shunhai-k-wan gjj #J g|, 
passing by T'ung Chow jj§ j\\ (at the E. of Peking), and Yung- 
p'ing Fu ^c ¥ fft- 

2° The road from Peking to Doton-Nor, passing by Fungning 
hsien j=|$jfj||, after having crossed the Kupei-k'ow "jJT^It P pass. 

3° The road from Peking to Kalgan (proceeding thence to 
Urga), passing by Siienhwa Fu jtTffc/fr' an d crossing the Ohang- 
kia-k'ow § ^ P or Kalgan pass. 

4° The road from Peking to I'aiyuen Fu *fc jjg fft, in 
Shansi ]\\ jg, and thence to Singan Fu |f # Jfr (Shensi $c ][f), 
passing by Paoting Fu ^ % Jfr, and Chengting Fu JE % Jft. 

5° The road from Peking to Tsinan Fu g!f ]g jjj (in Shan- 
tung |Jj 3C), passing by Hokien Fu fpf f$ Jff. 

Open Ports. — Two ports are open to Foreign trade in 
the Province of Ghihli g ^ : — Tientsin ^ j£ Jft and Ts*in~ 
wang-tao |g 3£ ^, depending on Yungp'ing Fu ^ 2p jft. — 
There is besides a custom-house at Taku ^c }£, and Tungkujfc 
Jft, near the estuary of the Peh-ho Q fpf, on the highway to 
Tientsin J% # fft< 


2°. Shantung ill jIC 

Area. — 55,984 square miles. 

Population. — 38,247,900 inhabitants, or 683 per square 

This province has the densest population of China, and as 
to the number of its inhabitants, it comes immediately after 
Szechw'an pj )\\. 

Name. — Shantung |Jj ^ means "East of the Mountains", 

and, in fact, a great part of the Province lies to the E. of the 
T'ai-shan ^§ (I], the famous mountain frequented by so many 

Boundaries. — Shantung is bounded on the 

N. — By the strait of Chihli jt ^, the Gulf and 

Province of Chihli, 
W. — By Chihli if ^ and Honan fpf ^, 
S. — By Honan fpf ]§, Kiangsu ft jg| and the 

Yellow Sea, 
E. — By the Yellow Sea ^ $J. 

Capital.— TSINAN FU g| |g Jfr, which stands at a short 
distance from the right bank of the Hwang-ho jf j&f, and to the 
N. W. of the T'ai-shan Jf| jjj mountain. 

Other Prefectures* — These are nine, as follows : 
To the S. W. : 

1° Ts'aochow Fn W M M- 
Along the Grand Canal or near it, proceeding from N. to S. : 

2° Tungch'ang Fu M g Jfr , 

3° Yenchow Fu % m M, 

4° Ichow Fu ffi m Jfr. 
To the N. 9 going from W. to M. : 

5° Wuting Fu ^ % Jfr, 

6° Ts'ingchow Fu # >M }ft, 

7° Laichow Fu M 'M tff, 

8° Tengchow Fu g #1 M- 
To the S, of Tsinan Fu : 

9° T'aingan Fu ^ £ Iff . 


There are also in Shantung 3 independent Chow cities .* 
Tsining Chow ^ % jHJ, lAnUHng Chow gjg ffi ;J+|, and Kiao 
Chow P >)i\. 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Shantung is made up of 
1° a mountainous region, which lies to the E. of the Hwang-ho 
J| jpj\ and of the Grand Canal; 2° of a level region situated to 
the W.. It is of all the Provinces, except Kwangtung JJff jf(, the 
one that has the greatest length of coast-line. Its coasts are pro- 
foundly indented and abound in deep hays and excellent harbours. 
To the W., its great plain differs but little in aspect from that 
of Chihli ||[ ^J, while to the E., numerous rivers rise in all its 
mountains and hills. Towards the E. } the Province is rich in 
coal and metals; to the W., cereals and fruit abound. It enjoys 
moreover a very mild climate, 1>ecause of its proximity to the 
sea. The Grand Canal has hitherto afforded it an easy outlet for 
its products, but ere long, its railways will still further increase 
its wealth. The historical memory of Confucius (K'ung Futze ^L 
^ : f-) imparts to it also a certain celebrity, as well as the pre- 
sence of the T'ai-shan fje [lj, one of China s five sacred mountains. 

Geological constitution. — Shantung was formerly an island cut off from 
the continent by an arm of the Yellow S. a, but in the course of time became linked 
with the mainland through alluvial deposits. This same alluvium mingled with loess, 
predominates in the \\\. In the centre, a large portion of the soil is composed of gneiss, 
mixed with limestone and clay. In the K., gneiss is also found, hut mingled to a great- 
er extent with granite, sand-stone and limestone, while to the N. especially, it is veined 
with basalt and porphyry. 

Orography. — Adjacent to the Hwang-ho J§{ }pf and the 
Grand Canal, a vast plain extends to the N. and to the S. of 
these 2 rivers. 

In the centre is an important mountain mass formed by 
several chains, whence issue in all directions a great number 
of rivers. The principal peak is the T'ai-shan || Jj, which 
attains an altitude of 5,060 feet. 

To the Bast of Kiao Chow JgS j\\ Bay is another mass, for- 
med by several chains, running N.E. to 8. W. and of which the 
highest, called the Lao-shun <jf \\}, rises to 3,700 feet. A third 
chain exists to the S. E. of Ohefoo ]*£ %. It is a spur of the 
K'uenlun ^ ^ (Jj range, and is only 2,940 feet in height. 



according to Richthofen. 


Climate. — The climate, milder in the S. is in general very healthy. The N.W. 
monsoon is keenly felt on the Northern coast, and the S. E. monsoon on the Southern 
coast. The rainy season commences in July and August, and the snow which falls in 
abundance during Winter, disappears very quickly. In July,fogs are frequent upon the 
coasts. At Chefoo there is an average rainfall of 24,4 inches, and 15,G inches at Ts'ingtao. 
In Winter, the rocks on the Northern seacoast are at times covered with ice. This 
arises from the waves breaking on the shore,and the ice may last for several weeks. 

Hydrography. — To the W. are long rivers confined to the 
plain and running through the lowlands. The principal one is 
the Htvang-ho || }pj, which runs from S.W. to N.E., and crosses 
the Grand Canal (its bed is then 16 feet above the level of 
the Canal). The Hwang-ho being far higher than the neigh- 
bouring country, is maintained within its bed by embankments. 
These sometimes give way and thus cause dreadful inunda- 
tions. It is navigable only during the last 25 miles of its course. 
(see Section I. Ch. I. p. 27). — Several other streams are also 
navigable, especially the T'uhai-ho ^ ]f£ fp[, which runs to 
the N. in a parallel direction with the Hwang-ho ^ fpf. Tsinan 
^ u $£ ]§ Jfi is connected with the sea by a navigable canal, 
which in the last part of its course, follows the bed of the 
SiaoWing-ho /\\ ffi fpj . — Nearly all the rivers, which run 
through the mountainous part, bear the aspect of torrents, and 
none of them have any real importance. 

In the S., 2 large rivers flow into the Grand Canal : the 
I-ho \Jx % fif ana * the Tawen-ho Jz $r fpj. 

At the Western extremity, but terminating at the Grand 
Canal, is the Wei-ho $j fpf , navigable throughout the greater 
part of its course, as we have stated when describing Honan JpJ $f. 

The Grand Canal or Tun-ho (^ jpf transport river), traverses 
the whole Western and South-Western part, and runs through 
several lakes. Its highest point is at its junction with the Tawen- 
no ^C $C M ( see Section V. Ch. VI. Means of Communication). 

The Province has several lakes, the most celebrated of which 
are : the Ts'ing-shui ffi 7JC lake, to the N. of Ts'ingchow Fu ffi 
W flf J — the Peh-meh "gf jg lake, to the N. W. of Kiao Chow 
Jg jHI bay; — the Chaoyang Bg % and Wei-shan $fc |Jj lakes, 
along the Grand Canal, as it leaves Shantung*^ ^. 


Fauna and Flora.— The fauna and flora are those of the Northern Region. Shan- 
tung abounds also in wild boars, wolves, foxes, badgers, partridges, quails and snipe. 

The principal trees met with are : the pine, oak and poplar; willows and tho 
cypress-tree are also very plentiful. 

Agricultural Products.— These are abundant in the great 
Western Plain, and consist principally of millet, corn, barley, 
sorghum, maize, peas, cotton, hemp and the opium poppy. Rice 
grows only in the extreme S. 

Numerous fruit-trees give a plentiful crop of pears, apples, 
peaches, apricots, plums, grapes and jujubes. 

Shantung |X[ Jfc furnishes also a vast quantity of silk, both 
common and wild, (the woven stuff is called pongee), the latter 
being produced by a silkworm that feeds on oak-leaves. 

The country possesses besides, good strong mules as well 
as horses, oxen and goats in great number. The camel is found 
only in the Western part. 

Various kinds of good fish are caught on the coasts and 
rivers, such as the sole, cod and mackerel... also crabs, shrimps, 
oysters and mussels. 

Mineral Wealth. — The principal mineral wealth of the 
Province is found in the centre. Coalfields exist in 3 places : 
at Wei hsien PJg, Pushan hsien ff Ul jR, to the S. W. of Ts'ing- 
chow Fu flf $1 iff, and at Ichow Fu fjf >Jfl )ft. — Iron, copper, 
argentiferous lead-ore, gold, diamonds, gypsum, clay and sand- 
stone are found, as well as building stone in great abundance. 

Population. — The population is very crowded in the plain, but much less in 
the mountain districts, except near the large centres. 

The people of Shantung are a vigorous and sturdy race but rather pugnacious. 
In the neighbourhood of Tengchow Fu are found some 200,000 immigrants from Hu- 
peh, who are much more militant and less religious than tho natives of the Province. 
They entered the country, and settled down there about the middle of the XIV th cen- 
tury A. D. 

Language. — There is nothing deserving any particular mention. Mandarin 
is spoken, but with the rude accent of the North. 

Cities and Principal Centres. — TSINAN JtU p jf fff, 

4 miles to the South of the Hwang-ho. 

Population, 100,000 inhabitants. The Governor of Shantung 
|Xj M resides there. The walls enclose a very large space. 


Tsinan Fu was formerly famous for its silks and its imitation 
precious stones. Nowadays it is the great commercial centre of 
all Western Shantung, a vast trading mart, but not a manufac- 
turing centre. The city owes much to its late Governors. At the 
present day it has a university, a military school and a well- 
organized police force. A highway connects it with the Hwang- 
ho jf fpf, which flows at a distance of nearly 4 miles to the N. 

Along the Grand Canal : 

Idnts'ing CIww g£ 3f >Jfl. — Population, 48,000 inhabitants. 
Formerly a very considerable town on account of its trade and 
its extensive warehouses, but it has much declined since it 
was taken by the T'aip'ings ^ ^p in 1855. Its manufacture of 
bricks however gives it even nowadays some importance. 

Tsining Chow g| <gf j\\. — Population, 150,000 inhabitants. 
One of the most populous cities of Shantung \\\ jg, formerly a 
large trading centre, now an industrial city, where copper, 
iron and bamboo articles are manufactured. The town exports 
a vast quantity of salt provisions. 

To the North : 

TsHngchow Fu ^ fl\ J(f. — Population, 35,000 inhabitants. 
A town destitute of industry and commerce, but to which the 
coal-mines in its vicinity and the passage of the railway impart 
some activity. Not far from it is Fohshan Jisien ^. \\\ J|, which 
supplies excellent coal, and manufactures pottery, glass, oil and 

Cheu-t&un Jj§) %f , depending on Ch ; angshan hsien -g |Jj jgi, 
is a great distributing centre whence the silk manufactured in 
the Province is exported. 

Laichow Fu $fe tf\ Jff. — Population, 80,000 inhabitants. 
A town deriving importance from its position. It is famous for 
its marble quarries and its soapstone. 

Tengchow Fu g >J}| ffi.— Population, 40,000 inhabitants. It 
occupies a fine position on the coast, and was formerly a great 
commercial city. 

Chefoo *£ ^ or Yent'ai 'Jt@ j|. — Population, 82,000 in- 



habitants. An important commercial port open to foreign trade. 

Weifiaitvei fifc %$ $j . — An excellent harbour and anchorage, 
leased to Great Britain in 1899, and now used as a large supply 
station and sanatorium. The town is governed by Chinese 
officials under the direction of a British Commissioner. 

To the S. : 

TsHngtao flf || . — Village situated upon Kiao Chow Jg ff\ 

liny. Leased to Germany in 1898 for 99 years, and vigorously 
developed into a great trading and promising port. It is 300 
miles North of Shanghai. 

To the N. of TsHngtao : 

Wei hsien }ff %. — Population, 100,000 inhabitants. A 
large town situated near the great commercial highway of that 


region and monopolizing all business. The new railway passes 
close by, and affords easy transport for the coal which lies in 
abundance to the S.E. of the city. It is a great mart for goods, 
such as cotton, tobacco and coal. Wei hsien is the great com- 
mercial centre in Shantung for the sale of straw-braid. 

Industry and Commerce. — A certain number of cities 
are engaged in industrial pursuits. We have already mentioned 
several. At Pohshan hsien "ftj |Jj jgg, in the prefecture of Ts'ing- 
chow Fu ff $1 Jft, clay is utilized in making pottery renowned 
throughout all Northern China. Close to this, a special kind 
of sand-stone is employed in the manufacture of enamel cloi- 
sonne. In other places, stone and marble quarries abound, 
while gypsum and asbestos are also extracted. 

Commerce is principally carried on through the treaty-ports 
and the Grand Canal, Tientsin Ji $£ and Shanghai _£ $$ being 
the great distributing centres. The chief exports are : fruit, 
pottery, bricks, beancake (used for manure) and straw-braid. 
The imports consist of fabrics, rice and petroleum. 

Highways of Communication. — We have spoken of 
the navigable waterways. Further on we shall study the coasts 
(see Section IV. The Coasts ; and Sect. V. ch. VI. Means of 
Communication.) A railway links Ts'ingtao |jf ft with Tsinan 
Fu p if |fr, via Wei hsien $£ jgg, and will soon extend to T'ien 
tsin Fu Ji ^ ffi (see the same ch. VI, as above). Moreover, 
several roads connect Shantung |Jj ]g with the other Provinces. 

1° TJie road from Peking ;|fc }§r to Tainan Fu, passing by 
Teh Chow |g[ fi\. This forks off at Tsinan Fu into two roads : 
one continuing Southwards by T'aingan Fu ^ # JjSf and Ichow 
Fu fif Wi Jff towards Kiangsu ft |g; the other, leading to the E. 
by Laichow Fu ffe fi\ Jfr, Tengchow Fu f ^ f and Chefoo 
g ^. From this latter road a branch runs to Wei hsien #g g£ 
and Ts'ingtao ^jf ft. 

2° A road almost parallel to the Grand Canal starts from 
Teh Chow |g Jfl, in the N., passes by Yenchow Fu ^ *J>H JjSf, 
and goes on to North Kiangsu by Suchow Fu ^ #| fft. 


Open Ports. — Four ports are open to Foreign trade : 
Chefoo ^^ (in the prefecture of Tengchow Fu J££ #| /ft), Tainan 
•*** 81 $f Jfti WW *•*«** S| f$ (in the prefecture of Laichow Fu 
M JH #F)> and Cheu-ts'un j$ $f (in the prefecture of Tsinan Fu 
81 $f /ft)- Two ports are leased : one to Great Britain, namely 
WeiJmiwei J^ $* %, which depends on Tengchow Fu SHU /ft ; 
the other to Germany, namely Ts'ingtao f| g, near Kiao Chow 
5§ Jfl. This latter has a custom-house. 

Notes. — 1°. The T'ai-ahan ^ |Jj mountain is situated 
5 miles to the N. of T'aingan Fu ^ $ /ft. It was a famous 
pilgrim resort twenty centuries before the Christian era, and as 
tradition records, the ancient monarch Shun $| (one of the first 
Emperors of China, who reigned B. C. 2,255 to 2,205), is said to 
have sacrificed there. At the present day, each sect has erected 
temples and monasteries on its peaks, and thousands of pilgrims 
throng to them in the Spring season. 

2°. The Sub-prefecture or district city of K'ufeu hsien ^ Jp-jg 
(Yenchow Fu ig #j\ /ft) is the birth place of Confucius (Kung 
Futze JL ^ if)- He was born there 551 B.C. (21 st year of the 
reign of the Emperor Ling-wang jjf 3£, of the Cheu-dynasty), 
and died in 479. He travelled much, offering his services to 
several princes, but with scant success. His teaching may be 
summed up in a few ethical principles, and some maxims on 
state-government, gleaned from the sages of antiquity. 



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(Vol. I. Shantung, p. 78-83). 

Winterbotham. — View of the Chinese 
Empire. (Shantung, p. 89-93). 

Murray's China. (Vol. III. Shantung, 
p. 20-21). 

Du Halde. — Description of the Empire 
of China. (Vol. I. Shantung, p. 104-106). 



Gtitz la ft*. — China opened. (Vol. I. Shan- 
tung, p. 90-95). 

Little A. — The Far East. Oxford. 1905. 
(Shantung, p. 44-48. —Tsingtao. ibid. p. 

Parker E. H. — Revenue of Shantung. 
(N. C. B. R. A. Soc. 1895-96. p. 132-34). 

Williamson A. — Notes on the produc- 
tions, chiefly mineral, of Shantung. (N. 
C. B. R. A. Soc. 1867. art 3. p. 64-73). 

M.irkham J. — Notes on the Shantung 

Province. (N. C. B. R. A. Soc. p. 1-30). 

Beeoher H. M.— Notes on the mineral re- 
sources of Eastern Shantung. (N. C. B. 
R. A. Soc. 1887. p. 22-28). 

Tschepe A.— Der T'ai-schan. Yentschou- 
fu, 1906. 

Anz W. — Eine Winterreise durch Schan- 
tung and das nordliche Kiangsu. (Peter- 
mann's Mitteilungeu. 1901. Vol. 50. p. 




HWAI-HO m ffl- 

Characteristics of tliis Region. — We now enter upon 
the most important region of China, the richest, the most popul- 
ous, the largest and the most favoured by the facility of its com- 

1. The valley of the Hwai-ho ff£ }pf has but a very secondary 
importance, as this river irrigates only the North of Nganhwei, 
after having crossed the Honan }pj "$ Province, which we have 
already studied. But as it forms a special system, and traverses 
an intermediate region, situated between that of the North and that 
of the Centre, it is preferable perhaps to describe it here. We 
shall study this river particularly when treating of Nganhwei *$£ 
4K and Northern Kiangsu fx. Sfc (See : Ch. VI. of this Section). 
What we are going to say here may be applied more especially to 
the region drained by the Yangtze $; ^ fL and its affluents. 

2. The region has a great central artery of communication, the 
Yangtze |& ^ jl, with a very important network of navigable 
rivers flowing into that vast stream. All kinds of wares and 
merchandise are borne on its waters and distributed throughout 
the Provinces that border on its banks. 

3. It has a temperate climate and is not subject to the 
great variations of the North. It is indeed very hot in Summer, 
but does not experience the excessive cold of the Winter. The 



K'aw fX or Stove-bed is therefore unknown there, and the rivers 
are not frozen in Winter. The rainy season in Summer is con- 
stant, and the crops are less irregular than in the North. 

4. It is the region where tea, rice, silk and cotton abound, 
while the sugar-cane is cultivated only in some places. 

5. Less rich in coal-beds than the North and South, it is 
not however destitute thereof, and its mineral wealth is great, 
especially in Hunan J$| "^ and Szechw f an J||. 

6. This Central region of China is connected with those of 
the North and South by several frequented highways. 

7. It is the lake region, and includes some expanses of wa- 
ter which are very large, such as the TungtHng $j Jg|, P'oyang 
U5 %, raihu ± J$, Hungtseh gfc Jf and Ch'aohu || %fi lakes. 

8. It is the great manufacturing region : industries of silk 
and yarn being found in Kiangsu fc $jfc ; of Indian ink in Ngan- 
hwei *£ $jfc; porcelain ware in Kiangsi f£ j§; cotton cloth and 
steel-works in Hupeh $JJ ;|fc; silk', salt and oil in Szechw'an 0} j||. 

9. It is the region of the great treaty -ports open to Foreign tra- 
de: Shanghai ± $£, Chenkiang gl ft, Wuhu |& }#J, Hank'ow gf P, 
Ch f ungkHng ]( $£, Hsiichow ^r fi\, this last in Szechw'an J\\ . 

Provinces comprised in tliis Region. — They are the 
following, proceeding from W. to E. : 




?88 Si> 


m #, 




& #> 


& j§. 

Geological Constitution. — The loess or yellow soil 
which has been found so abundantly in the Northern region, 
exists here only exceptionally, in the Province of Nganhwei 4(£ 
|§£ and in that of Kiangsu jx. Hi so * ar as Chenkiang $| Jq. 
The predominating formations of this region are alluvium, lime- 
stone and sand-stone. The Szechw'an j|| table-land is for- 
med chiefly of this latter rock. 

Immense lakes, larger than those of the present day, for- 


merly covered the Eastern plain, as also the low parts of Hunan 
$J) if, Hupeh $f) 4b and Kiangsi j£ "g. The actual sheets of 
water are the remnants of those ancient lakes. Little by little 
they wore away the low portions of the rock-bound banks which 
hemmed them in, and their waters formed an immense river, the 
Yangtze-kiang j§ ^f- ££, which carried their overflow to the 
sea. As the water ran off, it gradually eroded the rock, and 
dug a deep channel through the lakes. Their original surface 
area was thus much diminished. As they lessened in extent, 
vast alluvial deposits were disclosed, some of which when dried 
up proved exceedingly fertile ; others remained still saturated 
with water, and these formed swamps. All these swamps are 
anew enlarged into lakes when the Summer floods set in. Such 
lakes and swamps are therefore of great advantage ; the waters 
rush to them and leave behind a large quantity of alluvium. 
For this reason, the inhabitants are not obliged to construct, as 
on the banks of the Hwang-ho JK JpJ, high embankments, which, 
when they give way, produce such terrible disasters in the region 
of the North. It has been necessary, however, to erect dikes 
in many places along the banks of the Yangtze |g ^f j£, in 
order to protect the lowlands. 

Orography. — The land surface inclines both on the N. and 
S. towards the Yangtze fg ^p. The outlines of the basin are 
distinctly traced. To the N. f the Eastern K'uenluti g^ ^ extends 
its different branches even into Nganhwei t£ f$J. These are the 
SikHng-shan jg ffcjj ]\\ , Tainting ifl H, Fu-niu f£ 3f- , and Hwai- 
yang-shan ffi Pg |Xl - To the S. 9 three plateattac: those of Yiin- 
nan 9 $3' Kweichow jij; fll and Kwangsi ^ "g, continuing in 
the Nanling ^ ^ or Nanshan ffe \[\ and the Tay'uling ;Jc J)| $J 
mountains, form the water-parting of the Yangtze |g ^ from 
the Si-kiang "gf ft, and the coast-rivers of Fokien jpg ,J| and 
Chdkiang $Jf JJ\ Nowhere, save to the W.,are there any high 
peaks. The general configuration of the Northern chains is clear 
enough, but it is quite otherwise to the S., where the grouping 
is rather irregular and too little known to enable us clearly 
to describe its features. 


Climate. — During Winter, the thermometer descends sel- 
dom below 14° Fahrenheit, and rises in Summer to 104° F. The 
rainy season is in Summer. This period is much damper in 
Kiangsu j£ ?$£, because of its proximity to the sea, and the large 
sheets of water scattered over the country. In Szechw'an PJ )\\ 
likewise, the climate is very damp and fogs are frequent. The 
cold dust-laden winds cease in the Province of Nganhwei 4^ ^, 
but on the other hand, mosquitoes and the close heat atten- 
dant on the frequent thunder-storms render the Summers very 

Hydrography. — The Central region is the most favoured 
part of China, both for the number of its rivers and the advan- 
tages derived from them. As the Yangtze ^ ^f jX receives 
all these streams, and traverses the region from E. to W., we 
shall study this river more particularly. 


Its Course — The Yangtze rises in Tibet, and runs at first 
towards the S. E. It makes a great bend to the S. of Szechw'an 
J||, then two others of less importance (also Southwards) 
at the W. and E. of Hank'ow fj| P (Hupeh $f| ft Province), 
and after making a last one towards the N., it approaches Nan- 
king j|f }£, and empties its waters into the Eastern China Sea, 
a little to the N. E. of Shanghai. 

Provinces whicli it traverses, as it flows from W. 

to E. — The Yangtze traverses the following Provinces : Yiin- 
nan ft j#, Szechw'an Q J||, Hupeh $)j 4fc, Kiangsi ft |g, Ngan- 
hwei ^ ft and Kiangsu ft £g. 

Its Name. — It is generally called the Yangtze-Kiang ^ 

-? £t> l )ut in several parts of its long course, other names have 
been also applied to it. Up to the Szechw'an 0J J\\ bend, it is 
called the Ulan-muren, the Murui-usu, the Reh-shui £j ?|C 
(white river) or also the KinsJia-kiang £ ty {£ (golden-sand 
river). At Hsiichow Fu $L >}\\ /jj, it is styled the Ta-kiang ^ j£ 
(great river), which corresponds to the Min-kiang ffa t£ of 


Chinese literature and geography. Up to the Tungt'ing lake, it 
is known as the Ch'ang-kiang J| f£ (long river). In the latter 
part of its course it is called the Yangtze-Many |g ^f ££. It 
owes this last name to the ancient Yang ffi Kingdom established 
formerly near its then mouth in Kiangsu fc jj£, — capital, the 
present Yangchow Fu % #1 fft — and which imparts its name 
to the whole course of the river. The rendering Son of the 
Ocean ^ ^ ££ is utterly unfounded, and based only upon the 
similarity in sound of two Chinese characters, JJ and |£, both 
pronounced Yang. Instead of Yang |g, character of Yangchow 
Fu, another Yang $ signifying poplar-tree is also found in 
some Chinese geographies, but this is erroneous. 

Foreigners sometimes call it the Blue River, presumably to 
contrast it with the Yellow Kiver of the North. 

Its different parts. — The Yangtze may be divided into 
three prinoipal parts: the first, torrential; the second, semi- 
navigable; and the third, navigable throughout. 

1° The torrential part, — This extends from its source to 
P'ingshan hsien JS llj 1$, a little above Hsiichow Fu $( #1 /ft, 
called also Suifu. The river rises in the centre of the high 
Tibetan plateau, in a region up to the present insufficiently 
explored. It seems at first to follow a S. E. direction, and re- 
ceives in this part numerous torrents. 

When it has reached the S. of the sources of the Hwang- 
ho ;H }^f, from which it is separated by the Baiankara range, 
it takes a N.W. — S.E. direction. At the town of Sogon-gomba, 
its bed is still at an altitude of 15,700 ft. It then flows between 
perpendicular mountain barriers, which separate it from the 
Hwang-ho and the Mekong (Lants'ang-kiang jgf ^ j£). Its 
width is 400 feet, and its depth from 20 to 26 ft. Throughout 
the whole of this region, its course is rapid. A little above 
Batang Q JeJ (Pat'ang), it passes through a large valley where 
its bed is at an altitude of only 9,000 ft. It then assumes a tor- 
rential aspect and flows between narrow defiles to the W. of the 
Szechw'an Alps (thus shall we style the high mountain mass 
which forms the Western limit of Szechw'an J||). The river 


continues in this same direction till it impinges on the high table- 
land of Yunnan ft $f. Impeded in its course, it cuts its way 
with difficulty through the Szechw'an Alps, forming three great 
bends (the first, from Chungt'ien rf» fjj; the second, from Yung- 
pei t'ing ^c ft H ; the third, from Huili Chow -§• Jg #|). 

Before its last bend, it receives its longest tributary on the 
left side, the Talung-kiang $| §| ££, torrential like itself, and 
rising near the sources of the Hwang-ho ^ fpf . After this bend 
the Yangtze J§ f Jx flows at an altitude of 2,600 feet, and is 
skirted on both sides by powerful ranges and mountain masses. 
On the left, are the Szechw'an Alps, and on the right, the last 
spurs of Yunnan jjf ~ffi and of Kweichow jj j]\. It is thus 
compelled to follow a S. W. — N. E. direction, which it keeps 
till it reaches P'ingshan hsien Jf [Ij flf, in the prefecture of 
Hsuchow Fu $£ *|+| Jfr. At this latter town, its bed is at an 
altitude of only 1,000 ft. It has flowed through a distance of 
1,250 miles, but has still to run 1,860 more before it reaches 
the coast. A little above P'ingshan hsien is a rapid almost 
impossible to pass. 

In all this part, the river may be crossed only where it is 
dammed for mill-streams. 

2° The semi-navigable part. — This extends from P'ing- 
shan hsien jpf. \\\ fjfc to Ich'ang Fu % g JjSf. Below P'ingshan 
hsien, the direction of the river inflects Eastwards. From the 
last bend at P'ingshan hsien it runs S.S.W. — N. N.E.; now it 
turns W.S.W. — E.N.E. After Wan hsien $| jjg (in K'weichow 
Fu ijg }|f| fff), it flows even W.-E., its waters being obstructed 
by the Tapashan ^ E Ul mountains, which form the North- 
eastern boundary of Szechw'an )\\. The river having no 
longer such a steep incline, becomes navigable, except in the 
region of the rapids. 

Up to K'weichow Fu §g jjfl Jfr, the river is from 500 to 
650 yards wide, but further down, it narrows in and flows be- 
tween two high ranges, its breadth being only 200 to 300 yards, 
but it widens out soon again till it reaches the Wushan /£ \\\ J|| 


The rapids appear in numerous succession, one of the 
fiercest being between Ich ; ang % g iff and Patung |* ^ %. 
When the water is low, the new rapid — Sin-t'an fgf jg| or Sin- 
lung-t'an ff $| H — near Yunyang hsien ft \% S$, is also very 
dangerous. If the descent of those rapids is an expeditious 
matter, it is however not unattended by danger (as regards 
three or four of them at least) ; their very slow, tiresome 
ascent is still more dangerous. The boats used in crossing 
them have an enormous scull in front. This is manned by 4 or 5 
men, and is intended to strengthen the rudder. In the low- 
water season (Spring and Autumn), and especially in Winter, 
they are more easily crossed, and the distance from Ich'ang 
g | Jj to Ch'ungk'ing jjr JJ iff may be covered in a few 
days, although this same journey requires sometimes as much 
as 30 days and more, and at the least 3 weeks. The time 
required to perform the voyage varies in fact to a great extent, 
and depends especially on the buoyancy of the boat and the 
number of the trackers. 

In this part, the Yangtze jg ^F tL receives on the left, from 
Szechw'an J||, its chief affluents. 1° the Min-kiang |||g j£ 
or Ch'engtu river J$ ffifff, which has long been considered, and 
is still considered in China, as the parent branch of the Yangtze, 
on account of its importance. 2° The Kialing-Mtmy j| g£ £r\ 
Both of those are navigable, as are also several of their tribu- 
taries. On the right, the Yangtze receives the Hoh-Jciang fa J£ 
or ChHhshui ^ jjc, and the Wu-hiang j^ j£, two rivers 
suitable for navigation, and coming both from Kweichow j| ^|. 
At Hsiichow Fu ^ fll iff, the bed of the river is at an alti- 
tude of 900 ft.; at Ch'ungk'ing It J| Jff, it is only 600, while 
at Ich'ang % § iff, it has fallen to 130 ft. This latter port 
is distant 2,175 miles from the sources of the Yangtze, and 960 
from P'ingshan hsien f| Jj g$. Before the river reaches the 
ocean, it has still to flow a distance of another 960 miles. 

It is in this portion of its course that its waters rise 
highest, reaching sometimes to 96 feet beyond low-water mark. 

3° The navigable part. — This extends from Ich'ang S § iff 


to the sea. In this last part of its course, the river makes two 
bends to the S.; the first, which is the more apparent, occurs 
to the N. of the Tungt'ing }|e) %£ lake ; the second, to the N. 
of Lake P'oyang gfj %. A third is faintly traceable to the N. 
of the T'aihu ± $|J lake. 

Running in the lowlands, the Yangtze Jg ^f- j£ has a less 
rapid slope, and a very winding course, especially from Ich'ang 
*& H Jff to Hank'ow }J| p. During all this period, it runs 
in level ground covered with lakes and marshes, into which it 
pours the overflow of its waters when the flood-season sets in. 

It is always the slope of the land surface which imparts to 
it its direction, and not the affluents flowing into it, although 
this direction is modified whenever it receives an important 
tributary. The first change of direction is where it receives 
the waters of the Siang-kiang Jfg j£ and of the Tungt'ing j|jf| Jg 
lake ; the second, where it receives those of the Han-ho §| }pj ; 
the third, those of the Kan-kiang |ff f£ and of the P'oyang 
lake $j|5 |y§; while a fourth has already been formed, before it re- 
ceives the waters of the Grand Canal, but then becomes more 

In all this part, the river is easily navigable, and large 
steamers can sail up to Hank'ow g| p. In this third portion 
of its course, it receives four large affluents : one on the left, 
the Han-ho ^ fpj or Han-shut ^ 7^ : and three on the right : 
the Tuen-kiang pt flL an d the Siang-kiang fjfg fx.-, which flow 
into it through the Tungt'ing fljjj J§? lake ; and the Kan-kiang 
ft tt.1 which reaches it by the P'oyang lake $j[) fj|. All these 
rivers are navigable, (see for these tributaries, as well as for 
those from Szechw'an pj j\\ and Kweichow j|f #|, the Provinces 
they traverse). 

The river throughout all this lower part often exceeds a 
mile in width, and is from 30 to 60 feet in depth. At its estuary, 
where it is divided into two branches by Ts'ungming ^ HJ] 
island, it is 20 miles wide, reckoning from the extremity of 
Haimen#| ptjto the mouth of the Hwangp'oo igr '$}; and GO miles, 
if we reckon from llaimen to P'ootung Point -$j ]|f. The rise of 


the waters in the Summer season, makes it run 30 feet or more 
higher than the usual low-water level. It then overflows its 
banks. Ships drawing up to 25 feet, can at this period of the 
year, sail up to Hank'ow g| P , in Hupeh. 

Near its mouth, it receives the Hwangp'oo ^jr 'j$j or Shanghai 
river, the waters of which at high-tide run into a multitude of 
canals, and establish easy communications throughout the whole 
neighbouring country. 

Changes in the course of the Yangtze 3$ ^ £r_. The Yang- 
tze has not always followed its present channel. The two 
principal changes seem to have affected its upper and lower 

1° Its upper course. — After skirting the W. of Szechw'an 
P9 J||, the river seems to have formerly run in the valley of the 
Sungkoi or Red River, which empties itself into the gulf of 
Tongking iff jrjt. An upheaval of the Yunnan j| ^ plateau occur- 
ring later on, obstructed this course, and forced the river to work 
a passage to the E. through the chains of the Szechw'an Alps. 

2° Its lower course, — The river flowed formerly into the 
sea through 3 branches : the Northern, which it follows even 
at the present day; the Southern, which commenced at Wuhu 
hsien |$| fjjj Jjjji, and ran Eastwards towards the lake region of 
South Kiangsu f£ j$£, until it reached the Northern extremity of 
the T'aihu ^c J§J] or Great Lake. Here, it branched into two : 
one, the Woosung ^ •}$ river, commonly called Soochow Creek; 
the other, an outlet which flowed into Hangchow ^ j\\ Ray, in 
the Province of Chekiang $ft fr. 

The total length of the Yangtze is 3,200 miles. 

instance of the principal porta on the Yangtze from the 

Shanghai _fc $| on the Hwangp'oo ^ •$§ 45 miles. 

Hank'ow ^| p 630 , , 

Ich'ang ± g Jff 1,000,, 

Hsiichow & #1 Jfr 1,500 ,, 

Mean flow of water. — It is hard to estimate even approxi- 
mately the mean volume of the Yangtze waters. It has been calcu- 


lated, that at Hank'ow $| P, the flow per second is 173,000 
cubic feet at low-water level ; at high-water, it attains 1,270,000, 
which would give a mean of 540,000 cubic feet per second. At 
the mouth, its average flow is estimated to be 650,000 cubic 
feet per second, but to be nearer the reality, this result should 
be more than quintupled. Giving the river a width of 6 miles, 
a depth of 5 fathoms, and a current running 3 feet per second, 
that is to say 2 miles to the hour, we would thus have a mean 
flow with a volume of 3,530,000 cubic feet per second ; but this 
result is in fact greatly inferior to the reality. 

Area of Us basin. — The Yangtze river drains in this 
Central Region an area of 700,000 square miles. 

Population. — The population of the Yangtze basin is reckoned 
to be 200,000,000 inhabitants, and embraces the Provinces of 
Szechw'an, Hupeh, Kiangsi, Nganhwei, Kiangsu and the 
Northern parts of Yunnan and Kweichow. 

Tidal influence. — The tide is felt to a distance of 375 
miles from the mouth of the river, or a little beyond Wuhu $$ 


Share taken by the Ports of this Region in the foreign 
commerce of China. — The ports of this region absorb almost 
60 °/ of the whole commerce of China with foreign countries. 

Yangtze shipping* Annual tonnage. — According to the 
returns of the Imperial Maritime Customs (1902), this amounts to 
2,000,000 tons, borne in 1,733 steamers which have transported 
1,800,000 tons, and 1,196 junks carrying 185,000 tons. 

Navigation of the JRiver. 

At its mouth. The Yangtze is obstructed at its mouth by 
sandbanks, which leave but a depth of 13 to 16£ feet at low- 
water. At high-water, however, the largest steamers can enter. 

From its mouth to Hank'ow. A regular service of large 
steamers is maintained up to Hank'ow. 

From Hank'ow ^ P to Ich'ang ggf. Large freighters 
ply as far as Ich'ang ; the river is however filled with shoals, 
and boats cannot find in Winter more than 6| feet of water. 

Beyond Ich'ang is the region of the rapids. Here, native 


junks and cargo-boats must be hauled through the rapids, but at 
medium or low-water season, small steamboats can easily cross 

From Ch'ungk'ing ^ Jg Jft to Hsuchow (Suifu) jfr )\\ )ff. 
Despite the rapids, the channel is still easily navigable for large 
junks. Small steamboats can also run there without difficulty. 

From HsKchow Fu fy >ft\ }ft to FHngshan listen JpJ \\] jj£. 
This part is navigable only for junks. 

Timere quired for the voyage. Distance-table on the 
Yangtze. — 

From Shanghai to HanJc'ow. — Distance, 600 miles. 

3 days by steamboat. Owing to an elaborate system of buoys 
and lights being erected at the more dangerous places, steamers 
can proceed on the journey day and night. 

From Hank'ow to Ich'ang. — Distance, 370 miles. 

4 days by steamboat. During the Winter season, boats can 
travel only during the day-time, as lights and buoys are lacking 
beyond TIank'ow. 

From Ieh ( ang to Ch'ungk'ing. — Distance, 400 miles. 

20 to 40 days are here required, and the journey can be 
performed only in junks hauled by trackers. The hire of a boat 
costs from 150 to 200 taels {£ 22 to £ 30). At the Hood-season, 
the voyage becomes very difficult, and accordingly much more 
time is required. 

From Ch'ungk'ing to HsUcJioiv Fu (Suifu). — Distance, 100 

Large junks hauled by trackers take about 20 days. The 
downward voyage is performed with varying rapidity, and 
depends principally on the velocity of the current. Junks which 
take 20 days to make the up-voyage, may sail down in three 
days, or even less. The difference is not so great for stea- 
mers, but the up-voyage often requires double the time taken 
in going down, (for the navigation of the tributaries of the Yang- 
tze, see the Provinces they traverse). 

Steamboat Companies trading on the Yangtze* — 

Several steamboat Companies carry on regular services with 
the large ports between Shanghai Jt $$ and Ich'ang j£ g. 


The principal are : — "The China Merchants Steam Naviga- 
tion C°" (Chinese). — "Indo-China Steam Navigation C°". AgGnts, 
Jardine, Matheson and 0°. and "China Navigation O". Agents, 
Butterfield and Swire (these two, English) — "Norddeutscher 
Lloyd". Agents, Melchers and 0°; and "Hamburg -America Line" 
(Yangtze Steamers). Agents, Arnhold, Karberg and 0° (both 
German). — "Osaka Shosen Kaishd" and "Yangtze Shipping Co" 
(both Japanese). — There is also a French C°: "Compagnie Asia- 
tique de Navigation". Agents, Racine, Ackermann and C°. — The 
boats of mostly all these Companies call at the following ports : 

Distance from Shanghai. 

Kiangyin fa |^ 105 miles. 

Chenkiang|u| fa 165 ,, 

Nanking jf ^ 212 

wuhu m m 2( >4 

Ngank'ing^^ 370 

Kiukiang % fa 458 

Hank'ow jj| p 600 

From Hank'ow, small steamers run regularly to lch'ang 
S H $h a distance further up of 370 miles. 

Numerous small steamers ply on the large canals throughout 
the whole region around Shanghai _fc, $$. 

Further particulars regarding this Central Region* 

1°. Like the preceding region, this would naturally comprise 
parts of Provinces which we place elsewhere : thus the South of 
Kansu -# Jfl an d Shensi ffi ff§ ; the N. of Yunnan jc "^ and 
Kweichow jlj; >}\]. On the other hand, the N. of Nganhwei •$ Hfc 
and Northern Kiangsu fa j|| should on account of their general 
characteristics be attached to the Northern Region. In order to 
avoid the inconveniences arising from the division of these 
Provinces, we shall describe here only the 6 Provinces mentioned 
above, (see p. 91). 

2° In this region, the caravans of camels so common in the 
N. disappear altogether. They cease at the N. and W. of 
Szechw'an H J||, the N. of Honan J5f ]§, of Nganhwei *fc %, 
and of upper Kiangsu fa j|£. Camels are seldom seen S. of the 



Yangtze jj ^ ££; on the contrary, conveyance by carts becomes 
more and more frequent. In the mountainous region, on account 
of the lack of roads, they are of little use, and the level parts 
are too intersected with canals, lakes and bridges of primitive 
construction to render them serviceable, and so boats take their 
place. Everywhere else, mules, horses, asses and sedan-chairs 
borne by coolies, and not by mules as in the N., are the chief 
means of transport. The jinricsha (A i ^ jenlihch'e*. Man's 
strength cart), where the roads allow it to be used, is coming 
more and more into favour. It is faster and more comfortable 
than the wheelbarrow. This latter has however the advantage 
of being able to travel almost everywhere, and so it is very 
largely used by the natives. 

3° The Grand Canal and the Peking- Hank' ow railway 
j{r gj, establish easy communications between this Region and 
the N. Other railway lines, and among them, that from Han- 
k'ow to Canton, and from Szechw'an )\\ to Yunnan Fu igL ^j 
Jft, will render the same service in regard to communications 
with the Southern Region, (see Section V. ch IV. Means of 

References : 

S, Chevalier. — Le Haut Yang-tse- 
kiang, de I-tch'ang fou a P'ing-chan hien. 
Voyage et Description. Atlas. Chang- 
hai, 1890. 

Bons d'Anty.— Navigation a vapeur sur le 
Haut Yang-tse-kiang (Geog. 15 aout,1903). 

de Vaulserre. — Chine. Le Fleuve Bleu 
et son Bassin (Rev. Coloniale, 1900). 

de Vaulserre.— Le Fleuve Bleu,de Soei- 
fou a la hauteur de Ta-li fou (Geogr. 
1900. vol. 1. p. 449 sq). 

Percival. — The Land of the Dragon. 
London, 1889. 

Metchnikoff.- La Civilisation et les grands 
fleuves historiques (C. XL Le Hoang-ho 
et le Yang-tse-kiang). Paris, 1889. 

Eyss6ric— Notes sur les rapides du Yang- 
tse-kiang (Annales de Geog. 1895-1896). 

de Bezaure— Le Fleuve Bleu. Paris, 1899. 

Monnier — L'Empire du Milieu. Paris,1899. 

Ministere de la Guerre. — Service geo- 
graphique de 1'armee. Bassin inferieur 
du Yang-tse-kiang. Paris. 

Alcock.— The Journey of IMargary (Kiang- 

su, Nganhwei, Kiangsi, Hupeh, Hunan), 

London, 1876. 
de Villard. — Map of the Yangtse-kiang. 

13 sheets. Shanghai, 1895. 
Hourst. — Dans les rapides du Fleuve 

Bleu. Paris, 1904. 

Hourst. — Atlas du Haut Yang-tse. 21 

feuilles, 1905. 
Gutzlaflf. — China opened. London, 1838. 

(the Yangtze. Vol. I. p. 26-28). 

Bishop M» J. F. — The Yangtze Valley 
and Beyond. London, 1899. 

Barclay Parsons W. — From the Yang- 
tze kiang to the China Sea. (Geog. Jour- 
nal. London, 1902. Vol. XIX. p. 711- 



EdkinsJ. — On the Ancient Mouths of 

the Yangtze kiang. (N. C. B. R. A. Soc. 

p. 77-84. Shanghai, 1860). 
Colquhoun A. R. — The Overland to 

China. London, 1900. (Ch. XV and XVI. 

p. 369-417. The Yangtze valley). 
Bourne F. S. A. — The new Rapid on the 

Yangtze. Geog. Journal. London, 1897 

(vol. X. p. 191-195). 

Stookc G. E.— A trip in Summer through 
the Yangtze Gorges. East of Asia Maga- 
zine, Shanghai, 1903 (vol. II. p. 3-23). 

Manifold O. C. — Recent Exploration and 

Economical Development, in Central and 

Western China. (Geog. Journal. London, 

1904. p. 281-313). 
Legendre Dr F. A. — Deux annees au 

Setchouan. Paris, 1906. (Shanghai to 

Chengtu. p. 5-194). 
Davis Sir J. F. — Chinese Miscellanies. 

London, 1875. (Valley of the Kiang to the 

Port of Hankow, p. 175-191). 
Gill VV. — The River of Golden Sand. 

London, 1883. (Ch. IV. p. 44 58. Shang- 
hai to Ichang — Ch. V. p. 59-81. Ichang 
to Chungking), 

Guppy II. It. — Notes on the Hydrology 
of the Yangtze. (N. C. R. R. A. Soc. p. 
1-11. Shanghai, 1881). 

Carles W. R. — The Yangtze Chiang. 
Geog. Journal. London, 1898. (vol. XII. 
p. 225-240). 

Little A. — Through the Yangtze Gorges. 
London, 1898. (Ch. II. p. 15-36. Shanghai 
to Ichang — Ch. IV. p. 50-86. Ahove 
Ichang. — Oh. XII. p. 253-271. Physio- 
graphy of the Yangtze Valley). 

Little A. — Notes on Szechw'an and the 
Yangtze Valley. (N. C. B. R. A. Soc. p. 
165. Shanghai, 1883). 

Little A. — The Crux (Yehtan, 60 miles 
above Ichang) of the Upper Yangtze. 
(Geog. Journal. London, 1901. vol. XVIII. 
p. 498-508). 

Little A. — The Far East. Oxford, 19C5. 
(Ch. IV. p. 53-68. The Yangtze River). 




This region naturally comprises the Province of Szechw'an 
PI J||, also lower Yunnan ^ ffi, and the Northern part of Kweichow 
-ft )>\\. These three parts are closely connected through their rivers, 
■which all flow into the Yangtze jg ^ fl\ Their mutual relation* 
are unceasing, their inhabitants have many characteristics in 
common, their climate is practically the same and more liable to 
fogs than in the rest of China. Their isolation is also identical, for 
all three experience the same difficulty of communication with the 
neighbouring regions. To avoid dividing into two the studxj of 
them, we shall here describe only Szechw'an J||. 

Szechw'an [jg )\\ alone, like Chihli jg[ ||, has the special 
privilege of having its own Viceroy, who resides at Ch'englu 
$C % ffi. Hemmed in between Yunnan ft ^ and Kansu -y* "jfe, 
it is the only link that connects the Northern with the Southern 
region. It is also completely isolated, for its Western, Northern, 
and even North-Eastern mountains offer but few passages into 
Tibet, Kansu, and the valley of the Han-ho |g fpf. 


Szechw'an W )W 

Area. — 218, 533 square miles. It is by far the largest 
of the 18 Provinces. This results from its recent extension, 
whereby it has acquired a part of Eastern Tibet. Yunnan |j! 
j|f, which comes immediately after it, has but an area of 146, 
718 square miles. 

Population. — 68,724,800 inhabitants. A more correct 
approximation would be about 45 to 50,000,000. It is the most 
populated Province of the Empire, Shantung jjj j|[ being next 
with 38,247,900 inhabitants. Its population however is not the 
densest, as it has but 314 persons to the square mile, and is 
surpassed in this respect by 8 other Provinces. The reason 
is, because the population unusually dense upon the table- 
land, is very sparse towards the W. and particularly along the 
whole fringe of the plateau. 

Name. — Szechw'an JQ )\\ signifies "Four Rivers". These 
4 rivers' to which it owes its name are, proceeding from 
West to East : the Yalung-kiang |$ jg ft, the Min-kiang |I|R ft, 
the Ch'ung-kiang ?lji ft an( * tne Kialing-kiang ^ g| ft. 

Boundaries. — Szechw'an is bounded on the 

N. — By Shensi ^ "g and Kansu -ft* J|, 
W. — By Tibet, 

S. — By Yunnan g| ^ and Kweichow jj| Jfl, 
E. — By Hunan $JJ ^ and Hupeh $| ft. 

Capital. — CH'ENGTU FU j# j$ Jfr, in the centre of the 
Province, a little towards the N. W. It is built on the Min- 
kiang jljg ft. 

Other Prefectures. — These are 11 in number. 

To the N. of Ch*engtu : 

1° Lungngan Fu II 3c Iff- 
To the S. W. of Ch'engtu: 

2" Yachow Fu ft ffl M. 


To the S. of Ch'tngtu: 

3° Kiating Fu M % Jtf. 

To the N, XL of Ch'engtu, and in the order of distance : 

i° T'ungchw'an Fu it )\\ /ff, 
5" Shunk'ing Fu m Ik fit, 
6" Paoning Fu % fl? Jff , 
7° Suiting Fu j& & Jfr. 

Descending the Yangtze, to the left : 

8" Hstichow Fu (Suifu) & *H /ft, 
9° Ch'ungk'ing Fu 3 * Jfr, 
10° Kw'eichow Fu M fl\ #. 

To the 8. W, 9 in the Szechw'ati Alps : 

11° Ningyuen Fu ff? il tff. 
Besides, there are in Szechw'an jflj )\\ 8 independent 
Chows $\ : Tze Chow % #|, ilfiera. Cftow; $| Jfl, JMew Chow 
jrg #|, Tiuyang Chow || (^ jjfl, Chung Chow }fe $\, Mei Chow 
Jg Jfl, K'itong Chow l\\ j\\ and Jju Chow \g j\\. — There are 
also 3 independent T'ings Jj| : Hsuyung T'ing ^ ^< J^, Shihchn 
T'iw tf H Bi and Sungp'an THng fe j$ J|. 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Szechw'an is composed of 
a plateau of red sandstone sloping towards the S.E. Irrigated by 
several rivers, it is rich in minerals, fertile, populous and sur- 
rounded by high mountains, less massive and less elevated to the 
N. y E. and S. than to the W. hi the W. are high chains separa- 
ted by long and impetuous torrents. Bisecting the Province from 
S. W. to N. E., flows the Yangtze ^ ^f- Jq, wild and almost 
useless for navigation in the mountainous region of the W., while 
it is navigable in the Eastern part. The population is of a very 
mixed kind, not only to the W. where half-savage tribes, Sifans 
"g" ;f| in the N.W., Lolos |[jin the S. and numerous Tibetans 
are still found, but also in the Chinese part, to the E. of the 
Min-kiang |I(j£ f£. This region is especially given to agriculture. 
It has however its mines, its industry and commerce, all in a 
most thriving condition. 

Geological constitution. — The E. of Szechw'an, formerly the bed of a 
dried up lake, is an immense basin of red and green sandstone. Between the Min- 
kiang and the Tapa-shan, the thickness of the sandstone formation is vei*y great, 


while beneath it lies a thin coal seam. It is encircled on all sides by primitive and 
primary rocks (gneiss, granite, schist), which once formed the borders of the lake. 
The waters eroded the rocks of the E., and thus found an issue on this side. The flow 
seems to have been at first great, but diminished little by little, as the outlet deepened, 
till it became eventually the actual bed of the Yangtze $g ^f- fc river. 

Orography. — Three-fourths of Szechw'an |jg J|| are co- 
vered with high mountains. The table-land of red sandstone 
alone is an exception. For the sake of clearness, we shall divide 
the mountainous region into three groups, all running in different 

1st Group. — The North-Eastern mountains of Szechw'an 
M J||, separating it from Kansu ■# ^f, Shensi gjc y§ and Hupeh 
$JJ 4fc, form the first group. This is the last Southern spur of 
the K'uenlun jg ^ mountains. The range is called to the 
W. the Min-shan |ljg [lj, to the E. the Kiulung -)i ||, the 
Tapashan ^ (B [jj or the JKiut'iaoshan jl ^ \\\. The first 
has an average elevation of 8,200 feet. Between the two, there 
is a depression which is crossed by the highway from Peking 
* £ to Ch'engtu $ %f ]ff. This is called the Wuting 3£ 7 
pass ; its elevation is 4,000 feet. 

2 nd Group. — This is the largest as well as the highest, 
and forms the boundary limit between Szechw'an 0J )]\ and 
Tibet. It is composed of long and elevated chains running from 
N. W. to S. E., and separated by deep gorges. These chains 
often attain a height of from 16,000 to 19,000 feet. We shall 
call them by the name of the Szechw'an Alps. They extend up 
to the Min-kiang |Ijg Jq. The principal road which crosses them 
is that from Tatsienlu fl* ^ jjf to Batang £ Jf (Pat'ang). 

3 rd Group. — This extends to the E. of Szechw'an JD} J|j, 
and reaches to the S. of the Yangtze |g ^ Jq. Its chains have 
a N. E. — S. W. direction, and rise sometimes at the S. of the 
river to an elevation of about 6,000 feet. 

The Bed Basin. This basin varies in altitude from 650 
to 1,900 feet, and contains but few plains, the principal being 
that of Ch'engtu J$ j§^ JjSf, It is broken by hills which run 
generally in a rather confused direction. This results from the 



uiuij .waij[ U !IV 
















■*~ J 





























































O o o O Ci-o 
O o M O ciTec 


action of the rivers upon the soft red sandstone. The height of 
these hills above the bottom of the valleys ranges generally from 
350 to 2,000 feet, but some of them attain a higher elevation. 
Towards the E., they run into the third group of the moun- 
tainous region, and follow a N. E. — S. W. direction. 

To the W. of Kiating Fu -j£ $£ jj?f is a celebrated mountain 
frequented by Buddhist pilgrims, and called the Otnei or Ngo- 
mei-shun fl|j§ Jj |Jj . It rises to a height of 10,150 feet. 

Climate. — There is an exceedingly great difference between the climate of the 
mountainous parts and that of the table-land. This latter place, sheltered as it is by 
the mountains which surround it on the N. W., N. and N.E., has a very mild climate, 
but fogs are of frequent occurrence. Owing to the great moisture and warmth, .'i 
harvests are generally gathered. The table-land is not swept by those violent winds 
which prevail further to the N. and upon the Yunnan plateau. In the S., bordering 
on the Yangtze $% ^f- $£, and in the valleys which slope towards it, the moisture and 
great warmth render the climate semi-tropical. 

Hydrography. — We have already spoken above of the 
Yangtze f§ ^f JJ, and of the Yafung-kiang J| g| tL (P- 93-95). 
Several rivers flow into the Yangtze : — 

From the North, descending the river : 

The Min-kiang |l|g ££, which rises quite to the N. beyond 
Sungp'an $J ^§, at an elevation of more than 13,000 feet, and 
becomes navigable for small craft when it enters the Ch'engtu 
$ i|j|$ plain. Here it splits up into numerous branches and conti- 
nues its course to the 8. It is navigable for junks below Kia- 
ting Fu J| g? JjSf, and flows into the Yangtze j§| ^f- jf£ near 
Hsuchow $f jNI ){f> It receives on the right the Tatu-ho ^ gg 
jpj, a long torrent obstructed by boulders and rapids and quite 
unfit for navigation. However, an affluent which it receives on 
the left, the Ya-ho H }pj, is navigable up to Yachow Fu %fe>ft\ Jft. 

The Ch'ung-Jciang *$ ££. This is a shorter river which 
rises in the N. of the Ch'engtu $ %$ plain, and is navigable 
below Kien Chow $fj )]]. It irrigates in its lower part a very 
industrious and fertile region, and terminates near Lu Chow jjj 

The Kialing-Uiang ^ gg j£. This is the longest of the 
three rivers. It rises in Kansu j^* j|J, passes into Shensi g£ "g" 


and thence into Szechw'an )\\. It here receives from Kansu 
U* M tne ^ehshui £g 7JC. After numerous windings, it passes 
through Paoning Fu % % )ff and Shunk'ing Fu jig Jg ^Sf, and 
ends at Ch'ungk'ing Fu g J| }ft. It is navigable for junks below 
Paoning Fu ffi. 'ffi $f , though in fact the navigation is easy only 
up to Hoh Chow ^ jffl, and for small craft as far as Kwangyuen 
hsien Jf j£ J$jl On the right it receives the Feu-Kiang fg ££, 
the Lungngan Fu fl| ifc jft- and T'ungchw'an Fu yjf J|| f(f river, 
which is navigable up to Changming hsien jg J1J§ Jgjji and even 
to Chungpa cf» J^ ; and on its left the K'U-ho rj| jpf, navigable 
for junks up to Suiting Fu $g % jffi and even further for small 
boats. These two affluents join it almost at the same time 
near Hoh Chow fe Jfl. 

A common feature of these three rivers is that they gene- 
rally run from N.W. — S.E.; owing to the climate they have 
always water in abundance, their current is rather strong, and 
they are often obstructed by rapids. The descent is made quick- 
ly, but the up-journey is difficult and requires much time. It 
is not only for navigation that their waters are of service, the 
inhabitants turn them very adroitly to advantage for the irriga- 
tion of their fields, chiefly in the Ch'engtu plain J$ ^ fft. 

From the 8, : 

The rivers which flow here have neither the same length, 
nor the same importance as the preceding ones. The principal 
are, as one descends the river: 

1. The Hung-kiang ||r ££, which flows into the Yangtze 
SI -p tL at Nganpien % jg, a little above Hsiichow $% )i\ ffi . 
Although navigable only for a short distance, it is the principal 
water communication between Szechw'an JQ J|| and Yunnan 

m *. 

2. The Hsiiyung-ho fy ^ fpf> navigable for small craft up 
to Hsiiyung T'ing $? t}< Jf|. It flows into the Yangtze at Nahk'i 
hsien $j ;g| |g, a town depending on Lu Chow }j ft\. 

3. The Ho7i-kianff <& f£ or ChHh-shui ■jjfp fr, navigable 
for large boats up to Tap'ingtu ^ ^ gg (lord or ferry of great 
tranquillity) in Kweichow j| *)\\. 


4. The Wu-lciang J| £q. This river is navigable up to 
Kungt'an j| :$§, as it enters Kweichow jfj fl\, and even to Sze- 
nan Fu g. ^ ^ in Kweichow. The salt from Szechw'an 
P9 )\\ is carried through this waterway. Numerous rapids 
render frequent transhipments necessary. Its valley is very 
narrow and its current rather strong. The difference between 
low and high-water level reaches even to 60 feet. — The very 
peculiar build of the boats which sail upon this river makes 
them appear as if they were lying half down on their sides. 

To the S. E. of Szechw'an |BJ J||, there is a small affluent 
of the Ytien-kiang ffi jj£, which becomes navigable at the large 
village of Lungt'an f| flf. It is the chief means of communi- 
cation for all traffic between Szechw'an J|| and Hunan $J| ^. 

Szechw'an |jg )\\ has neither large lakes nor canals. A canal 
connecting the 3 rivers of the N. would render immense service, 
and establish between the W. and E. of the table-land easy 
communications, which are at present very difficult. It seems 
however that such a prospect cannot be easily realised. 

Fauna and Flora. — The fauna and flora of Szechw'an are far richer than 
those of the other Provinces. 

In regard to the fauna, suffice it to mention especially the great number of ante- 
lopes, deer, yaks, bears, monkeys and parrots found in the region of the Szechw'an 
Alps. Several kinds of silkworm, as well as the wax insect, are peculiar to this Pro- 

As to the flora, besides rich pasture-lands, Szechw'an has splendid yew-trees, 
rhododendrons or rose-bays and giant azaleas. It possesses also a great variety 
of bamboos, a peculiar kind of tea called "white tea", while to the E. there are 
fine forests abounding in different kinds of wood, bindweed and other tropical 
creepers. The tallow, varnish, soap and wax-trees, the China-grass plant (ramie-fibre- 
Boehmeria nivea) and lac-tree are also found in this Province. The best rhubarb 
of China grows in Szechw'an. 

Agricultural Wealth. — Agricultural produce is the chief 
wealth of Szechw'an jg J||, and consists principally of opium, 
silk, tea, rice, sugar, hemp, vegetable wax, indigo, shellac, 
wax, varnish, timber, medicinal plants and oranges. On the 
mountains, sheep, goats and yaks are abundantly reared ; and 
upon the plateau, buffaloes and a fine breed of ponies. 

Mineral Wealth. — Salt (found in 3 principal places: Tze- 


liu-tsing gj^f, Kiating Fu J£ % fft and Paoning Fu ffc ^ 
/j?f), also coal, iron, eopper, silver, gold and petroleum. 

Up to the present day, the activity of the inhabitants has 
been especially directed towards agriculture. They have how- 
ever worked some salt-pits and coal-mines. 

Population. — In the S. of the Szechw'an Alps, an almost independent race 
inhabits the Kiench'ang Jil H valley, and the neighbouring country. They are called 
Mantze $fj* "J" (barbarous tribes of the South), or Lolas $| $fc, also written {£f£Lao- 
lao, and $& $fc Liaoliao (wild hunters). The Chinese call them sometimes •,% $| Kwolo 
(monkey-nosed savages). In the N. W. are the Si fan Bf#£ tribes,who have recognized 
the supremacy of China, and are governed by Chinese officials. Tibetans with their 
Lamas and monasteries are extensively scattered throughout the W. They are espe- 
cially numerous in the neighbourhood of Batang or Pat'ang Q *§• (For a more com- 
plete account of these aboriginal tribes, see Section V. Ch. II.*. 

The Chinese race is predominant through out the rest of Szechw'an, but their 
features vary exceedingly : some are of the Mongol type, others belong to the Hindoo 
or even the Aryan branch. Many have blue or grey eyes, and some have brown hair. 
These varieties result from the position occupied by Szechw'an, it being the limit and 
border-land where widely different races come into contact with each other. Revolu- 
tions have also largely modified the population of the country. Among those upheavals, 
we must mention the great massacre which took place there at the close of the Ming 
dynasty. Three-fourths of the inhabitants are said to have been exterminated. To 
repeople the Province, a large number of immigrants Mowed in towards the middle of 
the XVII th century. Traces of this immigration are still met with at Ch'ungk'ing, 
where the local Council of the Gentry is called Pahsheng A ^ t,ie 8 Provinces), 
alluding thereby to the 8 Provinces, to which the members of the Assembly originally 
belonged. The predominating element of the population is said to have a striking 
resemblance with the aborigines of Yiinnan, as the Kachyns (Burmese, "wild men"), 
who inhabit the Burma-Chinese frontier, and whose principal characteristics are : a 
triangular face, large, obliquely-set eyes, light hair, and extremely short stature (4 ft. 8 
to 5 feet). — In the E., a portion of the population is made up of families that came 
from Hunan. 

The people of Szechw'an are shrewd, active, quarrelsome, but nevertheless very 
polite. They are also hospitable, and migrate easily from their homes, being found in 
Kansu, Shensi, Kweichow, and even upon the lofty table-lands of Yiinnan. 

The inhabitantsjcrowded especially upon the "Red Basin" or sandstone plateau, 
are very numerous in the Ch'engtu plain, which is densely populated. 

Language. — The Lolos, Si fan tribes and Tibetans have their own particular 
dialects, and these are predominant in the Szechw'an Alps. Everywhere < Ise, Man- 
darin is generally spoken, and with a peculiar clearness of enunciation. 

Towns and Principal Centres. 

CH'ENGTU FU $ ^ fff. — Population, from 450,000 to 
500,000 inhabitants. It is situated in a beautiful plain, and is the 
provincial capital and residence of the Viceroy. Its walls, which 


are over 12 miles in circumference, enclose, like Peking, three 
parts: the Chinese, Tartar and Imperial cities. The Chinese 
city, which is the most important, has some fine streets lined 
with rich shops. Besides its flourishing commerce, Ch'engtu 
has also various industries. Large hoats can reach it by the 
Min-kiang |l|g j£ during 6 months of the year, from May to No- 
vember; and smaller ones during the rest of the year. It has a 
military and medical school, a university, an arsenal and a mint. 
Numerous officials reside there awaiting appointment. 

The Ch'Sngtu Plain. — The Ch'engtu plain is about 70 miles in 
length by 30 in width. Few regions in China can compete with 
it in wealth and prosperity, the density of its population and the 
perfection of its irrigation system. It comprises no less than 18 
Chows ft\ (departments) or hsiensjgg (district cities), most of which 
are very populous. Its population is reckoned at about 5,000,000. 
The great thoroughfare leading from P'ingshan hsien Jp| [Jj Jjj[ 
to the capital, is during a distance of 50 miles, like one long 
street lined with houses. The plain is well cultivated, and is 
covered with rice, cotton, beans, sesamum, poppies, sugar-cane, 
tobacco, corn and mulberries ; in fact not a single patch is left 

To the N. of Ch'Sngtu Fu : 

Chungpa cf* jJL. — A large centre, situated a little to the N. 
of Changming hsien ^ flfj $£ (dependent on Lungngan Fu || -g 
Jff), and upon the Feu-kiang \^ ££. It has a population of from 
25,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, and is chiefly a mart for the sale 
of medicinal plants, which realise a sum of more than £ 120,000 

Sungp'an T'ing 1fe i# ||. — Population 10,000 inhabitants. 
An important border city and mart for the sale of wool, musk, 
rhubarb, deer horns, skins and sheep brought in from Tibet 
and Kansu ^ ]|f. Tea is sent in exchange to Tibet. The 
climate is very healthy, and there are rich pasture-lands in the 

To the W. : 

Tarchendo or Tatsienlti T'ing fl* ^ jig |j§. — At an altitude 



of 8,850 feet and with a population of 20,000 inhabitants. The 
town is largely Tibetan, and carries on an important trade in 
musk, wool, gold, furs, medicines, bristles and yak tails, all 
coming from Tibet. It exports thither chiefly tea, and also 
silks and cotton goods. 

Yachow Fu jJ! }\\ Jft. — Population, 30,000 inhabitants. 

Kiating Fu $L fc )ff. — Population, 150,000 inhabitants. 
It is the great mart for white vegetable wax, and the principal 
silk-producing centre of Szechw'an. 

To the S. : 

Tzeliu-tsing gj Jff 5^. — A groat industrial centre with its 
thousand salt-wells, its bamboo scaffolding, its numerous junks, 
its roads constantly enlivened by caravans, carriers, and flocks 
of buffaloes led to work at turning the wheel. The brine-wells 
extend over an area of 60 square miles. 

Along the Tangtze-kiang ;j| ^f f£, following its downward 

Hsuchow Fu & fl\ Jflf or Suifu. — Population, from 40,000 
to 50,000 inhabitants. — Hsiichow is a commercial port at the 
mouth of the Min-kiang jjj£ jfjf. Trade is especially carried on 
with Yunnan |j| |§ and the Kiench'ang jj Jj| valley. The imports 
consist in medicines, opium, metals, musk and indigo. The 
exports are : white wax insects, petroleum, cotton-yarn and 
cloth, which are exported to Yunnan K "^ . 

Iai Chow }j f\. — Situated at the mouth of the Ch'ung- 
kiang ^ jJX- It is a trading place, but by far less important 
than the preceding one. 

Ch'ungk'ing J J| fft . — Population, 620,000 inhabitants. 
This city derives its importance from its commerce. It is the 
principal trading centre of Szechw'an, which finds in it a mart 
for all kinds of merchandise. Its imports are : cotton-yarn and 
piece-goods, woollen goods, bazaar articles, ginseng, aniline 
dyes, soap, silk-stuffs, silk ribbons, metals and petroleum. Its 
exports are : opium, silk, skins, vegetable wax, musk, hemp, 
medicinal plants, sugar, oil, tobacco, wool, bristles, feathers, 
metals and straw-braid. Extraordinary activity prevails in the 




«> ^ ^ 

j!%£# T Hf MlN-KiANC %\ 




streets, and numerous rich shops filled with merchandise are 
everywhere apparent. Its harbour is visited by hundreds of 
junks of large tonnage. 

Feu Chow \% %. — Population, 100,000 inhabitants. 
Formerly the great opium mart of Szechw'an, but now a 
decadent town. The leading merchants met there, and fixed 
the market-price of the article. 

Wan hsien JJ $g. — Population, 140,000 inhabitants. After 
Ch'ungk'ing, this is the most important port on the Upper Yang- 
tze ;jj| ^p Jj\ It is a great distributing centre for cotton-yarn, 
cotton cloth, raw cotton and Hupeh $JJ jffc fabrics. Opium is 
also extensively exported, and sugar and rape-oil in small quan- 
tities. A wide coal-field stretches to the rear of the city. 

Kw*eichow Fu |g§ j\\ jj^f, more commonly known under the 
name of Kw'ei Fu. — Population, 40,000 inhabitants. It is a 
small distributing centre and exports : cotton-yarn and fabrics 
from Hank'ow ^ p, and fans from Canton. Salt, extracted 
in the neighourhood, is likewise exported. Being a frontier 
custom-station, it collects Likin in behalf of two Provinces. 


To the 8. W., in the Kieneh'ang $g: -JJ valley: 

Ningyuen Fu ^ jg ffi. — Chief town of the Kieneh'ang 
region. It is situated in a very fertile valley, abounding in 
fruit-trees and producing three crops annually. It is in this 
country, inhabited by the Lolos, that the most productive wax- 
insects are found. Thousands of people flock there every year, 
in April, to collect them. 

To the W. also in the Szech'wan Alps : 

Lit'ana j| JjJ. — It comprises a Tibetan town with its pal- 
aces for the two petty Kings; a Chinese town with crenelated 
walls, and a Lama monastery built on a small eminence, and 
inhabited by 1000 Lamas. 

Bat'ang or Pat'ang £n |gf. — It lies in a beautiful plain 
covered with corn in Summer. It has also its two rulers and 
its Lama monastery. Several Chinese officials represent the 
Emperor. It is a frontier town and hence an important halting 

Industry and Commerce. 

The industry of Szechw'an Jl[ is pretty brisk. The 
Province manufactures principally : silk, cotton cloth, cooking 
utensils, paper, Indian ink, sugar, indigo and tobacco. Coal- 
mines arc extensively worked, but the coal is of inferior quality. 

The chief silk-producing centres are, in the order of their 
importance: Kiating Fu J| g? $f, Paoning Fu ^ <jp ffi, Shun- 
k'ing Fu Jl|| J| /ft, T'ungchw'an Fu }f )\\ Jfi. The production 
is estimated as reaching annually about £ 1,000,000 Sterling. 

The Province trades with Hupeh $}j Jfc, Hunan $) ]g, Yun- 
nan H "^ and Tibet (For imports and exports, see Ch'ungk'ing). 

Highways of Communication. — We have already des- 
cribed the navigable rivers. On all of them traffic is brisk and 
unceasing. The Province owns no less than 10,000 junks, which 
trade on the Yangtze and its tributaries, and give employment 
to a population of 300,000 boatmen. The roads are also much 
f r e q u e n t e d . The principal are : 

1° The road which comes from S. Shensi [$ g, passes 
through Paoning Fu % flf jjSf, T'ungchw'an Fu }J J|| jft, 


Oh'engtu Fu J$ f$ /ft, Yachow Fu jjf fll Jfr, and continues 
towards Tibet by Tatsienlu jf]' $j jg, Lit'ang J£ $f and Bal'ang 


2° The road going front Yachow Fu jfg >)\\ jft to Yunnan 
Sf P&' P ass ^ n ff through the Kiench'ang £Jt j^ valley. 

3° The road from Ch'engtu Fu jfc ff /ft to Hs'uchow Fu 

$L Jl| /If > skirting the Min-kiang |I|g ft, and continuing along 
the S. of the river : one branch running Westward, towards 
Yunnan M ]§ ; another proceeding Eastward, towards Kwei- 
chow -ft j\\. 

4° The road from Ch'engtu Fu J$ f[J /ft to Ch'ungk'ing 
* u H M $F' passing through Tze Ghow J|£ >}\\. 

5° The road from Ch'engtu Fu }fc %$ /ft to Ich'ang Fu 
J ||, passing through Shunk'ing Fu Jig J{ /ft, Suiting Fu 
IJfr and Wan hsien H $. 

Szechw'an is chiefly deficient in cross-roads running from 
W. to E. The rapids of the Upper Yangtze J| ^p ft have 
also been, even to the present day, a great hindrance to 
the expansion of its trade. When the Yunnan |jt ^ railway 
shall be completed, it will largely promote the interests of this 

Open l*orts. — In Szechw'an, there is but one port, 
Ch'ungkHng Fu g jg /ft, open to Foreign trade. 

Notes. — 1°. Szechw'an was formerly part of the State of 
Shun |g, hence its present literary name. It was for the purpose 
of connecting more easily this State with the Ts'in |j| kingdom, 
that the first road mentioned above, and known by the name of 
the "road of the golden ox" 4fc ^ Jif, was constructed at such 
considerable expense. Popular tradition however assigns another 
reason for it, as we have previously stated (see p. 45). 

2°. J A T'aipeh ^ ^ £3, the most famous poet of the T'ang 
Jj dynasty, was born in this Province A. D. 705-762. 

3°. Mount Omei or Ngomei |lft ,/jj jjj, which lies to the W. 
of Kialing Fu ^ % /ft, is a pilgrim resort for Buddhists, who 
flock there especially in Summer. The country around is excee- 
dingly beautiful and well wooded. On the sides of the mountain, 



the extraordinary number of 56 pagodas has been erected, the 
highest being situated at an elevation of 10,000 feet. 


La Mission Lyoanaise. Lyon, 1898. (Icre par- 
tie, liv. II et liv. Ill, c. I et i — II e partie, 
lere serie. Kapport sur le Se-tchoan ; 2° 
serie. Mines du Se-tchoan. Kapport sur la 
soie. Appendice. Note sur les operations 
chinoises a Tchoung-king). 

Richthofen. — Letters. Shanghai, 1873. 
(p. 115-143. Province of Szechw'an). 

Bulletin du Comite de l'Asie Francaise. — 
1903, p. 21. (La situation econoinique du 
Se-tchoan a la tin de 1901). 

Meyners d'Estrey. — Notes de Voyage 
au Setchouau et au pays des Man-ze. 
(Soc. Geog. 1894). 

Von Rosthorn. — Eine Reise in westli- 
chen China. Wien, 1895. 

Winterfootham. — View of the Chinese 
Empire. London, 1795. (p. 100-102). 

Williams. —The Middle Kingdom. New- 
York, 1861. (Vol. I. p. 125-157). 

VignerOn. — Deux ans au Se-tch'oan. 
Paris, 1881. 

MadrOlle. — Itineraire dans TO. de la 
Chine. Paris, 1900. 

Legend re D r A. F. — Deux annees au 
Setchouen. Paris, 1906. (Ch. XV. p. 145- 
194. Description Geog. de la Province de 
Setchouen. — Ch. XL VI. p. J89-502. Sol 
et sous-sol, productions. — Ch. XLVII. p. 
503-526. La transformation economiqne 
du Setchouen). 

Du Halde. — Description of the Empire 
of China. London, 1738. (Vol. I. p. 111- 

Gufzlatr. — China opened. London, 1838 
(Vol. I. p. 165-168). 

Murray's China. — Edinburgh, 1845. 
(Vol. III. p. 41-45). 

Grosier. — General Description of China. 
London, 1795. (Vol. I. p. 93-97). 

Bishop M" I. — A Journey in Western 
Szuchuan. (Geog. Journal. 1897. Vol. X. 
p. 19-50). 

Bishop M« I. — The Yangtse Valley and 

Beyond. London, 1899. 
Gill W. — The River of Golden Sand. 

London, 1883. (Ch. VI-VIII. p. 82-168). 
Hart V. — Western China. Boston, 1888. 

Parker E. H. — Chinese Revenue, Sze- 
chuan(N.C.B.R.A. Soc. 1895-96. p. 136 39). 

Parker E. H. — Up the Yangtse. Hong- 
kong, 1891. 

Litton. — Journey to N. Ssu-ch'uan. (For- 
eign Office Miscell. N° 4E7. 1898). 

Pratt. — To the Snows of Tibet through 
China. London, 1892. 

Baner E. C. — A Journey of Exploration 
in Western China. (Roy. Geog. Soc. Sup- 
plementary Papers. London, 1882. Vol. 
I. P* 1, p. 1-152). 

Manifold C. O. - The Problem of the Up- 
per Yangtze Provinces and their Com- 
munications. (Geog. Journal. 1905. Vol. 
XXV. p. 589-620). 

Logan Jack R. — Two trips to the N. of 
Chengtu. (Geog. Journal. 1903. Vol. 
XXI. p. 282-288). 

Von Ko, thorn A. — The Salt Adminis- 
tration of Szechw'an (N. C. B. R. A. Soc. 
1892-1893. p. 1-3.!). 

Vale J. — Irrigation of the Chengtu Plain 
(N. C B. R. A. Soc. 1899-1900. p. 105- 

Vale J. — Irrigation of the Chengtu Plain 
and Beyond (N. C. B. R. A. Soc. 1905. p. 

Uosie A. — Three Years in W. China. 
London, 1890. 

Hoste A. — Journey through Ssuchu'an, 
Yunnan and Kweichow. (China Blue 
Book. N° 2. 1884). 

Hosie A. — Journey in Central Ssuchu'an. 

(China Blue Book N° 2. 1885). 
Uosie A. — Report on the Province of 

Ssuch'uan. (China. N° 5, 1904). 



Blackburn China Mission. — 189G-97 
Ssuch'uan. (Oh. III. p. 29-72). 

China, Imperial Marit. Customs. Deoen 
nial Report, 1892-1901. Shanghai, 1904. 

(Chungking. Vol. I. p. 133-179). 
Little A. — The Far East,. Oxford, 1905. 
(Szeohuan. Oh. V. p. (19-77. The Ch< ag 
tu Plateau. Ch. VI. p. 78-90). 



(HUPEH $) ft AND HUNAN $| g). 

Hupeh and Hunan constituted formerly only one Province, 
called Hukwang jjjjj J|, which under K'anghsi $fc JSS, was divided 
into two. These two Provinces are nowadays administered by 
one and the same Viceroy, styled the Viceroy of Hukwang or 
Lianghu jjEJj jjfl. He has his residence at Wuch e ang jj£ g $f. 

Both Provinces, occupying the centre of China, have the follo- 
wing common features : both slope towards the Yangtze JJJ : f 
f£, where are also their lakes and plains. Both have Uteiv great 
river penetrating deeply into the interior : the Han-ho jijt. fpj in 
Hupeh $f| 4b> the Siang-kiang $[j ££ in Hunan $JJ ~\fo. Both 
have likewise their more hilly portions on the W., and in regard 
to both, the Yangtze serves as a connecting link. 

But there are also several cJiaracteristics wherein they differ. 
Hupeh $$ 4fc has in its lower part only lakes of moderate size, 
while a great lake extends on the frontier of Hunan Jjjfj ]g . Hu- 
peh $Jj 4k has its great plain almost as vast as its mountainous 
region ; Hunan $f] "ffi, save on the borders of its great lake, is 
mountainous throughout. Hupeh J$j ;|fc is wealthy, owing espe- 
cially to its industry, its commerce, its cotton and rice fields ; 
Hunan $Jj ~ffi 3 because of its coal-mines, its tea and its forests. 
Hunan jjj) ]§ and Hupeh $)j ft are in close relation with Sze- 
chw'an [jg J||, and the region of the lower Yangtze |J| =?, but 
Hupeh is chiefly in communication with the Northern region, 
while Hunan Jgj ]^j is connected rather with the Southern. 


1°. 1-lupelt Mil 

Area. — 71,428 square miles. 

Population. — 35,280,008, or 495 to the square mile. 
As to the density of its population, Hupeh is the third Province 
in China, and is almost equalled by Fokien jjig jj. 

Name. — Hupeh $fj 4fc signifies : l: N. of the TxiJce" '. The 
lake meant is obviously the Tungt'ing lake ffi J|g $[Jj. 

Boundaries. — Hupeh is bounded on the 

N. — By Honan pf f$ and Shensi $% If, 
W. — By Shensi ^ "g" and Szechw'an |/t| J||, 
S. — By Hunan Jjg ^ and Kiangsi fx. W > 
E. — By Nganhwei ^ ;$£. 

Capital City.— WUCH'ANG FU ^ g jfr, upon the right 
bank of the Yangtze jg ^p ££, and opposite the mouth of the 
Han-ho ^ jpj. 

Oilier Prefectures. — These are nine in number. 
To the N., descending the Han-ho g| jpj : 

1" Yuenyang Fu g|S Fly Jff , 
2° Siangyang Fu M IB Jfr, 
3" Nganluh Fu £ & Jft- 

To *#t c JE7. o/ Nganluh Fu % g? Jft : 

4° Tehngan Fu « £ Jfr. 

Descending the Yangtze ^ -^p 'Q[ : 

5° Ich'ang Fu g | f , 
6° Kingchow Fu ffl ffl Jfr, 
7° Hanyang Fu M fl Jfr. 
8° Hwangchow Fu ^ #1 J8f. 

To the S. W. : 

9° Shinan Fu Jfc Ift Jfr. 
There is besides in Hupeh owe independent Chow >H»| ; King- 
men Choiv $|) p^ jfl. 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Hupeh $Jj 4b * s an ^^on- 
gaied Province, and extends from W. to E. It is mther narrow, 


where the Yangtze % -^p jj£ runs through the rapids, and where 
it winds afterwards and flows with a slight descent. A beautiful 
river, the Han-ho g| }pj, joins it to the W. Between the two 
streams, from Kingchow Fu %\] ft\ jft downwards, the country is 
dotted with lakes and marshes, and possesses rich fields of cotton, 
rice and poppies. Below Hank'ow f|| p, the mountains hem in 
Die river more and more as it advances towards the E. At the 
confluence of the Han-ho ^| -/pj with the Yangtze JJJ ^J JQ, there 
is a natural trading-mart admirably situated, a great attractive 
and distributing centre. As the largest steamers can reach it, it 
is the principal emporium for the products of the country, and the 
chief place of supply for the central Provinces of China. Three 
large cities, forming almost one, are built there, and develop 
unceasingly . We have called it so far, and will still continue to 
give it the name of its most active and populous part : Hankfow 

m a- 

Geological constitution. — One halt of Hupeh is made up of an alluvial plain. 
These lowlands were in prehistoric times the bed of an immense inland lake, and are 
even at the px*esent still covered with lagoons and swamps. The other half of the 
Province is mountainous. To the N. and W. as well as on the hanks of the Han-ho, 
sandstone and limestone predominate, interspersed in places hy schist, granite, conglo- 
merate and marl. 

Orography. — To the N., two branches of the Eastern 

K'tienlun jj| ^ hem in the Han-ho £)| \]\] . On its left is a pro- 
longation of the Funiu-shan f£ ^- \}] , the HwaUungsluin ffe 
tl iJLl ana " the Hwaiyangshan $| ^ |jj, known also as the 
Muhling 7J; |§|. This latter chain, the average height of which 
is 2,940 feet, slopes gradually towards Hupeh $] 4fc, and affords 
several easy passages, one of which, that of Hank'ow g| P to 
Sinyang Chow fg |y§ Jfl, in Honan $f] j§, has been utilized by 
the Peking-Hank'ow railway line. 

On its right, the Minshun ||g [i| continues through the 
TapasJiau ^ £ ill or Kiut'iao-8han % \\fc jjj, and rises to 
11,500 feet. The Wutang-sJian p^ g* J], on the right bank of 
the Han-ho ^ fpf , reaches an altitude varying from 8,000 to 
9,500 feet. 


To the W., is a rather irregular mountain mass, the altitude 
of which attains nearly 3,900 feet. It is a prolongation of the 
Kweichow Jj; >}\\ table-land, and we shall eall it the Chinan Fu 
Jg }g flsf range, from the principal city in the vicinity. 

The rest is but an immense plain, about 100 feet above the 
sea-level, and only a few yards above the level of low-water in 
the river. A few mounds and hills are the most that can be seen. 

Climate. — The climate of Hupeh is pretty much the same as that of Shanghai, 

but is less moist. The sea-breeze is however absent to cool the Slimmer atmosphere. 
At this season, the nights are sometimes almost as warm as i'n the day time. 

Hydrography. — Two principal rivers irrigate this Pro- 
vince : the Yangtze :g| ^f fx. an d its tributary, the Han-ho §| |pj. 

We have already described the Yangtze (see Section II. 
Ch I. p. 93-98). Besides the Han-ho g| fpjf, it receives also nu- 
merous rivers flowing from the Hwaiyang-shan Jg| ^ gjj , Tapa- 
shan ;fc E, jlj, and Ohinan Fu $£ ^f Jff mountains. 

The Han-ho f|| jpj, or more exactly the Han-shui ^ 7^, 

or Han-kiang fj| ££, according to Chinese maps, rises in Shensi 
gjt "gf, near * ne frontiers of Szechw'an f9 f\\. The Han is now 
navigated by small steamers as far N. as Siangyang Fu j§ ^ 
Jjsf, a distance of 300 miles, and during the Summer freshets, 
by junks and small craft, up to Hanchung Fu g| eJj Jjlf, in 
Shensi gjj* ]Jf, 600 miles further. Throughout the whole of Shensi 
gfc ]|f, it is obstructed by rapids, and navigation thereon is 
difficult and dangerous. Above Hsingngang Fu |l $ jjSp, and 
till it leaves Shensi gj£ "j|f, it traverses abrupt gorges, and its 
bed is strewn with rocks. It becomes really navigable only at 
Laoho-k'ow ^ fpj P , where it widens out rapidly and attains 
2,600 feet in breadth. Further on however, it narrows in, and 
at its mouth has a width of only 200 feet in low-water season. 
In this part of its course, it has a peculiar feature, already 
noticed when speaking of the Hwang-ho ;§jr fpf : its bed is 
higher than the neighbouring plain, and this has necessitated the 
construction of embankments. During the Summer freshets the 
level of the Han-ho ^ $f rises 22 feet, and sometimes more, 
beyond the surrounding plain. 


The Han-ho fj| M nas a threefold direction in Shensi gfc ||, 
and a little further on, runs from W. to E. At Yuenyang Fu 
M3 fi§ iff' li takes a South-Easterly course, while midway 
between Nganluh Fu ■$ g| Jfr and Hanyang Fu gj % Jff, it 
assumes its primitive direction. In this last part, it runs at its 
highest level above the plain, and its windings are most nume- 

In April and May, its waters begin to rise, and large junks 
can then sail on it. In Winter, numerous sand-banks extend 
between Shayang \\j ^ and Siangyang Fu j| % Jft, and leave 
only one channel open for navigation. To travel from Hank'ow 
g| p to Hanchung Fu ;g| pJ* JjJ, GO to 100 days are required, 
and 15 days at least to make the down-river trip. 

The Han-ho ^ jpj receives on the left two affluents, both 
important, especially the second. These are : 

The Tan-kiang -ft ££, which comes in from Eastern Shensi 
g$c |§" above Laoho-k'ow ^ */pJ P ; and the Peh-ho £j jpj, swollen 
by the T'ang-ho jjf jpf, from Honan fpj ]§. It empties its waters 
into the Han-ho g| jpj, opposite Siangyang Fu jg |H $f. 

The iirst river is navigable only during part of the year, 
and the two others the whole year round (see Sect. 1. Gh. 111. 
p. 59. Honan). 

Lakes. — A series of lakes extends between the Han-ho }J| 
Jpf and the Yangtze jg ^f ££. Their volume varies according 
to the season, and they are connected by a network of rivers. 
Flotillas of small junks and boats ply unceasingly on their wa- 
ters, and fish is found in them in abundance. 

Fauna and Flora. — The fauna and flora of Hupeh are those of the Central 

Region, hut they arc richer and more abundant in the S.than in the N. throughout the 
Han-ho valley. The flora of the mountains to the W. of the Han-ho is the richest 
and most remarkahle of the world. It probably includes more than 5,000 species, 
and comprises plants of the semi-tropical, temperate and Alpine regions. 

Agricultural Wealth. — The staple productions are : 
cotton, rice, corn and tea. Cotton is cultivated principally in 
the Han-ho JH }pj plain. The chief producing centre is Mienyang 


Chow jTij |Jg ]ft\ ; Hwangchow Fu ^ >)]] Jff produces also a crop 
much esteemed in Szechw'an |jg )\\. Rice is grown, but to lit- 
tle extent, in Ihe Han-ho valley, save in some places enjoying 
good exposure. On the mountains, to the W. of the Han-ho jjfj 
ftij", mushrooms are extensively gathered. They grow on the 
dead or decaying wood of the oak, and are called by the natives 
?fC ^f muh-eul (wood-ears). They fetch a high price in the 
market, and are sold throughout the whole Empire. 

Mineral Wealth. — The mineral wealth of Hupeh }$J ^ 
is inconsiderable, except to the S. of Wuch'ang Pu g; g Jfi, 
where coal, iron and chalk-stone exist. In other places are found 
iron, zinc, rock-crystal and coal, this latter near Siangyang Fu 
it % M- But ^ e grater part of the coal used in the Province 
comes from Hunan $3 ^J- 

Gold-washing is carried on, but in small quantity, in the 

Population. — The population of Hupeh is dense in the plain. The people are 
gentle, peace-abiding, and engaged for the most part in agricultural or fishing pursuits. 
Some of the inhabitants of the \\\ have migrated to Nganhwei. 

Language. — Nothing very special to mention. The, Mandarin dialect is spo- 
ken throughout the Province. 

Cities and Principal Centres. 

The Hank'ow group. — This comprises three cities: one 
on the right bank of Ihe Yangtze % ^ ££ : Wuch'ang Fu |£ g 
/fj, capital of the Province; the two others, on the opposite 
bank: Hante'ow g£ Q, on the left bank of the Han-ho j)g Jpf, 
and Hanyang Fu jg pg fft, on the right. 

WUCH'ANG FU ^j^Jff . — Population, 500,000 inhabitants. 
A large walled city, well constructed and inhabited chiefly by 
officials. The Viceroy of Hukwang $jj jtr resides there. The city 
has a military academy and an agricultural school. 

Jfank'ow }|i p . — Population, 870,000 inhabitants. This 
city, reckoned as one of the four emporiums ft (Chen) of the 
Empire, is governed by a special official of Taot'ai rank, who 
is Superintendent of Customs and resides there. 






Besides the Chinese quarters, the city has also several 
Foreign Settlements: English, Russian, German, French and 
Japanese. Hank'ow is the most commercial of the three cities. 
Opposite it, the river is 1,300 yards wide, and the largest stea- 
mers can come alongside its docks. It is connected either direc- 
tly or indirectly with the most important waterways of the Em- 
pire. Through the Yangtze ^ ^ jj£ and the Han-ho jfi fcf, 
Hank'ow receives : rice, sesamum, tobacco, sugar, medicinal 
plants, tea, coal.... Musk and furs come from Tibet; petroleum 
from the United-States, Russia and Sumatra ; cotton piece goods, 
cotton-yarn and sugar from Hongkong ; opium and silk fabrics 
from Szechw'an pa J||. Its chief export article is tea, two-thirds 
of which are produced in Hupeh jjjj ;|fc and Hunan $JJ"^i, and 
one-third in Kiangsi j£ ]HJ. This tea is re-exported chiefly to 

Hanyang Fu |H 1^^. — Population, 400,000 inhabitants. 
The real Hanyang Fu is about a mile and a half distant, but the 
place on the banks of the Han-ho }J| fpf seems more and more to 
take this name. The city is principally industrial. It has its 
forges, blast furnaces and foundries, which supply largely the 
material required for the Peking-Hank'ow railway. It manu- 
factures also fire-arms, has started cotton-mills and silk-filatures, 
and possesses immense timber-yards. 

The river, as it flows along these three cities, and especi- 
ally at the mouth of the Han-ho jg ^pf, exhibits the greatest 
activity, and is covered with long rows of junks and steamers, 
which load and unload their cargoes. The same activity and 
bustle are noticed in the streets of the three cities, but especially 
in those of Hank'ow g| p. Next to Shanghai ± $f, Hank'ow 
is the most important port of the Yangtze ^ ^f- jtL, of which it 
is the chief emporium, while the railway connecting it with 
Peking, imparts to it still more value. 

Shanghai has undoubtedly far more importance, but it is 
rather a seaport than a river-port, and thus Hank'ow depends on 
'it, and will continue to depend on it for a long time to come. 


HANK'OW. Table of Shipping. 1900-1905. 


Entered Inward 


Cleared < 

ul \y ani 

















1,100,511 i 







1,310,298 | 






1 ,342 





















1, CSi, 453 







1,29 J 



j 1,602 




Besides, under Inland Steam Navigation Rules, there entered 
and cleared at the port during the year 1905, 2,760 small 
steamboats, transporting 65,653 tons. 

The number of Foreign firms doing business in the port, 
during the year 1905, was 114 : 32 British, 25 German, 18 
Japanese, 12 American and 27 of other nationalities. Foreign 
residents totalled 2,151 : 537 Japanese, 504 British, 500 Ame- 
ricans, 162 Germans, and 448 of other nationalities. 

Along the Yangtze ^ ^ j£, descending the river : 

Ich'ang *£ g /jrf. — Population, 45,000 inhabitants. A 
commercial port, situated below the rapids of the Yangtze. 
This position gives it importance, both as an emporium and as 
a centre for transhipping cargo. It has the advantage over 
Shashi ffi "iff, of being protected from the current during 8 
months, owing to the proximity of an island. 

Shashi fy Jff. — Population, 80,000 inhabitants. Shashi 
is a great commercial mart, and its docks occupy on the right 
bank of the river a length of two or three miles. It is practi- 
cally the port of Kingchow Fu $|J >|fl jjf, and the great cotton- 
market of the country. 

Hwang chow Fu J| ft\ /jj. 

Upon the Han-ho Jj| fpf, going down-stream : 

Laoho-k'ow ^ jpf P- A considerable port and market- 
town. It owes its importance to the fact that the river begins 


to be easily navigable there, and to its being at the junction of 
two roads, one coming from Shensi |J& || by the Han-ho Jg jpj, 
the other from Shansi |Jj W ^>y the Tan-kiang ft f£. 

Siangyang Fu M $k fff* — ^ owes its importance to its 
situation at the confluence of the Han-ho }|| jpj and the Peh-ho 
£| fpj* . This latter river is the great commercial waterway for 
trading with Honan fpjf ffi. It is less important however than 
the towns lying on the opposite bank of the Han-ho : Jjungkin 
HI jfe> P ort situated at the mouth of the Peh-ho, and Fan- 
cli'eng J| jjfc. Both of these places hold large fairs, and carry 
on petty manufactures, such as ribbon and silk-making, ivory 
and bone-carving. 

Industry and Commerce. — Besides the industries already 
alluded to, the manufacture of cotton cloth deserves a special 
mention. There is scarcely any place in Nupeh }$j :|fc, where 
the people are not engaged in weaving cotton cloth for expor- 
tation. A special kind, called broadcloth (J| 7^ hwang-pu), is 
chiefly manufactured. All this cloth is exported to Szechw'an 
J||, Kweichow jlf >|fl and Yunnan j| ]|f. 

Trade is principally carried on through Hank'ow Q| P, 
and we have already seen in what it consists. Upon the Han- 
ho ^ g, the chief imports are coal and timber, both of which 
come from Hunan }$J jjjj. The main export article is raw cotton, 
which is despatched to Szechw'an pg )\\ in large quantity. 

Highways of Communication. — Besides the rich network 
of streams, especially throughout the whole plain, the principal 
roads are: 

1° The road from Peking 4b SC fo Hank'ow g| P . This 
road crosses Honan Jpf j|f Province, and after reaching Hank'ow, 
proceeds to Yohchow Fu -gj- $\ /£f (in the Province of Hunan), 
and finally leads to Canton. 

2° The road from Nganhwei $c $jt to Hank'ow §| P , 
passing through Hwangchow Fu j| >}\\ $f. 

3° The road which comes from Honan fpf ]g, via Siung- 
pang JPu jj || fif. A little to the S. of this latter place, it 
branches off into 2 : one going via Kingchow Fu $|J >Jt| Jft and 



Shashi fp 7)f , to Ch'angteh Fu ^ |g[ Jjsf, in Hunan $j $f ; the 
other leading to Hank'ow }J| p , via Nganluh Fu $ g? J]J. — The 
main highway continues also to the N. of Siangyang Fu and- 
leads to Southern Shensi |$j |J. — The land-road from Hank'ow 
j|| to Hanchung Fu Q| rf* JjJ (Southern Shensi), is much 
shorter than the water route on the Han-ho ^E jpf. Travelling 
by the latter, there are 1,120 miles from Hank'ow to Hancliung 
Fu, whereas the land-road running between the two, reduces 
the distance to 620 miles. 

(For Railways, see Sect. V. Ch. VI). 

Open Ports. — Hupeh j#j :|fc has three ports open to 
Foreign trade : Hank'ow $| Q , Ich'ang ^ g and SJuishi : fy iff 
(this latter depending on Kingchow Fu %\\ j\] Jft). There are 
besides, two ports of call: Wuhsueh J^^, depending on Hwang- 
chow Fu ;pf }\\ jfJp, and LuhJc'i-k'ow g? $§ Pi depending on 
Hanyang Fu ^| |Jg /£f . — Torts of call are those in which only 
passengers and luggage may be embarked. 


2°. Hunan MHz 

Area. — 83,398 square miles. 

Population. — 22,109,000 inhabitants, or 265 per square 


Name. — Hunan $J] ffj means "South of the luke", and 

in fact nearly the whole Province is situated to the 8. of the 
Tungt'ing lake f| Ji ft]. 

Boundaries. — Hunan is bounded on the 
N. — By Hupeh $j ft, 

W. — By Szechw'an 0J J|| and Kweichow jtf ))]. * 
S. — By Kwangsi J| |f and Kwangtung J| i|f, 
E. — By Kiangsi f£ jg. 
On the N., the Yangtze ^ ^ fX forms during a short por- 
tion of its course, the boundary line between Hunan $Jj ]$j and 
Hupeh $Jj ft, that is, from Yohchow Fu § fl )J to a distance 
of nearly 60 miles further down. 

Capital. — CH'ANGSHA FU -^ ty Jfr, on the right bank 
of the Siang-kiang jfQ £q. 

Otlier Prefectures. — These number eight, and are: 
On the N. W.: 

1° Yungshun Fu fo JIB Jfr. 

On the Yuen-kiang \% {£ : 

2° Yuencho w Fu p£ M Jfr, 
3° Ch'enchow Fu M *H $F, 
4° Ch'angteh Fu ^ ff Jfr. 

Ow «Jte Tze-kiang j| J£ : 

5° Paok'ing Fu % g Jfr . 

0»i «/tc Siang-kiang tffo j£, descending its course: 

6° Yungchow Fu & #1 JflP, 
7° Hengchow Fu if *N Jff> 
8° Yohchow Fu £ #1 Jff. 
There are also in Hunan four independent Chows $\ : Li 

Chow g Jfl, Kweiyang Chow ^ Iff* JH, Tatwflr Chow j% #| 

and Ch*eng Chow ||fi ^|— and /ive independent T'ings || ; F»m</ 


hwang T'ing JtUL J§L J^, Tungsui T'ing fo $£ Jjjg, Kicnchow 
T'ing $£ >)]] |j§, Hwang chow T'lng jg; jfl J|§, and Nanchow 
T'ing $ 0| Jg. 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Hunan is a mountainous 
country covered with forests, while tea-plantations and rice-fields 
are found in some valleys. The country is deeply carved up by 
the Siang-Mang $g fx. an d U s affluents, all flowing into the 
great Tungt'ing lalce }Jn] Jg| $\, which overflows its banks in Sum- 
mer, but is yiearly half empty in Winter. All activity converges 
towards this lake, and conveys thither : coal, tea and timber, 
which constitute its principal wealth. Through the S., the Province 
has easy communications with Kwangsi J| |f and Kwanglung 
Jf jg, hence its importance as a transit centre for all goods pro- 
ceeding to these Provinces. 

Geological constitution. — Keel sandstone predominates in the mountainous 

part, intersected here and there with limestone, conglomerate and granite, and overlying 
almost everywhere thick coal measures. The portion bordering on the Tungt'ing lake, 
belongs like the great plain of Hupeh, to the alluvial formation deposited by the vast 
inland sea which once covered the whole of this region. The bottom of the Tungt'ing 
lake is formed of micaceous sand. A similar formation gives rise in the Siang-kiang 
(Siang river) to quicksands, which are very dangerous for boats. 

Orography. — The mountainous part of Hunan is excee- 
dingly and wonderfully broken up. As one approaches Hengchow 
Fu ft >)]] Jff, the mountains form a less compact mass, and 
branch off into a considerable number of low hills. It is towards 
the S.W. and W., that the highest altitudes are found, but these 
seldom exceed an elevation of 3,250 or 4.000 feet. The JTeng- 
slian ft [[j, one of the five sacred mountains, which is situated 
to the N.W. of Hengchow Fu $# }]] Jffi, has scarcely an elevation 
of 3,000 feet. 

Beyond the banks of the lake, there are hardly any plains, 
the only ones of importance being those of Leiyang hsien =£ $§ 
fg and Hengchow Fu ft fl\ jff. 

Climate. — The climate of Hunan resembles that of Hupeh. In the mountain- 
ous region, it is rather like that of Kweichow, where it is moister than in Hupeh. At 
Yohchow Fu, the thermometer ranged in 1902, from 23° to 95° Fahrenheit. 

Hydrography. — A river traverses the Province from S. 
to N., the Siang-kiang jfg j£, which receives on its left two 


considerable affluents : one, the Tze-Mang Jf ££, before flowing 
into the lake; the other, the Yuen-kianf/ \jq f£, before it issues 
from the lake. The waters of the Yuen-kiang and the Siang- 
kiang, even at flood-season, can be distinctly traced as they 
flow through the lake, and so the Yuen-kiang may be really 
considered as an affluent of the Siang-kiang. 

The Siang-Jciang Jft f£ rises in the N. of Kwangsi Jjfc jg. 
It is navigable for large boats up to Hengchow Fu f|jj >}\] ^, 
and for small craft up to the frontier of Kwangsi $fi ]g. One 
of its affluents, the Lei-ho ^jpf , is also navigable to the frontier 
of Kwangtung Jf j|[. In Winter, junks with a draught of five 
feet, sail up as far as Yohchow Fu -g- jjfj $f ; those drawing 
three and a half, can go up to Siangyin hsien $g |^ jgi, and 
those requiring two and a half feet can reach Siangt'an hsien 
jft \% J$£- Three Steamship Companies have opened regular 
services between Hank'ow j|| p and Ch'angsha Fu J| fj; ^. 

The Tze-Jviang jjf fx is navigated with difficulty, on account 
of its numerous rapids, which have deserved for it the name of 
T'an-ho $g| |pT (river of rapids). Only small craft can ply on 
its waters. 

The Yuen-Jciang \it $L rises in Kw^eichow jtf >}\'\. There, 
it receives on the right its longest tributary, the TsHng-sJiui jpf 
yfc. The rapids, which commence 35 miles above Ch'angteh Fu 
% ® Mi render navigation on it rather difficult. Nevertheless, 
thousands of small boats traffic unceasingly upon its waters and 
those of its principal affluents, even up into Kweichow jf >|{|, 
and to the S.E. of Szechw'an [jg )\\. 

In the N.W., the Id-shui ^j| 7^, which is navigable in its 
lower portion only. 

The Tungt'ing lake J|sJ $| $j is about 75 miles long, by 
60 broad in Summer, while in Winter, it is but a marsh through 
which flow several streams. In Summer, the overflow of the 
Yangtze ^ ^f j£ runs into it, forcing back the waters which it 
receives from the Siang-kiang ffflfC and its affluents. In Winter, 
the lake pours its waters into the Yangtze, with which it com- 
municates through the Yohchow Fu fifjHl/jft canal - Modifying its 


aspect according to the seasons and the rise of the waters, it is 
however the centre of a very active movement of boats, owing 
to a system of sluices which adapts it to navigation in all sea- 
sons. Thousands of junks carrying rice, timber, coal and salt, 
traverse it unceasingly. Immense rafts composed of an assemblage 
of beams and planks, attaining sometimes 330 feet in length, in 
fact floating villages with their huts and inhabitants, traverse 
its waters. A network of canals surrounds it, but the land 
is too low and inundations too much feared, to entice anybody 
to settle down near its banks. The few villages found in the 
environs are all enclosed within high embankments, which pro- 
tect them when the waters rise. 

-v In the N. the T*aip%ng -fc 2p canal,, much longer than that 
of Yohchow Fu ^ ty\ Jff> ^ ut l ess important, connects the lake 
with the Yangtze j§ ^ j£, a little to the S. W. of Shashi {£? 
"pfT (dependent on Kingchow Fu #|] >)\\ jft, in Ilupeh $J] j|fc). The 
canal of Ngeuch'i-k'ow $jj ftfj p, more to the E., is better and 
moreover is navigable nearly the whole year round. 

Fauna ;»nd Flora. — Nothing deserves any particular mention save that the 

mountains of the W. are wooded, a circumstance pretty rare in China. In the forests, 
some gigantio trees are still found. Notwithstanding the excellent climate, there is 
little silk, sugar or opium produced in the Province. 

Agricultural Wealth. — This consists chiefly of few, which 
is one of the best in China, and supplies in part the demand of 
the Hank'ow Q| P market. Besides, Hunan jjjj jfj produces 
rice, cotton, tobacco, oranges and oily tea. Among the trees, 
we may mention the pine, oak, cedar and camphor-trees. 

The best tea grows at Nganhwa hsien # >ffc jgji, Clrangsha 
Prefecture j| fp ^p, to the S.W. of the lake, while it is exten- 
sively cultivated in the region of the lower Siang-kiang $j| Jq, 
up to Hengchow Fu Hf >Jfl jfl 1 and beyond. The W. of Hunan 
produces no tea. 

Mineral Wealtli. — The mineral wealth of Hunan consists 
principally of coal. When ascending the Siang-kiang Jfg £q, the 
coalfields commence near Siangt'an hsien $B j|f J§g, and extend 
to the E. as far as Kiangsi jX ®5 a l so to tne W. to a distance 


as yet unascertained. Coal is chiefly extracted at P'inghsiang 
hsien ff #j|$ H (Yuenchow Fu ^ >Jf| /ft), in Kiangsi ft ■$, upon 
the Li-ho ]|g JpJ, but it is transported on the Siang-kiang Jjfl fc. 
The largest coal-beds are found to the S. of the confluence of 
the Li-ho £g fpf with the Siang-kiang JjJ ft. Its extraction is 
easy, and the mines have been worked for a long time. This 
coal is despatched even to Shanghai _£ $J. In the Southern 
part, anthracite coal predominates, but further to the N., between 
Siangt'an hsien Jjfj fl! )gi and P'inghsiang hsien $£ Jg$ jgji, the 
coal is bituminous. As anthracite coal is principally exported, 
it is called Hunan coal. 

Hunan }g) ~$ has also rich deposits of gold, silver, iron, 
copper, lead, zinc, antimony and sulphur, but the mines are 
not much worked, and await the advent of scientific enterprise. 

Population. — The population is concentrated especially along the Siang-kiang, 
and in the lower course of the Yuen-kiang. Many officials are natives of this Prov- 
ince, which was once famous for its schools. The people of Hunan have always betrayed 
a violent anti-foreign feeling towards Westerners. They are renowned throughout 
China for their military spirit. — In the S. E. are found immigrants from Kiangsi. 
The S. W. is inhabited by the semi-independent tribe of the Miaotze ~ffi ^f- (shoots, 
sons of the soil), or Yaohu ffi )3 (jackals), of whom we shall speak again when descri- 
bing the Southern Provinces and the different races of China. They form 1 j>j of the 
whole population of Hunan. 

Language. — The Miaotze have their own peculiar dialect. Everywhere else 
Mandarin is spoken, but the local accent with which it is pronounced renders it less 
distinct than that of the N., and makes it hard to be understood. 

Cities and Principal Centres. — CH'ANGSHA FU £ 

& Kf ( lon g sands). — Population, 500,000 inhabitants. The city 
is principally engaged in the manufacture of furniture, paper 
and various gold articles. Besides, it is an important commer- 
cial place, situated in a rich and fertile region, which allows it 
to absorb alone one-third of the foreign imports which are 
brought into the country. 

Along the Siang-Jciang •)$ f£, proceeding down-stream : 

Hengchow Fu |£f >)ty fff. —Population, 20,000 inhabitants. 

An important trading mart and transit centre at the junction of 

two highways: one coming from Kwangsi J| |f , the other from 

Kwangtung Jf ^. — Upon this latter, and on the banks of the 


Lei-ho ^ }pf, is Leiyang hsiert ^ ||| J$£. It has a population 
of 4,000 to 5,000 inhabitants, and is the centre of a mining 

Siangt'an listen }jfl § Jg. — Population, 300,000 inhabi- 
tants. A great depot where commission agencies are esta- 
blished. The shops are thronged with customers, even more 
than at Ch'angsha Fu. The city extends to a distance of nearly 
1 miles along the Siang-kiang jjfl fx> whence originated the 
idea that it was more populous than it is in reality. 

Siangyin hsien -Jjfl [^ Jg$. — Population, 20,000 inhabi- 
tants. It is a rather important port. The town is transformed 
into an island in the flood-season. 

Yohchow Fu -gr j\\ }ft. — Population, 20,000 inhabitants. 
A trading city which prospers, thanks to its site. It is built 
on the canal which connects the waters of the lake with those 
of the Yangtze ^ ^ fx. river. 

On the Tuen-kiang </C iL '■ 

Ch'angteh Fu % {g Jft — Population, 300,000 inhabitants. 
Situated at the mouth of the Yuen river, it is the great central 
mart of N.W. Hunan $|j fff . It exports to Kweichow j=£ $\ and 
Szechw'an J||, cotton-yarn and piece-goods from Hupeh 
$fj 4fc, also foreign-made cotton goods ; and imports from Hupeh 
and Hunan : salt, opium, oils, varnish 

Industry and Commerce. — The extraction of coal, tree- 
growing, pottery and brick-making to the S. of Ch'angsha Fu 
Jl \$? Iff constitute important and thriving industries. This 
latter city has also its special products, which we have already 

Commerce. — The export articles are : coal, tea, wood, 
pottery and bricks, silver, antimony-ore, hemp, hides, beans 
and preserved eggs. The imports are : cotton and woollen 
goods, copper, salt, opium, sugar and petroleum. 

The commercial movement of the Province is important. 
Through the canal of Yohchow Fu & jj\ tff alone, the annual 
number of junks sailing to the interior reaches 26,000. 



Highways of Communication. — The principal highways 
arc the water routes already mentioned, especially the Siang- 
kiang $|J XL- The most important roads are : 

1° The Wuch'ang Fu ^ g ffi road in Hupeh jjjjj # . 
This runs along the Siang-kiang, and passes through Yoh- 
cliow Fu ft >}\] )ft, Ch'angsha Fu ^ fp )ft, Siangt'an hsien 
}tt W JB and Hengchow Fu ftj j*| J(f. Here, it branches into 
two: one keeping to the W. and passing through Yungshun Fu 
7K J'l $f> towards Kwangsi Jgf "g"; the other to the E., running 
through the Lei-ho % }pf valley. It then goes over the Chehling 
$f $f pass, and continues into Kwangtung Jf ^. Between 
Ichang hsien g ^ jjg, terminus of navigation upon the Wu-shui 
Jg 7JC and Ch'eng Chow ffi >H»|, the head of navigation on the 
Lei-ho ^. fpj, a road connects the two basins. This is a very 
ancient route, and is paved. It is 30 miles long, and furnished 
from end to end with inns, warehouses and cattle-sheds, all 
bespeaking the great activity that prevails throughout it. 

2° The road which goes from the S. of the Yangtze ;jg -=f 
ft, opposite Shashi ^J?lff, in Hupeh, to Kweichow jff $1, passing 
through Ch'angteh Fu ^ |g /ft, Oh'enchow Fu }% >)i] /f and 
Yuenchow Fu ^C ffl Iff- 

Open Ports. — In Hunan Jjg] j|j, there are two ports open 
to Foreign trade : Yohchow Fu ^ >}\\ Jj^, and Ch'angsha Fu 

References : 


Mission Lyonnaise.— Lyon, 1898 (2 e par- 
tie. Notes surle Commerce deHan-k'eoxi. 
p. 357, le centre de fabrication de Cha- 
che. Voir aussi I re partie. Liv. III,ch.IV). 

David. — Journal de voyage. Paris, 1875. 
(Vol. II, ch. 20, 21, 22. Le Han et Han- 

Rousset. — A travers la Chine. Paris, 1878. 
(ch. 8-11, andch. 18). 

Du Halde. — Description of the Empire 
of China. (Vol. I. p. 98-100). 

Gutzlaflf. — China opened. (Vol. I. p. 108- 

Parker E.II. — Chinese Revenue, Hupeh. 

(N. C B. II. A. Soc. 1895-96. p. 115-117). 

Little A. J. — Through the Yangtse Gor- 
ges. London, 1898. (Ch. II. p. 15-36. 
Shanghai to Ichang. — Ch. III. p. 37-50. 
Ichang and its Environs. — Ch. XL 

Little A.J. —The Far East, Oxford, 1905. 
(Ch. IV. p. 91-90. Hupeh). 



Roehor.— Notes de voyage en Chine Cen- 
trale. (Bulletin de la Soc. Geog. Coram. 
Paris, 1898). 

Williams. — The Middle Kingdom. (Vcl. 
I. p. 120-122). 

Crosier. — General Description of China. 
(Vol. I. p. 69-73). 

Winterbotham. — View of the Chinese 
Empire, (p. 83-86). 

Murray's China. — (Vol. III. p- 28). 

Gill W.— The River of Golden Sand. Lon- 
don, 1883. (Ch. [V. p. 46-56. Hankow and 
Shasi described). 

Allan C.W.— Hankow. (East of Asia Maga- 
zine. Shanghai, 1903. Vol. II. p. 205-273). 

Cornaby W. — Morning walks around Han- 
yang. (East of Asia Magazine. Vol. I. p. 
202-208. Vol. II. p. 279-283. Vol. III. p. 

£tuhlmunn 1*. — Shasi. (East of Asia Ma- 

gazine. 19(12. Vol. I. p. 119-2(10). 
Woodbridge S.I— Killing. (East of Asia 
Magazine. 1903. Vol. II. p. 327-330). 

Bulletin du Comite de l'Asie Francaise. 
1902. (p. 216-253. Han-k'eou). 

China. Imperial Maritime Customs. Dea a- 
nial Reports. Shanghai, 1904. (Hankow. 
Decennial Report, 1892-1901. p. 293 32 I. 
— Ichang. Decennial Report, 1892-1901 . 
p. 179-219.— Shasi. Report, 1896-1901. 
p. 221-250). 

Riclithofen. — Letters. Shanghai, 1873. 
(The Han River, p. 13-10). 

Parker E. II. — Up the Yangtse. Hong- 
kong, 1891. 

China. Imperial Maritime Customs, lie- 
turns of Trade, 1905. (Hankow trade Re- 
port, 1905. p. 114-181. — Ichang trade 
Report, 1905. p. 102-112. — Shasi trade- 
Report, 1905. p. 113-123). 


Williams. —The Middle Kingdom. (Vol. 

I. p. 122-123). 
Grosier. — General Description of China. 

(Vol. I. p. 69-73). 
Winterbotham. — View of the Chinese 

Empire, (p. 83-80). 
Murray's China. - (Vol. III. p. 28). 
Du Haldo. — Description of the Empire 

of China. (Vol. I. p. 100-102). 
GutzlulT. — China opened. (Vol. I. p. 108- 

Parker E.H.— Chinese Revenue, Hunan. 

(N. C. R. R. A. Soc. 1895-90. p. 114-115). 
Barclay Parsons W. — Voyage through 

Hunan. (Geog. Journal, 1902. p. 711-733). 
Riclithofen. — Letters. Shanghai, 1873. 

(Hunan, p. 1-13). 
Gill W.— The River of Golden Sand. Lon- 

don, 1883. (Tungting lake described. Hi. 

IV. p. 52-53). 

Carles W.R.— The Yangtse Chiang. (Geog. 

Journal, 1898 Vol. XII. p. 235-237). 
Preston T. J. — Progress and Reform in 

Hunan Province. (East of Asia Magazine, 
1905. Vol. IV. p. 210-2.19). 

W frigate A. -Recent Journey from Shang- 
hai to Ehamo, through Hunan. (Geog. 
Journal, 1899. Vol. XIV. p. G39-616). 

Little A.J. Tin: Far East. Oxford, 1905* 

(Hunan, p. 90-99). 

China. Imperial Marit. Customs. Decennial 
Repo ts.Shanghai, 1901. (Yochow. Report 
1899-1901. p. 251-291). 

China. Returns of Trade, 1905. (Ch'angsha 
trade Report, 1905. p. 123-133. — Yochow 
trade Report, 1905. p. 134-143). 




These three Provinces are governed by the same Viceroy, 
styled the TAang-ftiang jg %£ Viceroy, who resides at Nanking 
\fa M or Kiangning \L flf. For Mis reason, we shall study 
I hem together. Kiangsi f£ jftf has however this particular feature 
that its Governor has the charge of nearly all civil affairs, and 
depends on the Viceroy only for military matters. 

Kiangsi differs widely from the other two Provinces. It is 
nearly all covered with mountains, has but one lake which irri- 
gates its extreme AT., only one highway of comynunication. and, 
one navigable route which traverses it from S. to N . The other 
two Provinces, on the contrary, are covered with immense plains, 
intersected with canals and navigable rivers, and watered by 
several large lakes. The whole Northern part of Nganhwei # $fc 
and Kiangsu f£ $$■ borders on the basin of the Hwang-ho ji| fpj, 
and partakes of its characteristics, while to the S. of Kiangsi f£ 
"jflj, the climate, productions and, even the dialects resemble 
those of Kwangtung Jf| ]g. 

The three Provinces have this in common, that the same 
river flows through them, and their productions are to a great 
extent the same. All three have greatly suffered from the T'ai- 
pHng rebellion, which 50 years ago devastated them and reduced 
their population. 


1°. Kiangsi iX H 

Area. — 69,498 square miles. 

Population. — 26,532,000, or 382 to the square mile. 
Name. — Kiangsi ft ljj§ means "West reach of the Kiang", 

This Province is in fact to the W. if we consider the Kiangsu 
and Nganhwei -^ f$J Provinces, sometimes styled collectively 
Kiangnan ft i^b or Provinces S. of the Kiang ft, a name which 
would better suit Kiangsi, as it lies entirely to the S. of the 
Yangtze % ^ ft river. 

.Boundaries. — Kiangsi is bounded on the 

N. — By Nganhwei g fg( and Ilupeh $J] 4fc, 

W. — By Hunan $g fg, 

S. — By Kwangtung j£ jg, 

E. — By Fokien jjjg |g and Ohckiang ffi ft. 

Capital. — NANCH'ANG FU gj § /ft, on the Kan-kiang 
H ft, to the S. of the P'oyang § % lake. 

Other Prefectures. — These are 12 in number. 
Proceeding from the Yangtze ^ ^ ft towards Kwang- 
tung Jlr ^, through the Kan-kiang J| ft valley : 

1° Kiukiang Fu ^L ft Jfr, 

2° Nanking Fu ^ M Jfr, 

3° Linkiang Fu $s rl /ft, 

4° Kihngan Fu W £ tff, 

5° Kanchow Fu ft M Jfr, 

6" Nanngan Fu H) £ /ft. 
On the Western affluents, going from S. to N. : 

7° Yuenchow Fu g JH fl^F, 

8° Shuichow Fu 3$ *N Iff. 
Ow £fte Eastern affluents, going also from S. to N. : 

9° Kiench'ang Fu i g Iff, 

10° Fuchow Fu m *H #, 

11° Kwangsin Fu M fi Jff, 

12° Jaochow Fu ft *H Jft. 
There is also in Kiangsi ft ]|f one independent Chow fi\: 
Ningtu Chow if* S5 ffi • 


Aspect and Characteristics. — Of all the Provinces in 
China, there is none which is .so simple in structure. Hunan 
$Jj j§, its neighbouring Province, is the one which resembles it 
most. Kiangsi Jj |f, entirely mountainous, except in its low 
part (to the North), is traversed from S. to N. by a great valley 
through which flows the Kan-kumg ^ fa, and into which run 
all the affluents of the same river. These affluents, or nearly 
all of them, rise within the Province. A great lake occupies the 
low-lying part of the Province, and fulfils the .same duty as the 
Tungt'ing lake $\ J| $JJ, overflowing like it in Summer, and 
becoming empty in Winter. Junks likewise ply on its waters. 
Tea, rice, cotton, silk, as well as porcelain ware, constitute its 
principal riches. Its mineral wealth has not been so far availed 
of. At the present day coal-mines begin to be worked in the 
Western part, but the export takes place chiefly through Hunan 


Geological constitution. — The geology of Kiangsi has so far been bnt little 
explored. Red sandstone seems to predominate in the W. It overlies, as in Hunan, 
rich coal measures. In the E., although red sandstone is abundantly found, still as 
one advances in the same direction, it is replaced by granite and porphyry. The 
sandstone wonderfully broken up, offers in this Province the same picturesque fea- 
tures which we have already mentioned in Hunan. It imparts great variety and 
charm to the country, otherwise so rich in limpid streams, and also in trees and 

Orography. — With the exception of the great plain 
which surrounds the P'oyang §[> |S|§ Jj$J| lake, and extends to the 
S. as far as Linkiang Fu jjg fc j£f, the country is covered with 
mountain chains and ridges running in the general direction 
S. W. — N. E. To the E., the high mountains of Fokien jg Jg 
interpose a powerful barrier between the two Provinces. Else- 
where, their altitude reaches 1,600 feet and seldom surpasses 
3,200 feet. 

Climate. — The climate of Kiangsi generally is hot in Summer. During Winter, 
the lakes between Kiukiang and the mountain-background are occasionally frozen. 
In the neighbourhood of the P'oyang lake, the climate resembles much that of Hank'ow 
and Hupeh. In the S., as evidenced by the flora, it is topical like that of Canton. 

Hydrography. — The water system of Kiangsi is compo- 
sed of a large river flowing into the Yangtze |f| ^J jf£, a large 



lake which receives this river before it reaches the Yangtze, and 
numerous affluents flowing from both sides into the Kan-kiang 


The Kati-kiang f| XL rises in the S. E. of Kiangsi, and is 
then called the Kunashui J| yfc. On the W., it flows up to 
Kanchow Fu t^ ft\ ^, and receives there the Changshui if: 
7J^. It runs subsequently to the N. E. as far as the P'oyang 
$f> pg lake, into which it empties its waters through several 
mouths. Above Kihngan Fu ^ ^ Jj*f, it has a certain number 
of rapids which are called the Shihpah-tfan \* /\ $£ (eighteen 
rapids). In the flood-season, it is however navigable for small 
steamers up to Nanch'ang Fu ]§ ^ Jff ; for junks of middling 
tonnage up to Kanchow Fu @ j^\ /iff, and for small craft up to 
Nanngan Fu ^ $ M 

The P'oymtff lake fft |$g- $J) is 90 miles in length and almost 
20 in breadth. It is very deep like the Tungt'ing lake }|^ Jg $J], 
especially in its Southern part. In the flood-season, it rises to 
nearly 30 feet above the ordinary level, and overflows into all 
the neighbouring marshes. It is dotted with numerous islands, 
while its Northern banks, though rather steep, are covered with 
trees and villages. Its violent storms are greatly feared. 
Numerous small steamboats convey passengers across its 
waters. The Huk'ow fjft p canal connects it with the Yangtze 
JI ^ iL river. 

Throughout the Province, there are numerous ponds which 
are used for rearing fish. 

Fauna and Flora. — The fauna and flora of Kiangsi are peculiar, as they 
belong like those of Hunan to the semi-tropical region. The specimens of the fauna arc 
rather meagre threugh lack of extensive forests. Even the birds are not very numerous, 
except the palmipeds or web-footed, which abound in Winter on the lakes. A few 
kinds of serpents are found, but they are not of a dangerous sort. 

The country is well wooded and possesses tall firs, camphor-trees, oaks, 
banyans, camellias, kidney-bean trees and azaleas. Trees of large girth are rarely 
found, and this necessitates the importation of wood for building purposes. 

Agricultural Wealth. — This consists chiefly of rice, 
cotton, tobacco and hemp. The Province has also the ordinary 
crops of the N. : corn, barley, millet, sorghum and indigo. 
The tea-plant is confined mostly to the N. W. 


Buffaloes and zebus, or humped oxen, are largely employed 
in tilling the ground, but few horses and asses are found, and 
so goods are transported either by water or on the backs of 

mineral Wealth. — Coal is extensively found in the N. W. 
and also in the E., at Lohp'ing hsien gj§ 2p jjg. Excellent Kaolin 
(Kaoling ^ §[, literally high ridge or pass — Decomposed 
granite made into paste, and forming an important ingredient in 
all kinds of porcelain), abounds in the N. E. and is used in the 
manufacture of the famous Kiangsi porcelain. 

Population. — The population is especially crowded in the N. of the Province 
and in the valleys. The country was formerly much more populated, but like its neigh- 
bours, it suffered severely from the devastation of the T'aip'ings. A large number of 
immigrants poured in from Hupeh to cultivate the vacant lands. The people rival in 
husiness-ability those of Shansi, hut the majority are engaged in agricultural pursuits 
and lead a rather secluded life. 

Language.— Mandarin is spoken in the E. and S.,but intermingled with various 
dialects. In the extreme E., a peculiar dialect is spoken, which r< sembles much that of 

Cities and Principal Centres. — NANCWANG FU ]§ 

U ffi. — Population, 300,000 inhabitants. It stands in the 
centre of an alluvial plain, and was originally built on the 
shore of the P'oyang lake, which has since receded 30 miles 
Northward. During the T'aip'ing rebellion, it successfully 
withstood a long siege, until the arrival of the Imperial troops 
from the N. compelled the rebels to retreat. Of late it has 
risen from its ruins, become an important trading town and has 
also some manufactures. 

To the N. of lake P'oyang : 

Kiukiang Fu \ j£ Jft. — Population, 36,000 inhabitants. 
One of the Yangtze ports open to foreign trade in 1861. It is 
12 miles distant from the outlet of the P'oyang lake. It has 
considerable commerce in tea, which it exports principally to 
Hank'ow g| p and Shanghai J: $J. There are two fine granite 
quays along the river front, which widens out there to 5,000 
feet. To the rear of the city are the Lu-shan |J |jj mountains, 
which attain a height of 4,000 feet. 


Kiuling )i |g (nine ridges). — An excellent health resort 
and sanatorium open lor Foreign residence since 1895. The 
Summer is delightful and the climate pure and bracing. It is 
5 hours' distance from Kiukiang, and the journey may be made 
in a sedan chair. 

,Taochow Fit %% >}\\ j£f . — Built on the Eastern bank of the 
P'oyang lake, it is with Nank'ang Fu jft JH /ft, the great empo- 
rium for the sale of the porcelain manufactured in'the Province. 

Kingteh chert ^ ^ jgj{ (mart of brilliant virtue). — A centre 
manufacturing highly esteemed porcelain. It extends in a plain 
along the banks of the river Ch'ang J^ ££, and is flanked by high 
mountains. It was established A. D. 1004, under an Emperor 
of the Northern Sung Jfc ^ dynasty, whose title of reign it 
bears. The kilns destroyed by the T'aip'ings have been rebuilt. 
Activity begins to reign anew, but the porcelain turned out is far 
from equalling in colour and finish that of former times. At the 
present day, it has but 160 furnaces (instead of 500), and employs 
160,000 workmen (instead of 1,000,000). The finest porcelain 
manufactured there, is despatched annually to Peking for the use 
of the Emperor. A small amount of fancy articles is exported 
to Europe and America. The remainder, consisting especially 
of rice bowls, is sold cheaply throughout the country, but it 
possesses the practical qualities of hardness, solidity and useful- 
ness. The value of export sales amounts annually to about 
3,000,000 taels, or £ 480,000 sterling. 

Industry and Commerce. — The principal industry is 
the manufacture of porcelain. The weaving of silk and cotton 
cloth, the preparation of tea for export purposes, a few soap 
and glass manufactories, match and paper-making occupy a 
large number of hands. 

The chief exports are : porcelain, paper, tea and tobacco, 
while the imports include cotton cloth, linen fabrics, petroleum, 
mulberry-trees, sugar, salt and fans. The traffic through the 
Province, principally with Canton and the Northern region, is 
considerable. From 20,000 to 30,000 junks visit annually the 
port of Kiukiang. 


Highways of Communication. — Besides the navigable 
waterways already described, a single but very important route 
deserves to be particularly mentioned : it is that which follows 
the Kan-kiang ff( ££ valley and proceeds to Canton Jfc ig. It 
is the way formerly known as "Ambassadors* route? 9 , and by 
which several embassies journeyed from Canton to Peking Jfc 
T§r. It runs to the S. over the Melting $f $■} pass, which owes 
its name to the numerous plum-trees that grow in the neigh- 
bourhood. It was over this pass, that the embassies to the Court 
of Peking of Lord Macartney and Lord Amherst passed when 
returning to Canton, the former in 1793 and the latter in 1816. 

In the N. W., a short railway line conveys the coal from 
the P'inghsiang hsien ^ % $$ mines to Liling hsien gf |g? Jgj, 
in Hunan $f) ^. 

Open Ports. — In this Province, there is but one port 
open to Foreign trade : Kiukiang % y£ Jff. Further on, Hu- 
k'oiv hsien $j| p J$f, is a port of call. 

Note. — To the W. of the P'oyang lake §5 % jtffi are the 
vale and grotto of the White deer (pehluh-tung £ Jjg }|jf|), 
where lived and taught Chuhsi ^ ^ (A. D. 1130-1200), the 
disciple and commentator of Confucius. The spot is a celebrated 
place of pilgrimage for Chinese literati. 

References : 

Williams. — The Middle Kingdom. New 

York, 1861. I Vol. I. p. 91-93). 
GrOsier. — General Description of China. 

London, 1795. p. 46-51. 
Winterbotliam. — View of the Chinese 

Empke. London, 1795. p. 6G-79. 
Murray's China. — Edinburgh, 1813. 

(Vol. III. p. 26-27). 
Du Halde. — Description of the Empire 

of China. London, 1738. (Vol. I. p. 79- Q 3). 
Gutzlafif. — China opened. London, 1838. 

(Vol. I. p. 8-1-90). 
David. — Journal de Voyage. Paris, 1875. 

(Vol. II. Ch. 23-28). 
Rocher. — Notes de voyage en Chine 

Centrale. 1898. 
Topography of Kiangsi (Chinese Reposi- 
tory. Vol. XL p. 375-386). 

Parker E.H.— Chinese Revenue, Kiangsi. 
(N. C. B. R. A. Soc, 1895-96. p. 120-123). 

Davis Sir J. F. — Sketches of China, 
London, 1841. Ch. 14. 

Liltle A. — The Far East. Oxford, 1905. 
p. 99-104. 

Clennel W. J. — Region of the Poyang 
Lake, Central China. (Geog. Journal. 

Decennial Report of the Trade of Kiu- 
kiang. 1892-1901. (China. Imperial Marit. 
Customs. Vol. I. Yangtse Ports, p. 325- 

Returns of Trade for Kiukiang, 1905. (Imp. 
Marit. Customs, p. 184-196. With sketch- 
map, of the Poyang lake,by W.J. Clennel). 

Geogr.Notes on the Province of Kiangsi. 
(China Review. Vol. VII. N«* 2-5). 



2° . Nganhwei ^f %k 

Area. — 54,826 square miles. 

Population. — 23,072,300 inhabitants, or 132 to the 
square mile. 

Name. — The name of this Province comes from the 
combined names of two of its principal towns : iW/ank'ing Fu 
3c JS! iff. <™ d Bweichow Fu f§ ffl /ft. 

Koumlaries. — Nganhwei is bounded on the 
X. — By Honan fpf ]fj\ 
W. — By llonan fpj jfj and Hupeh $j] 4fc, 
S. — By Kiangsi ft: |f and ChSkiang ffi ft, 
E. — By Kiangsu ft jg£. 

Capital. — NilANK'ING FU #%}$. to the 8.W. of the 
Province, and on the left bank of the Yangtze $, ^ ft river. 
Otlier Prefectures. — These are seven in number, 

Jo the N.W.j one; and to the F., another: 

1 ■ Yingchow Fu & #1 Jfr, 
2" Fungyang Fu J& fl tff. 

vl Zittfe /o </te iV. o/ Zofce C/i'^o Jjf. : 

3" Liichow Fu 1 #1 M. 
To Me N. of the Yangtze, proceeding downstream : 

4° Ch'ichow Fu fib >)\\ Jft, 
5" T'aip'ing Fu ± ¥ Iff. 

To /7*6 8. of T'aip'ing Fu ^ Zfi fff : 

6° Ningkwo-h Fu U 1-11 tff , 
7° Hweichow Fu © W M. 

There are also in Nganhwei $£ ^ /tue independent Choir 
>}\\ cities : Kwangteh Chow Jf |g ^)fl, Gfc'fl* C7*©*«; $£ >Jfl, i/o 
Chow ^p jfl, lMhngan Chow ^ # j]] and £«e Chow fjg jfl. 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Nganhwei $r $fc compri- 
ses t/iree </«/fr distinct regions. On the S. of the river, the 

country is mountainous, rich in tea, cotton and industries. In 
the centre, between the river and the Hwai-ho $£ }pj, it is partly 


mountainous, partly flat and marshy, and dotted with lakes as 
Kiangsu j£ He is approached. The people are not so rich as to 
the S. of the river, and productions are less abundant, though 
tea is still grown. In the N., beyond the Hwai-ho Jg }pf, there 
is a vast plain with a few hillocks. It is the prolongation of the 
Great Northern Plain, with its dense and impoverished imputation, 
its cold dust storms, its waggons and its monotony of vegetation. 
Throughout Nganhwei ^ $fc however, communications are facili- 
tated by numerous navigable waterways, even in the mountainous 
region of the S. Nganhwei jfc ^ combines in the same Province 
the characteristics of three regions : of the N., the Centre, and the 
Coast Region of Chekiang jjjf Jq and Kiangsu £L j||. All three 
are found in its vegetation and animals, in the character of its 
inhabitants, and even in its language. 

Geological constitution. — The Great Northern Plain extends into the upper 
part of the Province. The soil is a mixture of alluvium and loess, and the surface is 
diversified by the prolongation of the last spurs of the K'uenlun range. These moun- 
tains terminate not far from the Hungtseh lake, and are composed of sandstone, 
marble and granite. In the S., we find a prolongation of the mountains of Fokien and 
Chekiang. Their formation is chiefly of granite, limestone and schist, while alluvial 
lands are found at the bottom of the valleys and along the Yangtze river. 

Orography. — To the N. of the Yangtze ^H -f fLi contin- 
uing the Hwaiyang-shan }g fj| [jj and skirting the N. of 
Hupeh }g] 4b, are the Hoh-shan ||f |Jj mountains. These 
extend from S.W. to N.E. between the Yangtze j| ^ Jq an d 
the Hwai-ho Jj| fpf . They afford beautiful sites, have difficult 
passages, and rise in places to an elevation of 6,500 feet. Their 
average height varies from 1,600 to 3,300 feet. 

To the S. of the river, is the Hwangshan ^ Jj, which 
follows the same general direction, and reaches at times an 
altitude of 6,560 feet. It is however a very confused chain, 
especially in the Hweichow Fu ;jjfc Jfl ffi region. Its numerous 
valleys seldom exceed a few hundred yards in breadth. 

Climate. — Nganhwei enjoys a climate similar to that of the Northern Region, 
especially in the plain N. of the Hwai-ho. In the mountainous tract of the Centre, the 
cold is intensely felt in the Winter season, and snow at times blocks up the roads. 
Snow is also found occasionally on the mountains of the Southern part, but the climat^ 
js milder there in general. 


Hydrography. — The rivers of Nganhwei % ^ run in 
three distinct basins : 

1° In the N. — The Ilwai-ho ff£ JpJ, commonly called the 
Htval. This stream rises in the S. of Ilonan }pj $j , and is navigable 
there below Sinyang Chow fjf |S§ >}\\. When it reaches Ngan- 
hwei t£ ^, it is already a large river. It is in this Province 
however that it receives on its left bank its principal affluents : 
the Sha-ho j^inf, Fei-ho }Jg fpj, J\o-ho •}$ ^pj and Hui-ho ^ }pj. 
The Hwai-ho fj| jpj runs in Nganhwei %'$JL from S.W. to N.E., 
and flows into the Hungtseh £jb \% lalce. Formerly it received a 
part of the waters of the Hwang-ho ^ jpj, through the Sha-ho j^J; 
JpJ, which is still its principal affluent. The llwai-ho is from 500 
to 1,300 feet wide, and is subject to violent floods which inun- 
date the surrounding country to a distance of from 10 to 20 miles. 
It is navigable, as are also the greater number of its tributaries, 
but canals connecting them together are sorely needed. Yu 3?j 
the Great, it is said, had formerly opened several, but they have 
been allowed to silt up, or are obstructed by fish preserves. 

2° In the centre. — The Yangtze UJ^tC, which is very wide 
and deep throughout all this part of its course. It receives on 
both banks numerous streams, of which several are navigable. 
In Summer, it overflows its banks, especially the left, in the 
flood-season. It then forces back, even as far as lake Ch'ao jji, 
the waters of the rivers which flow into it. We have described 
above [see ch. I p. 98) the different branches through which it 
flowed formerly through the S. of the Province. 

3° In the extreme S. 9 near Hweichow Fu ® j\\ fffi, the rivers 
run partly towards the P'oyang lake fg ^ JjJJJ, in Kiangsi ; and 
partly towards Hangchow Fu ^ }\] ^ bay, in Chekiang Province. 

Lakes. — Lakes abound in the Province, especially along 
the Northern bank of the Yangtze. The principal are: the 
Hungtseh lake $t H $Jj, which .we shall find again when 
describing Kiangsu ft. ||, and the Ch'ao-7tu j| $J|. 

The C7i'ao-7iu J| $, to the S. of Luchow Fu g jfl f , fills 
the bottom of the basin formed by that region. It teems with 


fish, and is navigable for large junks. Its circumference is 
about 125 miles. Rivers flow into it from every side, except 
on the E., where it empties itself into the Yangtze ^ ^ f£ 
through a large canal. 

Fauna and Flora — The fauna and flora of this Province vary according to 
the three regions of which it is composed. Meagre in the North, they become more 
numerous and rich in the centre, especially in the mountainous part, where there are 
still some tracts pretty well wooded. The Southern region abounds in splendid forests, 
though some are more denuded since 18G0. In these forests are found beautiful speci- 
mens of the camphor-tree, the thuja, the cunninghamia and the yew-tree. The fauna is 
also rich in deer, wild boars and panthers. It is said even that there are some monkeys, 
which have probably crossed over from the mountains of Ch&kiang or of Fokien. In 
the N. are found numerous aquatic birds: swans, cranes, bustards, pelicans, storks and 

Agricultural Wealth. — Agricultural products diminish 
from S. to N. In the S., besides the productions peculiar to 
the N., tea, rice and cotton are extensively cultivated. In the 
N., rice and tea are lacking, and only wheat, beans, sorghum 
and millet are found. In the Central part, tea and rice grow, 
but much less than in the S. The best tea is that of Luhngan 
Chow 7^ $£ >}[], sometimes called Sunglo fe Jgg (pine range) leaf, 
from a mountain of the country. The Hweichow Fu f$j ji] Jj^f 
tea is also much esteemed. If the timber of the same district 
were exported, it would be likewise a source of prosperity for 
the country. The poppy is cultivated more and more throughout 
the whole Province, chiefly in Yingchow Fu §j| >}\\ JjJ, and Lu- 
chow Fu Jt >)\\ fft. 

Mineral Wealtlt. — Coal is extensively found in the S., 
but the mines are little worked up to the present. Iron-ore 
is extracted at Hoh-shan ^| [Ij, and it seems that formerly 
gold, silver, copper and lead mines have been worked in the S. 

Population. — The poorest portion of this Province, that of the N., is also the 
most populous. The inhabitants are very simple, but robust and hard-working. They 
reckon but few scholars from their ranks. In the Centre, the population is still denser, 
except in the mountainous part. This region produces a few more scholars. The South- 
ern part is the one that suffered most from the T'aip'ing rebellion. It is now however 
being gradually repeopled, owing to immigrants from Hupeh and Honan. 

The people of Hweichow Fn,in the extreme S., form a category by themselves.They 
are shrewd business-men, and living in a place abounding in resources, have succeeded 
iu making large fortunes. During a considerable portion of the year, the men travel 


on business, and leave their homos in charge of immigrants and slaves from Ngank'ing 
Fu. The former constitute one-third of the population, and the latter nearly one-sixth. 
Language. — Mandarin, but more or less altered, is spoken everywhere, except 
in the S. The Northern dialect much resembles the language of Chihli, Hweichow Fu 
has a tongue so peculiar that it seems to form a dialect by itself. 

Cities and Principal Centres. — NGAtfK'ING FU%J& 
ffi. — Population, 40,000 inhabitants. Capital of the Province, 
and a port of call on the Yangtze. It has a military academy 
and a provincial mint. The city is beautifully situated and 
has a certain commercial importance. The suburbs extend on 
both sides along the Yangtze. 

On the right bank of the river : 

Wuhu hsien M $ jg$. — Population, 137,000 inhabitants. 
A treaty port and important city exporting rice, wheat, cotton, 
tea, opium, furs, timber, sugar, paper and feathers. The prin- 
cipal export articles are : rice, cotton and tea. All other goods 
are imported and distributed throughout the Southern Region. 
There are also a few industries, such as a flour-mill and an 
egg factory. The total net value of the port has been in 1903, 
Hk. Tls. 24,542,783; in 1904, TIs. 23,223,383; and in 1905, 
Tls. 30,623,809. The new General Foreign Settlement was 
opened on the 16 th May, 1905. 

T'aip'ing Fu Jfc Zfi ffi. — A scholarly and military town. 
It has however some steel and copper works, and manufactures 

In the extreme S. : 

Hweichaw Fu $£ )\\ Jft. — Centre of the tea-packing dis- 
trict. It is also famous for its Indian ink. The country around 
is one of the richest of Nganhwei, and furnishes timber and 
bamboo, which are largely exported. 

To the N. of Jjdke Ch'ao : 

Hohfei hsien fe fjg J^ (dependent on Luchow Fu). — The 
native home of Li Hungchang, China's great modern statesman 

To the N.E. : 

Fungyang Fu JrJ, g| ){f (Rising phoenix). — Birthplace 
of the Mings ^. The first Emperor of this dynasty, Hungwu 


jfjt S^ resided there in A. D. 1368, before he transferred the 
seal of Empire to Nanking- pfr t£. In the neighbourhood, 5 
miles to the S.W., the mausoleum which he erected upon his 
father's burial place is still to be seen. 

To tlie y. W. : 

Toh Choiv 2g >}\\. — Population. 100,000 inhabitants. A 
large city, where an important trade in hides is carried on. 

Industry and Commerce. — The most important indus- 
trial region of the Province is Hweichow Fu ^ j|.|.| ^ famous 
for its "Indian inh", its engravings on copper and its varnish ; 
each of the district cities of this region has its special branch 
of trade. In other places, silk is manufactured, and iron-works 
carried on. 

Nganhwei •$ ^ exports: tea, rice and cotton, and imports: 
furs, sugar, opium, cotton fabrics and paper. 

Highways of Communication. — Besides the numerous 
navigable rivers, some of which are practicable only for 6 
months, the principal highways are. 

To the K. of the Yangtze : 

All the roads radiate from IMchow Fu gr }>\-\ ffi. and lead 
thence : 

1° To the N, E,, towards Shantung jjj jfe, via llwaiyuen 
hsien fig gr f|, and Suh Chow Jfg >}\>\. 

2° To the N.W., towards Honan jpj ~$j, via Chengyang-kwan 
IE % H, and Yingchow Fu |f >}\] jff. 

3° To the S. W., towards Hupeh JjJJ ;[£ , via T'ungch'eng 
hsien ^ ffi §£, and T'aihu hsien ± $ %. At T'ungch'eng 
hsien a branch-road runs to Ngank'ing Fu -§■ U Jft. 

A road distinct from the others, coming from Peking, and 
formerly one of the finest of the Empire, starts from Fungyang 
Fu Jg, |f| $$, and proceeds via Ch'u Chow jf^ jfl to P'ook'ow 
Wl P, opposite Nanking ]§ jg£. A cross-road connects it with 
route n° 1, mentioned above. 

To the S. of the Yangtze : 

1° A road coming from Nanking ]fj i]\ ski its the right 
bank of the Yangtze, passes through Wuhu M #J] j|£ and 


Ch'ichow Fu fljj ^fl /j?f, and terminates opposite Ngank'ing 

£* /ft- 

2° Several roads start from Hweichow Fu $fc $\ JjJ. All 
of them are kept in a state of good repair, and they connect the 
district towns with each other. 

To the N. of the Hwai-ho f|f jjj[, the roads are wide and 
carls travel on them. Everywhere else conveyance is performed 
by carriers and pack-animals. A great number of ponies, mules 
and asses are employed in this transport. 

Open Ports. — In this Province there is but one port 
open to Foreign trade: Wuhu 3| Jjjj). There are besides two 
ports of call: Nffauk'inff Fu £ Jg Jft and Tat'ung -fc jg, in 
the Prefecture of Ch'ichow Fu }j^ #| fff. 


3°. Kiangsu VI M 

Area. — 38,610 square miles. Next to Chekiang $£ J£, 
Kiangsu is the smallest Province of China. 

Population. — 23,980,230 inhabitants, or 620 to the 
square mile. It is, especially in the S., the most densely popu- 
lated Province of the Empire, and comes immediately after 
Shantung \\} ^. 

Name. — The name of this Province is derived from the 
combination of the names of two of its principal cities : Kiang- 
ning Fu ft % Jfr or Nanking "jf ;£, and Soochow Fu || Jfl fff . 

Boundaries. — Kiangsu is bounded on the 
N. — By Shantung j]j ^, 
W. — By Honan }p[ $f and Nganhwei j£ $fc, 
S. — By Chekiang $f AC, 
E. — By the Yellow Sea jg $ (Hwang-hai). 

Capital. — NANKING ]§;£ or Kiangning Fu tC ^ fff. 
Former Capital of the Empire, and nowadays the residence of 
the Viceroy of the Liang-kiang j^j j>£, or two Kiangs. It is built 
at a short distance from the Yangtze ft ^ £t river. 

Other Prefectural Cities. — These are 7 in number. 
On the Grand Canal : 

1° S00CH0W FU m ffl fff. 
To the S. E. of Soochow Fu : 

2° Sungkiang Fu *2 U Jfr. 

Along the Grand Canal, to the N. W. of Soochotv Fu : 

3° Ch'angchow Fu M, 
4o Chenkiang Fu II U /ft. 

Along the Grand Canal, proceeding from S. to N. : 

5° Yangchow Fu H #| jff, 
6° Hwaingan Fu \fe £ fff. 

To the N, W; near the former bed of the Hwang -ho Jjr }pj : 

7° Siichow Fu & N\ /ft. 


There are besides in Kiangsu fX. $£ * independent Chow 
4fl cities: Hal Chow ^ >)]], T'ung Chow Jifi JH and faiMang 
Clvow -fa jf 4fl ; and one independent T'ing Jjg Haimht T'ina 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Like Nganhwei # %, 
Kiangsu is traversed in its lower part by the Yangtze ft ^f f£ 
river, and is divided into ,3 regions: — The first or Northern 

extends almost to Hwaingan Fu }g 4g Jft. This tract is poor, 
densely inhabited, and has all the characteristics of the Northern 
plain. It has however no navigable river like Northern Nganhwei, 
and the former bed of the JSwang-ho ^ fpj runs through it 
from N.W. to S.E. This bed is half filled up in the flood-season. 

The second or Central extends from Hwaingan Fu Jg 4£ jft 
to the Yangtze ft ^p ft. It is a region covered with shallow 
lagoons, swamps, and canals, very poor also, though in Summer 
rich crops of cotton, maize, wheat and rice are raised. Fish 
abound, and afford it a resource which is lacking in the Northern 
region. The Grand Canal, the numerous lakes and, canals, the 
rivers which traverse this part, rrnder communications very easy. 

The third or Southern one comprises all that region which 
lies to the S. of the Yangtze $f^ ^ Jx river, A little mountain- 
ous to the W., it exhibits towards the E. a long and inextricable 
maze of lakes, rivers and canals. The Grand Canal runs through 
it, and it is the most fertile part of the whole Province. Rice, 
silk, cotton and fish are plentiful, while the neighbourhood of the 
great commercial and industrial city of Shangltai _fc $£ contributes 
much to increase its prosperity . 

Geological constitution. — Kiangsu is largely a low, wide, alluvial plain, 
formed by the silt of China's two great rivers : the Hwang-ho in the N. and the Yang- 
tze in the S. Loess however covers a rather large part of the country, both to the N. 
of the Yangtze, and also to the S., down to Cln-nkiang and Nanking. In the hills ex- 
tending along the S. of the Yangtze, the predominating formations are : sandstone or 
quartzite, then limestone and conglomerates. Around Nanking, volcanic rocks betoken 
that the region was formerly the scene of violent eruptions. 

Orography. — From end to end, except to the W., Kiangsu 
XL ffi is a vast plain broken merely by a few undulations. To 
the S, W., in the environs of Nanking $3 ^. hills are found. 


and attain along the river an elevation of from 500 to 1,950 feet. 
Several hillocks also dot the country on the banks of the T'ai- 
nu >fc M or g reat lake, and extend to within some 20 miles to 
the S. W. of Shanghai. In the N., the Shantung |Jj ^ hills 
continue in a series of low undulations. 

Climate.— In the N., in the Prefecture of Siichow Fu, the climate is that of the 
Hwang-ho region with its rather severe Winters, its dry heat, and its cold wind covering 
the whole country with dust. Everywhere else, the climate of Shanghai prevails with 
its almost mild Winters, snow falling seldom and melting cniiekly ; its N. \V. wind in 
Winter, its S. W. in Summer; its moist and unhealthy heat during the latter season, 
and finally its beautiful Autumn period. Owing to the proximity of the sea, the differ- 
ences of temperature are less felt than in the interior. 

Hydrograpliy. — Besides the Yangtze $f% ^f yX, of which 
we have already spoken (p. 93-102), there is no other stream 
to be mentioned, except the Hwangp'oo ^ -jjf, or Shanghai 
_fc $J river, which is a large, deep and useful waterway. It 
rises to the S. W. of Sungkiang Fu $g fx M- Ships of heavy 
tonnage can sail up to Shanghai, and the river is connected 
with a very important network of canals and lakes. When 
the tide rises, all these canals are filled up, and when it falls, 
they are almost dry, except a few large ones which are always 
navigable. At high-water, the whole volume rushes up the 
Hwangp'oo ^ |Jf, making thereby this river the great thorough- 
fare for all boats that come up and descend with the tide. 

To prevent inundations (such as the one that occurred on 
the 1 st and 2 nd September, 1905, and caused such terrible 
havoc), embankments have been built on the E. to oppose a 
barrier to the inroads of the sea. 

The canals of the Central region are less numerous, and 
receive their waters from several quarters. The larger ones 
alone are navigable, and on the whole, do not render to the 
country the same services as those of the S. Two embankments, 
running from N. to S., protect the lowlands situated to the E. 
of Yangchow Fu % jty| fft and Hwaingan Fu fH •$£ JjJ, from the 
waters which flow from the W. and threaten to inundate the 
country. The first of these embankments is formed by the Eastern 
bank of the Grand Canal ; the second known by the name of 
"Fankung-ti" |j$ ^ Jg (Duke Fan's dike) is parallel to the first, 


and about 40 miles distant from it. The whole country to the 
E. of the Grand Canal is called the Hsia-ho *"f Jpj, or region 
below the level of the Canal. 

(On the Grand Canal, see Section V. Ch. VI.). 

Lakes are numerous both in the N. as well as in the S. 
The most important arc : 

In the S. : the T'ai-Jtu -ft Jj$ or Great lake, situated to the 
W. of Soochow Fu j$ft j"\\ Jft. It is an immense sheet of water, 
as large as the P'oyang §[$ [^ lake at high-water season, but 
less exposed to the same great variations of volume. Some ten 
islands, three of which arc inhabited, and several islets dot its 
waters. Small steamboats can ply on parts of it. It is infested 
with pirates. Fish abound in it, and numerous fishermen draw 
therefrom their livelihood. In Winter, it pours its waters into 
the Grand Canal, while in Summer its current varies according 
to the rainfall of the surrounding country. When the rain is 
heavy, its overflow runs off into the Grand Canal, but should 
the season be dry, the Yangtze |§ ^ JX sends down to it the 
excess of its waters. 

In the N. : the Hungtseh gt }§ laJce, which is almost as 
large as the T'ai-hu. Its waters lie partly in Nganhwei £ ^ 
and partly in Kiangsu yx Ift- Heavy-laden junks can cross it 
in its entire length, and navigation is very brisk on its waters. 
The Hwai-ho ff£ }pf runs into it on the W. The country which 
lies to the E. of it being very low, a stone causeway has been 
raised to protect it. The lake teems with fish. Channels con- 
nect it on the N.E. with the Grand Canal, and on the S.E. 
with the Kaoy'm "j^ jjj$ lake, which is situated to the W. of the 
Grand Canal. 

To the E. of the Kaoyiu fl} ?$$ lake and of the Grand 
Canal, is found the Tatsuna ^ fj$ lake. 

Fauna and Flora. — In regard to the fauna and flora of Kiangsu, the same 
observations are to he made as for the Province of Nganhwei. The Northern region, 
around Siichow especially, is in nowise different from that of the N. of China. H i- 
even less rich and has hut sparse clumps of bamboos, while the willow, poplar and 
a few acacias are the only trees that afford a little verdure to this impoverished tract. 
The mulberry is scarce, and the country has neither rice nor the tea-plant. There are 


a few fruit-trees, and the fruit is excellent, especially thepeaohes. The Central region 
is not much superior to the Northern, but its canals and hikes teem with fish, and the 
cotton which grows there is of excellent quality. The Southern region is the most 
favoured, cotton, rice and the mulberry constituting with the ordinary cereals the 
staple products. The bamboo thrives well, hut the tea-plant is backward. The hills 
are completely denuded. In the Yangtze river, as well as in the canals and lakes, a 
great variety of fish is found. 

On account of its general configuration, the absence of forests and the universal 
density of the population, this Province is one of those which has the least number of 
wild animals. 

Agricultural Wealth. — In the Northern part, the poppy 
is extensively cultivated, and the cereals found there are those 
of the Northern region. In the centre, colton is the staple 
crop, while rice and the other cereals of the N. are also grown. 
The enterprising population of Haimen % p^ accustomed to 
make the best of their marshes, are constantly reclaiming new 
lands from the sea. In the Southern part, rice, cotton, silk 
and vegetables, form with the ordinary cereals an abundant 
source of wealth. Owing to the fertility of the soil and the 
warmth of the climate, as much as 3 crops are produced an- 

Around Nanking ^ i£, and in the Northern part of the 
Province, donkeys abound; elsewhere the services of the water- 
buffalo and of the zebu or humped ox are availed of. Horses 
and mules are less rarely found. 

Mineral Wealtli. — ■ The mineral wealth of Kiangsu fx. M 
is not considerable, and so far has been little worked. In the 
N., are found coal and iron. In the S., marble was formerly 
quarried near Nanking, and even at the present day some lime- 
kilns still exist. In the Central and Southern parts of the Pro- 
vince, the extraction of salt is actively carried on along the 

POpjilatiGn. — The population is very dense throughout the whole of this 
Province, especially in the Haimen promontory, Ch'ungming Island £-£ $J (locally 
pronounced Z'ungming) and around Shanghai. The Island of Ch'ungming alone has 
more than one million of inhabitants, or about 500 to the square mile. 

The inhabitants of Siichow Fu, in the extreme N., differ vastly both in general 
characteristics and in manners from the rest of the Province. The latter are of 
gentle disposition, polite, scholarly, and slightly effeminate^ the former are rude, 


sturdy and turbulent. Many of these Northerners have a rather prominent nose, 
sometimes even aquiline, while the cheek-bones do not protrude, and the eyes are not 
almond-shaped, all which characteristics distinguish them from the population of 
Shanghai. The inhabitants of Haimcn are also more robust than those to the S. of 
the river. 

Language. — Two languages are used in this Province. In the W. and N. the 
Mandarin dialect is spoken. In the Haimon promontory, the Island of Ch'ungming, 
aud along the S. of the Yangtze as far as Chcnkiang, the Sungkiang or Shanghai 
dialect is spoken. Great variations however prevail even in these two languages. 

Cities and Principal Centres. 

NANKING pg j£ (Southern Capital) or Kiaugning Fu 
tL% fit- — Population, 300,000 to 400,000 inhabitants. The 
city is built on the Southern bank of the Yangtze }g ^J j^ and 
at a short distance from its waters. It was formerly the Capital 
of the Empire under the first Emperors of the Ming JjJ§ dynasty. 
The tombs of these monarchs are still seen in the vicinity 
of the walls. Those walls have a circumference of 24 miles, 
thus making the city larger than Peking 4b S? tne Northern 
Capital. It is however inhabited only in the Southern and 
Western parts. Like the Northern Capital, it has its Tartar 
City, occupied by about 4,000 Manchus, and also its Red or 
Forbidden City. In 1853, it was taken by tht T'aip'ing -j^ 2p 
rebels, who withstood there a 10 years' siege before it was 
retaken by the Imperialists in 1864. For long years afterwards, 
the city was but a heap of ruins, from which it rises but slowly. 
The Viceroy of the Liang-kiang S tC or tw0 Kiangs, resides 
there, as well as the Tartar General-in-chief. It has a 
military academy. Trade is very backward. The principal 
industry is the manufacture of satin and velvet ribbons. The 
exports are: silk piece-goods, unmounted fans, raw cotton, 
hemp, hides, feathers, groundnuts, medicines and sesamum. 
The imports comprise copper (for minting), machinery, cotton 
and woollen goods, flour, umbrellas and opium. Hsiu-kwan 
f || is the port of Nanking. Steamers stop there, and the 
Custom-house imparts a little activity to the place. The total 
net value of trade for the year 1905, reached to only Tls ? 
10,573,545, or one-third that of Wuhu $ $ f|. 


SOOCHOW FU gft ji] Jft. — Population, 500,000 inhabi- 
tants. A vast and populous city renowned for the beauty of its 
site and its canals, which have won for it the title of "Venice 
of the Bast". The Chinese have a proverb: "Heaven above, 
and below Soochow and Hang chow". It is GO miles W. of 
Shanghai, with which it is connected by rail, and 40 miles S. 
of the Yangtze. It is built in the form of a rectangle, being 5 
miles long by 2 l j>2 to 3 in breadth. Former Capital of the Wu 
.^ Kingdom, overthrown A. D. 473, it is at the present the home 
of scholars and expectant mandarins, but perhaps it is better 
known for its silk-looms(7, 000), brocaded satins and gauzes, which 
are in great demand throughout the cities of the Empire. It has 
besides, some cotton mills, and carries on an important trade 
in rice. Originally it was on the banks of the T'ai-hu ^ $fj 
or Great lake, but the lake having receded, it is to-day 12 miles 
distant from its banks. The Grand Canal passes through it, 
and thus affords it all the advantages of easy communications. 
At the close of the Chino-Japanese war, 1896, it was opened to 
Foreign trade. The Settlements (Japanese and General-Foreign), 
are located to the S. facing the Grand Canal. 

To the N. W. of Soochow : 

Wusih hsien M $g §g. — Population, 200,000 inhabitants. 
This city is growing every day more important, both as the 
general mart for the country round about, and also as a centre 
for the rearing of silkworms. It has supplanted Soochow, as 
a depot and transit place for goods coming from the W. and 
destined for the Shanghai _fc $$ market. Between these 2 
cities, all exchanges are now carried on directly by rail. 

To the S. E. of Soochow : 

SungMang Fu fa faflf. — Population, 50,000 inhabitants. 
Situated about 25 miles S. W. of Shanghai, it is renowned for 
its square pagoda and the grave of General Ward (an Ameri- 
can who fought against the T'aip'ings, and died in the year 1862). 
The Hills, the principal of which are Funghwang-shan Jig, JH ]\\ 
(hill of the rising phoenix), Shaohsiang-shan ^ |f ill (hill 


for burning incense) and She-shan £± |JL| (locally pronounced 
Zosai), are but a few miles distant, and form an agreeable plea- 
sure-resort for Shanghai residents. 

At the junction of the Or and Canal with the Yangtze : 
Chenkiang Yu $( ft Jff. — Population, 108,000 inhabi- 
tants. A prosperous treaty port and commercial centre, which 
owes its importance to its position at the junction of the Grand 
Canal with the Yangtze Jjt ^f fr river. It is about 40 miles 
from the capital of the Province, and 160 miles from Shanghai. 
The Chinese suburb (between the English Concession and the 
city) has been recently lighted by electricity. It has silk fila- 
tures, an albumen factory and a flour-mill. It exports : rice, 
cattle, groundnuts, beans and peas; and imports : coal, sugar 
(in large quantity), petroleum, cotton goods, metals and glass. 
The total trade of the port has been in 1903, Ilk. Tls. 34,439, 
707; in 1901, Tls. 32,323,204; and in 1905, Tls. 33,344,208. 

On the Hwangp'oo ]gr jffi river : 

Shanghai _fc $£$£• — Population of native city, 300,000; of 
the Settlements, 540,000 inhabitants. The number of Foreign re- 
sidents is about 13,000. Situated on the left bank of the Hwanc- 
p'oo, and 12 miles from the Yangtze, it is the largest port, the 
most important trading mart, and in fact the Commercial Capital 
of China. The city is continually extending in both directions 
along the river, and has even passed to the opposite side. It 
comprises several parts, which, commencing on the S., lie in the 
following order : Ttmgkadoo J| ^ g|, the Chinese city still sur- 
rounded with its walls and moat, the French Concession and the 
International Settlement, within which is comprised Hongkew $£ 
P (Hungk'ow),the so-called American Settlement. The European 
City monopolizes the tea, silk and cotton trade of N. China. 
Incessant activity reigns on the wharves which border the river. 
In the long streets running far inwards from the river, the same 
animation may be observed. Up to comparatively recent time, 
there have been but docks and ''godowns" (from the Malay 
go-dong, a warehouse for the storing of goods) on the right bank; 




of late however, industry has been started there and this attracted 
a large number of hands. If the work continues, in a few years 
hence, the quarter will be as populous as on the opposite side. 
Commercial activity is exclusively confined to the city on the left 
bank. Here are found the consulates, city halls, banks, hotels, 
the custom house, markets, churches, hospitals, schools, mills, 
factories, warehouses and splendid shops. The streets are 
crowded with carriages, jinricshas and native wheel-barrows. 
The motor-car has been recently introduced, and an electric 
tramway line will be completed this year. The city has also its 
public garden, its racecourse, clubs, theatre, library, museum, its 
foreign and native newspapers. The weather forecasts are due to 
the Sicawei ffi % Jf (Siikiahwei) Observatory. Shanghai is in 
daily communication with the principal cities of China. Steamers 
ply continually between the port and Japan, Manchuria, Korea, 
Southern Asia, Europe and America. It is the great importing 
and distributing centre of the whole Yangtze^ ^f J£ valley, and 
even to a large extent of Northern China. The total trade of the 
port has been in 1903, Hk. Tls. 118,812,899; in 1904, Tls. 
145,480,170, and in 1905, Tls. 176,979,193 (£ 26,550,000 
sterling). (For other details : Woosung bar, shipping and tonnage, 
inland navigation, see Section IV. The Coasts. Shanghai). 

In Northern Kiangsn, near the month of the Yangtze : 

T ( ung Chow jjj #|. — 100 miles below Chenkiang. The 
place has recently made great industrial progress. It has cotton 
and silk-spinning and weaving factories, a mill for extracting 
oil from cotton-seed, a dyeing factory for cotton and silk fabrics, 
a canning factory for meat and fish, a printing establishment 
for books and maps, a soap factory, and will soon have a dock- 
yard for building and repairing small steamers. 

Further iV., along the Grand, Canal: 

Ts'ingkiangp'oo J| Jq *$j. — Population, from 50,000 to 
80,000 inhabitants. Formerly the Director-General of the Grain 
Transport resided there, but now the General-in-chief of North 
Kiangsu fx 4fc (Kiangpeh) takes his place. Ts'ingho hsien f^ipj$f> 


the walled city, is almost deserted, all activity extending along 
the Grand Canal, where a brisk commerce is carried on. The 
first locks are about a mile from the city, so part of the boats 
stop at this port, whence goods are conveyed by waggons to 
Northern Kiangsu, Honan and Ohihli. Small steamers ply daily 
between the place and Chenkiang ^ j£ Jjvf . 

Tangchow Fu % ]\\ ffi. — Population, 100,000 inhabitants. 
A famous old city, former capital of the Yang Kingdom, and the 
residence of numerous scholars. It is 20 miles N. of Chenkiang. 
Long rows of junks travelling on the Grand Canal impart to the 
place a certain amount of animation. It is however neither an 
important industrial or commercial centre. 

Hwaingan Fu f$| 4£ JjSf. — Chiefly important as a salt- 
manufacturing centre. The salt is evaporated from sea-water 
and is a government monopoly. 

Suchow Fu f£ jH'l $$• — Population, 40,000 inhabitants. 
This is another ancient city, deriving celebrity from its being 
built on a beautiful site, and on the former banks of the Hwang- 
ho ]gr jpf. When the river changed its course, it left behind 
only a bed of sand, and so this city is now one of the poorest 
Prefectures of North Kiangsu fx. 4fc (Kiangpeh), hence the local 
proverb: "vegetables and gold hairpins are scarcer than meat 
in Fokien" (Fokien being largely a fish-eating Province). 

Industry and Commerce. — The principal industrial 
centres are confined to the following cities : Shanghai J^ $f , 
Soochow H jfl, Chenkiang |i ft. and Nanking ]ft %t. Manu- 
factures consist chiefly of satins, reeled silk, cotton-yarn, 
nankeens, oils and household furniture. The general commerce 
of the Province differs but little from that of Shanghai, through 
which, as well as through the Grand Canal, most business is 
carried on. 

Highways of Communication. — Nearly all communi- 
cations are carried on by waterways : the Yangtze-kiang :jg : f- 
il, the Hwangp'oo igf Hf river, the Grand Canal, lakes and 
several canalized streams, and so the land routes or rather 
pathways are little kept in good repair, The only road deserving 


mention, is that which coming from Nganhwei $& ^, leads 
to Shantung \\} ^, via Suchow Fu f$ jjfl Jff. 

In the extreme N., near Suchow Fu % >ft\ Jff, there are 
no canals, and so carts are employed, hut the tracks they follow 
are scarcely existent. In the E. of this region, caravans of camels 
are sometimes met with, winding their way along the Grand 
Canal, as far as Hwaingan Fu •#£ % Jffi. Further Southwards, 
the camel is never seen; the ass, horse, mule and water-hufYalo 
being the only animals used for transport. (For railways, see 
Section V. Ch. VI.). 

Open Ports. — The Province of Kiangsu £t j$£ has 5 
ports open to Foreign trade: Shanghai _h#|J|£, Nanking $ej7jC, 
Chfrrikiang $k iL fft, Soochoiv j$£ >)\\ ^f and Woosung 1%. }$. 

Notes. — 1° In former times, Kiangsu %£ %jfe and Nganhwei 
# $fc constituted one Province, but were separated in 1667, 
under the reign of the Emperor K'anghsi Jj| ffi. In the early 
part of 1905, Kiangsu fc j$£ was divided into two: Southern 
and Northern Kiangsu or Kianghwai JT #£, but this step having 
proved unpopular, the division, after lasting about 3 months, 
was revoked. Since then, N. Kiangsu ££ 4fc (Kiangpeh) has 
been administered by a General-in-chief who resides at Ts'ing- 
kiangp'oo f|| f£ \ffi, and fulfils the duties of the short-lived 

2° The Grand Canal traverses this Province from N. to S. 
It crosses the Yangtze river at Chenkiang, 160 miles above 

3° The Yangtze delta is steadily growing seawards, and 
every year sees new lands reclaimed from the sea and cultivated 
in polders. In the neighbourhood of Shanghai, the water- 
courses are filling up, and the volume of the Hwangp'oo river 
has now diminished by one-third. In the next century, the 
place, already distant 45 miles from the sea, will be beyond 
tidal influence and thus become relegated to the position of an 
inland mart. 



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Characteristics of tliis Region. — Compared with the 
regions which we have studied so far, this is rather diversified 
and more difficult to describe distinctly. We shall simply dwell 
upon a few prominent features, leaving each Province to be 
studied more in detail. 

1. The region is mountainous, the only exception being the 
low-lying plain of Canton. 

2. It is for the greater part a semi-tropical region. 

3. It is a region where the Chinese race is scantily repre- 

4. It is a region where mineral wealth abounds, and holds 
as much importance as agricultural products. 

5. It is a region where the Government of the country is 
more difficult than anywhere else in China, because of the variety 
of races, and the enmity which exists between them. Fokien 
IS 5J and Chekiang $ft fx. are however exceptions. 


Provinces comprised in tliis Region. — Proceeding 
from W. to E., then from S. to N., we find them to be the 
following : 

Yunnan j| jg, 

Kweichow j|; >H1> 

Kwangsi ^ "g, 

Kwangtung Jg ^, 

Fokien jig $J, 

Chekiang Jjjf ft- 
Of these Provinces, the three last border on the sea, and 
are the most populous and the richest; the three first, extending 
inland and of difficult access, afford neither the same resources 
nor the facilities for subsistence. 

All, except the two last, are watered by the Si-kiang "jfff 
fX; Yunnan g| pfr also by the Yangtze JJL ^f- j£, the Red 
river and the great rivers of Indo-China. Kweichow jjf ft\ too 
is watered by the affluents of the Yangtze. Did these Provin- 
ces and tl;e races inhabiting them not enjoy a semi-tropical 
climate, they should be comprised rather in the Central than in 
the Southern Region. 

Geological Constitution. — In Fokien jjg J§| and Che- 
kiang gjf jX, and also in the Kwangtung ^ ^ region, porphyry, 
granite, schist and sandstone are predominant. Elsewhere, large 
tracts of limestone of the secondary period cover the primary 
formation, which but rarely emerges veined here and there with 
granite and porphyry. The limestone, curiously excavated and 
furrowed, imparts to this region a peculiar and characteristic 
aspect. There is no yellow land or loess, and few alluvial 
deposits except in the Si-kiang "g" JX delta. 

Orography. — To the W. is a series of table-lands sloping 
from W. to E. Along the sea-coast, a well-marked chain of 
mountains establishes a definite limit between the tributaries of 
the Yangtze fg ^f jix ana " of the Si-kiang H ££ on the one side, 
and those of the coast-rivers on the other. In the N., is the 
Nan-shan $f |X| or Nan-ling ^ <g| range. 




From M. A. Leclere. 

Lower Jurassic. / Upper Carboniferous Shale. 

Upper Permian. 

Middle and Lower Permian. 
) Carbon if er 
Tnassic and [ Devonian. 



Silurian and 



Climate. * — The climate, semi-tropical in the low-lying 
valleys and the low regions, becomes mild and liable to few 
variations upon the high table-lands of Yunnan j| ]^f t In general, 
it is damper than in the two other regions, and the Summer 
rains are more prominent there. However the variation is great 
according to the altitude, and frequently even in the same Pro- 
vince, as we shall see when describing Yunnan. 

Hydrography. — A large number of rivers are found in 
this region, but one only deserves a special study: the Si-kiang 
W £t' f° r ft waters four Provinces of China. We shall study 
the others when describing the Provinces which they traverse. 
The Min-kiang f$ j£ belongs so particularly to Fokien fg Jjt, 
that its description will naturally have its place there. The 
T'sient'ang-kiang f$ |f ££ belongs likewise to Chekiang $f tt> 
and will be described there. All these rivers have this in 
common, that as they traverse woodless tracts, where storms 
and sudden rains are frequent, they have a torrential character, 
and are rapidly swollen and quickly dried up. 

The Si-kiang g 7X or West river rises in the Eastern 
part of the Yunnan table-land where it bends at first towards the 
S., then takes a Northerly direction towards the frontiers of Kwei- 
chow jfj; jfl. So far, it is called TaMah-ho J\ jgf fpf. It 
rext shirts the S. of Kweichow, separating that Province from 
Kwangsi Jf If for a distance of nearly 160 miles; it afterwards 
flows towards the S. E., passing through the centre of Kwangsi 
Jfjlf and of Kwangtung Jf }^. It is called Hung-shni £x 7fc or Red 
river till about 60 miles from the boundaries of Kwangsi. Hence- 
forward, it is called the Si-kiang ]fff jPr\ A little beyond Chao- 
k'ing Fu lj| Jg Jff, it splits into several streams, and traversing 
an immense delta, flows through numerous mouths into the 
South China Sea. The Northern river of this delta, which passes 
through Canton, is called the Chu-kiang ^ Jq, or Pearl river. 
Its principal affluents are 
On the right : 

The Tuh-kiang ^ J£, which rises in Yunnan |jt ]§. It 
follows at first a course nearly parallel to the Si-kiang "g %£, 



and receives a little beyond Xanning Fu ]g ff| $f the Tso-kiang 
£ jtt, coming from Tongking % £. 

On the left : 

1° The IAu-kiang JJjfl ££, which comes from the E. of Kwei- 
chow ■§£ )\\, and joins it towards the middle of Kwangsi Jg ]JEf. 

2° The Kwel-kiang ^ fx, which comes from the N. E. of 
Kwangsi ff^ "g, and flows into it near Wuchow Fu ^ ^1 flff. 

3° The Teh-kiang 4fc J£, coming from the S. of Hunan 
Jjjfl jg, and joining it near the extremity of the delta. 

4° The Tung-kiang Jjfc ££, which comes from the N. E. and 
flows into the delta. 

The volume of the Liu-kiang and of the Yuh-kiang is 
superior to that of the Hung-shui, and so they are sometimes 
taken, one or the other, as the main stream. For the sake of 
clearness, we shall call Si-kiang, the river which begins at 
the Pahtah-ho, and continues as the Hung-shui and the Si- 
kiang. It is the longest, and extends more to the W. Its total 
length is about 1,250 miles. 

Its course is very rapid till it reaches Sunchow Fu jl| fi\ Jft. 
Its volume is exceedingly variable; thus while during the dry 
season it is only 7 feet deep, no sooner have the rains set in, 
than it rises to 25 and even 30 feet. It runs hemmed in by long 
narrow gorges, till it reaches the delta, and it seldoms widens 
out. The tide is felt to a distance of 185 miles from its mouth. 

In the flood-season, the Si-kiang "gEf fx is navigable for 
steamers having a draught of 16 feet, but in ordinary circum- 
stances, only ships whose draught is G ] /o feet can navigate it up 
to Wuchow Fu ffi ft\ fft. Beyond this place, the rapids prevent 
navigation ; junks or small flat-bottomed boats may however 
sail up to the S. of Ilingi Fu J6 ^ J]J, near the frontier of 
Kweichow Jj; jfl. 

Among its affluents : 

The Yuh-kiang ff •££ is navigable for steamers, up to Kwei 
hsien ^ j|g (in Sunchow Fu jM ji] )ft) ; for junks, up to Pohseh 
or Pehseh T'ing "jj f6 |g ; for small craft, up to Pakngai or 


Pohai $] U- — The Tso-kiang £ j£, its tributary, is navigable 
for junks, up to Lungchow T'ing j}g $\ || ; and for small craft, 
up to Caobang, in Tongking )£ /Jr. 

The Liu-kiang ;fJfl iL is navigable up to Sankioh j£ SJ, in 
Kweichow jif >)]]. 

The Kwei-kiang ^ f£ is navigable up to the N. of Kweilin 
Fu ^| fyi ffi, where a canal connects it in the flood-season with 
the great river of Hunan $Jj fg. 

The Peh-kiang ;|t tC is navigable up to the N. of Shaochow 

F" gs w M 

The Tung-kiang jg j£ is navigable throughout the greater 
part of its course. 


Imbault-Huart. — Le Si-kiang ou Fleuve 

de l'Ouest. 1898. (bibliographic abon- 

Schumacher. — Der Westfluss (Si-kiang) 

and seine Wirtschaft licbe Bedeutung. 

Leclere. — Geographic generate des Pro- 
vinces voisines du Tonkin. (Geograpbie. 

11)00. Vol. I. p. 207-288). 
Leclere. — Etude Geologique et miniere 

dis Provinces voisines du Tonkin. Paris, 

Mndrolle. — Guides (Chine du Sud. — 

Chine du Nord.— Indo-Chine) Paris, 1902 

and 1904. 

Madrolle. — Sud de la Chine- Hongkong. 
— Canton. — .Macao. — Le Si-kiang. 

A. La una y. — Atlas des Missions de la 
Societe des Missions-Etrangeres. .Lille. 
(Yunnan, Koei-tcheou, Koang-si, Koang- 

Course of the Pearl River. (Chinese Repo- 
sitory. Vol. XX. p. 105-110 and 113-122;. 

The West River or Si-kiang. — China Re- 
view. Hong-kong, 1871. (Vol. III. p. 4G- 


Kingsmill T. W. — A sketch of the geo- 
logy of a portion of Kwangtung Province. 
(N. C. B. R. A. Soc. 18G5. p. 21-38). 

Williams. — The Middle Kingdom. New 
York, 1861. (Vol. I. p. 127-128. The Chu- 
kiang or Pearl River. — p. 129. The Si- 
kiang delta). 

Colquhoun A. — Across Chryse. London, 
lJ-83. From Canton to Mandalay. 

Colquhoun A— Exploration through the 
S. China Borderlands, from the mouth 
of the Si-kiang to the banks of the Ira- 
waddy. (Proceedings of the Geogr. Soc. 

Colquhoun A. —The Overland to China. 
London, 1900. (Southwest China. Ch. 
XVII. and XVIII. p. 369-118'. 

China. Imperial Maritime Customs. Decen- 
nial Reports. 1892-1901. Shanghai, 1905 
(Southern Ports. Vol. IL). 




Yihman and Kweichow are governed by the same Viceroy, 
who bears the title of Viceroy of Yunhwei jl j£, and resides at 
Yunnan Fu ft ]g $f. 

These two Provinces have in common that they are both 
situated on high table-lands, in the basins of the Yangtze ^ ^ 
j£ and of the Si-hiang j§ j£, and thai they are inhabited partly 
by Chinese and partly by alien races. Both hold relations with 
Szechw'an J0J J||. Both also partially enjoy a tropical climate. 
They have but few navigable rivers, and in both, communications 
are difficult. 

If Kweichow "jiiffl may be styled a sea of mountains, Yunnan 
ft ^ exhibits the aspect of an immense staircase in the N.E., 
while in the W. and S., it is a vast field furrowed with long 
and deep ravines* 

These two Provinces abound in opium and minerals*. 

Kweichow jjf j\\ however has neither the altitude nor the 
varieties of climate and race peculiar to Yunnan |jt |^. Neither 
has it its lakes, nor its long and deep gorges, nor its relations 
with Burma and Tongking }f[ Tjf. On the other hand, it enjoys 
better communications with the rest of China, either through 
Szechw'an (H} )\\ or Hunan jjjf] ^, or through Kwangsi Jf "jjjf, 
and it is not so isolated as Yunnan U ]|j, wedged in between 
Tibet, Burma and Tongking l|f iffr. 

Both Provinces have suffered from the Mahomedan rebellion 
(1856-1872), but Yunnan |p ^ the more, its population especially 
having been considerably reduced, 


1°. Yunnan It \% 

Area. — 146,718 square miles. It is next to Szechw'an JJE| 
)]] the largest Province of China. 

Population. — 12,721,500 inhabitants, or 3G to the square 
mile. After Kiangsi J£ "g and Kansu -g* J|f, it is the least popu- 
lous Province of China. 

Name. — Yunnan |j| ]g signifies "cloudy South". If its 

low-lying tract of the North, which is first encountered when 
coming from Szechw'an |J9 J|[, is almost continually covered 
with clouds and fogs, the air breathed by the inhabitants of its 
high table-lands is however very pure. 

Boundaries : — Yunnan is bounded on the 
N. — By Szechw'an Jig J||, 
W. — By Tibet or Sitsang |jj $|, and Burma or 

Mientien f$j fa], 
S. — By Burma and Tongking ]%( jjr, 
E. — By Kiangsi £q IS ana " Kweichow Jl >fi\. 

Capital. — TVNNAN FU j| j§ )fr, often called Yunnan 
Seng, is situated a little towards the N.E., in the region of the 

Otlier Prefectures. — These are 13, and are situated as 
follows, in the order of distance from the Capital : 

To the N. E. : 

1° K'iihtsing Fu ffi ^ tff, 
2° Tungchw'an Fn "HC )\\ Jff, 
3° Chaot'ung Fu m M Jff. 
To the 8.E.: 

4° Ch'engkiang Fu M U Jff, 
5° Kwangnan Fu M ^ JfiF, 
6 J K'aihwa Fu M ft Jfr. 

To the S. : 

7° Linngan Fu W» £ ft. 



>VI "H! aA X 

»J 008 S 

•%} OOZ'H 

•%} 005'Gf 

'*W1 H*X 

'%} oztft 

'%} 000*5 





o £ 

chapter II. yOnnan. 177 

To tlie S. W. : 

8" P'ueul Fu # U[ M. 

To the W. : 

9° Ch'uhsiung Fu 3g t& Jff, 
10° Shunning Fu m $£ M, 
11° Yungch'ang Fu & 1 Jfr. 

To */*e JV. IF. : 

12° Tali Fu -ft 31 Jft, 
13° Likiang Fu wktiM. 

There are besides in Yunnan gj ~$ three independent 
Chow }j| cities : Kivangsi Chow J^ || Jfl, Wuting Chow ^ fe 
jfl, Yuenkiang Chow \% $£ j>\\\ and /Xve independent THngs Jj|.* 
Kingtung THng jp; ^[ Jjg, Mhighwa THng |g ffc j|§, Yungpeh 
T*ing ^ j|fc JH> Chenyuen THng ft ^c an{ * Chenpienfu-i Ting 

ft » « # *- 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Three different regions 

may be distinguished in Yunnan g ^j : The first, to the N. E., 
near the Yangtze-kiang ^ ^ fX- This tract is low, damp and 
unhealthy, interspersed with peaks, gorges and torrents, and is 
scarcely inhabited. 

The second, to the E., has large and verdant plains, now 
encircled with boundless horizons, now studded with mounds 
and hills, but everywhere abounding in marshes, lakes and rivers. 
Its sky is pure, the temperature mild and pleasant, while the 
population is concentrated in the valleys and near the lakes. 

The third, to the W. and N.W. This is a series of high 
but narrow mountain-ridges, separated by deep gorges, at the 
bottom of which the air is heavy and suffocating. The popu- 
lation is for the most part savage, and the country difficult of 
access, on account of the hostility of the natives and of the lack of 

Geological corcs>titut'.on. — Strata of the secondary period still cover a large 
portion of this Province, leaving however exposed vast tracts of primary formation, 
while here and there eruptive rocks (granite, greenstone and porphyry) are apparent. 
Traces are found of volcanic eruptions, which must have been formerly considerable. 
Limestone, wonderfully folded and broken up, predominates. Sheets of rain-water 
have wholly or partly filled up the numerous lake-basins of this region. They are the 
only traces of recent alluvial formation. 



Orography. — Throughout the Eastern part, are found 
vast table-lands varying in elevation from 0,500 to 9,800 feet, 
and sloping gradually towards the E. Rocky peaks soar into 
the air, covered with fir-trees in the limestone regions, with 
splendid forests in those of schist formation, but denuded 
and barren in marly districts. To the W. are high ridges, 
separated by deep gorges, in which run foaming torrents, while 
many passes attain an altitude of 11,000 feet. 

Lower Tiinnan |jf ]^|, towards the N.E., is one great 
mountainous mass, rising peak after peak, and exceeding 
sometimes an altitude of 6,500 feet. 

All these mountains are the prolongation towards the S.E. 
of the Tibetan buttress, which expands in the table-lands, and 
divides to the W. into chains like the fingers of the hand, while 
its spurs extend into the S. of Tongking. 

Climate. — In Lower Yunnan there are continual fogs, and rain falls ever}' day. 
At the hottom of the valleys, the climate is tropical, suffocating and insalubrious. 

On the high table-lands, the sky is pure, and the temperature mild and agreeable. 
If the thermometer goes up to 82°, it seldom falls helow 32° or at most 25° Fahrenheit. 
The dry season extends from the end of September to the middle of May ; the wind 
then blows from the S. \V., increasing after sunrise and decreasing at sunset. The rainy 
season is from the middle of May to the end of September; the dampness however is 
not excessive. 

At the bottom of the long and deep valleys of the S. and W., the climate is damp, 
scorching and insalubrious. 

Hydrography. — Several large rivers water Yunnan ji 
"^j. The most of them run from N. W. to S. E. They are, 
proceeding from N. to S.: 

The Yangtze-kiang ^ ^ jtL- T ne Yangtze makes a great 
bend towards the N. and is called the Kirisha-kiang ^ fp f£ 
(golden sand river). It receives on the left the Yalung-kiang 
®t tl iL) an d constitutes during a long part of its course, the 
boundary-line between Szechw'an [51 )\\ and Yunnan |j ^j". In 
all this part, the river is but a torrent, hemmed in between 
high mountains, which exceed at times 16,000 feet in elevation. 
It may be crossed in some reaches, but is unsuitable for navi- 
gation. It receives on the right numerous torrents, none 
of which seem to be easily navigable. One of these, the 


Mulon-ho 4 1 flf W> affords through its valley the best road 
for a railway-line from Yunnan |j! jfo to Szechw'an J2} )\\- 

The Pahtah-ho ASM or Upper Si-kiang "gjj Jt, and 
the Yil-kiang ^gf j£ rise in the high table-lands of the E. The 
first makes numerous bends and waters rich valleys, but neither 
the one nor the other is fit for navigation in this part of their 

The Sungkoi or Hung-ho $£ JpJ" > called also the JRed River, 
is more important. It almost cuts in two the entire Province, 
running through it from N. W. to S.E. It is navigable for boats up 
to Manhao g ^, and for canoes up to Yuenkiang Chow jfc ft 
ft\, at certain times of the year. It is the great artery of 
communication between Yunnan jjt ffa and Tongking }f[ ^r, 
and the new railway-line runs partly in its valley. Throughout 
nearly the whole of Yunnan, it is but a torrent, running in 
deep gorges and intersected with rapids. — A parallel direction 
is followed by the Black river, one of its tributaries on the S.W. 

The Mekong or Lant&ang-kiang }|j ^ ft flows in the 
same direction, but more to the W., and crosses Yunnan from 
N. W. to S.E., intersecting it like an immense ditch. This 
channel has a depth of 2,000 to 3,000 feet, while its banks are 
at times covered with thick forests and at others denuded. The 
river has an average width of 400 to 500 feet, and is very 
deep. Its current is rather weak and occasionally obstructed 
with violent rapids. Some boats venture to cross it, but none 
can traffic on its waters. Its temperature is very high, and the 
air breathed on its banks suffocating. 

The Salween or Jju-kiang Jj^jf ft has the same features as 
the Mekong, but it is larger. It crosses the Western extremity 
of Yunnan. Two affluents of the Irawaddy irrigate also this 

Numerous lakes dot the neighbourhood of Yunnan Fu :j|$9 
Iff and Tali Fu jz jjg JjSf , but they have not the same importance 
as those of the Yangtze ^ ^ valley. Two deserve to be 
mentioned : 

The Tieti-hu -jjl^j], situated to the S. of Yunnan Fu. It is 


crescent-shaped, and lies at an elevation of 6,300 feet. Small 
boats can sail on it, but not in the middle of the day, for the 
wind is then too strong. It runs into the Yangtze-kiang % ^f 
Jq through the JP'utu-ho ^ $£ }pj. 

The EulJiai \% % lake, to the E. of Tali Fu. This is also 
crescent-shaped, but its altitude is a little higher, and reaches 
about 6,500 feet above the sea-level. Fish abound in it, and 
numerous fishing-boats are stationed on its waters. Its overflow 
is drained off by a tributary of the Mekong. 

These two lakes are from 35 to 40 miles long, and from 
to 10 miles wide across the middle. 

Fauna and Flora. — Yttnnan, owing to the diversity of its surface and climate, 
has the richest fauna and flora of China. Whilst the deep valleys of the W. and S. 
abound in luxuriant vegetation, and possess the wild animals, panthers especially, of 
Indo-China and Burma, the high mountains display every variety of the Northern 
regions, until all traces of vegetation disappear beneath everlasl ing snows. The region 
of Lower Yunnan is the poorest and least favoured, except in the valleys bordering on 
the Yangtze river. Here grow trees: the caoutchouc, cactus and fan-palms, all of 
which are rarely found outside the tropics. 

Agricultural Wealth. — In Lower Yiimuiu €| ]$f , maize 
is chiefly cultivated, and also a little wheat, barley, tea and 
tobacco. Rice is an exceptional crop. 

On the high table-lands, rice and the poppy are principally 
raised, also wheat, barley, oats and maize. Fruit and vegetables 
abound. There are numerous buffaloes, goats and sheep, which 
constitute an additional source of wealth for the country. To 
the S.W. is a kind of tea, particularly esteemed and called Vu- 
eul ^jjp }Jf tea, although it is cultivated throughout the whole 
region. The sugarcane grows in the neighbourhood of Mengtze 
hsien ^ g Jjfi, and the rearing of the silkworm is a fairly 
remunerative industry. 

Mineral Wealtli. — Minerals are abundant and consist 
chiefly of copper, argentiferous lead, zinc, tin and coal. Valuable 
salt-mines are also found in several places throughout the 

Population. — The population of Yunnan is the most miscellaneous and the most 
dispersed into small groups of all the Provinces of China. This is due to the situation 


and geological constitution of the country, where only the ancient lake-beds and valleys 
are suitable for cultivation. It is upon the high table-lands that the population, 
composed of Chinese, Lolos and Miaotze tribes, is the most numerous. In the S. and 
\V., several tribes occupy the country. They come from the Laos States, Burma, and 
in the N.W., from Tibet. Among the N.VV. tribes, the most important is that of the 
Musits, who formerly occupied a kingdom extending over part of Eastern Tibet and of 
actual Yunnan. Further to the S. is the Lisu tribe. 

Language. — The language of Yunnan varies with its races and tribes. The 
Mdiiihiri it dialect is spoken by only a small number, and especially upon the high 
table-lands, where a large number of immigrants from Szechw'an have settled down. 

Towns and Principal Centres. — Yt)NNAN FU || jg 

ffi. — Population, 45,000 inhabitants Formerly a very populous 
city, but ruined ever since the Mahomedan rebellion. Commerce 
is carried on in three or four large streets. Its suburbs extend 
far beyond the city. It owes its importance to its central posi- 
tion, communicating with the highways of the Province. It is 
situated to the N. of a fertile and thickly inhabited plain. 

Tali Fu ^ J )f . — Population, 6,000 inhabitants. A city 
formerly very populous, but ruined likewise by the rebellion 
above mentioned, and by a plague (1872-1873), during which a 
great number of its inhabitants perished. It trades chiefly with 
Bhamo, and every year a great fair is held there. The plain 
which bounds it, is very fertile and has more than 100 villages 
inhabited for the greater part by the Minchias, a tribe whose 
capital was formerly Tali Fu. 

To the N.E. : 

Tungchtv l an Fu iff Jll/ff. — Population, 20,000 inhabitants. 
A town lying in the midst of a very rich mining region. Its 
almost only industry is carpet-weaving, but it holds a certain 
importance as a place of passage. 

Cliaot'tmg Fu \\{\ 3J Jft. — Population, 35,000 inhabitants. 
It is a commercial and administrative centre. Cattle-rearing, 
but in small quantity, is carried on in the country around. 

To the S.E. : 

Mengtze hsien fH g jjjjjg. — Population, 12,000 inhabitants. 
A great commercial centre. Its trade with Tongking j|r ^, 
Canton and Hongkong, is largely in the hands of Szechw'an ^ 
j||, Canton and Kiangsi j[£ "gf people. 


Manhao g %. — This is but a mere hamlet. Its only 
title to special notice is that it is the terminus of navigation on 
the Red River, and a trading mart. It is situated at the 
bottom of a gorge the sides of which reach 6,500 feet in 
height. The climate is oppressive and malarious, and one cannot 
remain long there without risk of sickness. 

Szemao T'ing ,g, ^ ||. — Population, 9,000 inhabitants. 
A pretty little town in a fertile and well watered plain. It is 
the largest mart of Yunnan for the tea, opium and cotton trade. 

To the N. W. : 

Atentze. — A large village, situated at an elevation of 11,000 
feet. It is the centre of trade with Tibet. Chinese merchants 
exchange woollen goods, skins, wax, honey and musk from Tibet 
for blue piece-goods, tea and tobacco, from China. Near to this 
are the three peaks of Dolcerla, surrounded by a magnificent 
circle of glaciers. The mountain attains nearly 19,700 feet in 
height, and is considered as sacred by the Tibetans, who crowd 
there to perform pilgrimages. 

To the S. W. : 

Tengyueh T'ing Jgg j$ Jj|g or Momein. — Population, 12,000 
inhabitants. It borders on a fertile and populous region, and is 
the centre of trade with Burma. Margary was murdered there 
in 1875. 

Industry and Commerce. — The extraction of ores, 
tanning, the preparation of tea and opium, working copper, 
iron and tin, occupy a large number of hands, though few 
indeed if we consider the great riches of Yunnan jt ]§. Trade 
with Szechw'an |Jt| J||, Canton, Hongkong, Tongking, Tibet 
and Burma consists principally of the following imports: cotton 
yarn and cloth, petroleum, timber, matches and furs, while the 
exports are : tin, hides, tea, Chinese medicines and opium. 

Highways of Communication. — Numerous routes radiate 
from Yunnan Fu |f "^j JjSf, the Capital. Starting from the city, 
the following deserve to be mentioned : 

1° The road to Kweichow jt#|, via K'uhtsing Fu $|$ff $f. 


2° The road to Szechw'an (5| J||, via Tungchw'an Fu ^ 
j|| Jft and Chaot'ung Fu Hg }jj }fi. 

3° The road to Burma, via Tali Fu ^ jrg ffi and Yung 
ch'ang Fu 7 ]c g ffi. — A road forks oil' at Tali, and leads to 
Tibet, via Atentze. 

4° The road leading to the Laos country, via F'ucul Fu 
§ }# /ft and Szemao T'ing Jg, ^ j|. 

5° The road to Toughing l|f J^, via Mengtze hsien |g? g 
$$ and Manhao g ||. 

0° T/te roac? fo Kwangsi Jf "j^f, via Kwangnan Fu Hlft^- 

The new railway line, which will bring Yunnan j| ]§ into 
direct and rapid communication with Tongking j|f /jf, starts 
from Laokai ^ ^Jf (Laokiai), follows the Namti valley, and has 
its terminus at Yunnan Fu fffg/ff, via Mengtze hsien }p[ g jgg, 
and Ami Chow |JpJ ££ jfl. 

Open Ports. — In Yunnan, four cities are open to Foreign 
trade : Mengtze hsien jg| g J§£, in Linngan Fu Eg ^ /£f, Ho 
h'ow |pj P, in K'aihwa Fu §g ft jff, Szemao THng ,g, % Jgg, in 
P'ueul Fu ^ J9 $f, and Tengyueh Ting Jjf| Jg || or Momein 
in Yungclvang Fu tJ< g jj^. The treaties provide also for the 
opening of Yungch'ang Fu tJ< |g ffi. 

Xote. — Yunnan :JJ $ has long been tributary to the Chi- 
nese Empire, but was finally incorporated to it only in the 
XVII th century. The Musulman rebellion, which lasted 16 
years, was well nigh wresting it from its allegiance. This 
revolt ended in 1872 by the taking of Tali Fu ^ JJ $f, the 
last stronghold held by the Musulmans. 


2° Kweichow M *H 

Area. — 67,182 square miles. 

Population. — 7,650,000 inhabitants, or 114 per square 

Name. — Kweichow jlf ft\ means "Precious tract or 
Region." The Province deserves this name on account of its 
mineral wealth. History states that the conqueror Hungwu 
^t jj£, who organized the country under the Ming BJ) Dynasty, 
gave it this name through vexation, exasperated as he was by 
the obstinacy of its inhabitants. 

Boundaries. — Kweichow is bounded on the 
N. — By Szechw'an J||, 
W. — By Yunnan jt ^, 
S. — By Kwangsi J| "g, 
E. _ By Hunan jfl) ]f. 

Capital. — KWEIYANG FU ft % f(f, in the centre of 
the Province. 

Other Prefectures. — These are eleven in number. 

To the N. of Kweiyang Fu, a little towards the E. : 

1° Tsuni Fu 'M ^ M. 
To the K. W. of Kweiyang Fu : 

2° Tating Fu ft ^ Jft. 
To the S. W. of Kweiyang Fu : 

3° Nganshun Fu £ M Jft, 

4° Hsmgi Yummm. 

To the S. XL of Kweiyang Fu : 

5° Tuyun Fu ffl £j Jfr, 
6° Lip'ing Fu m ¥ /ft. 

To the N. E. of Kweiyang Fu : 

7° Chenyuen Fu H m flp, 

8° Szechow Fu Jg #| M, 

9o Shihtsien Fu # ft 1 /ft, 
10° T'ungjen Fu m ti fif > 
11° Szenan Fu © gf Jfr. 


There are besides in Kweichow one independent Chow 
>fl\ : PHnyiieh Chow Zp ^ j\\ ; and three independent T'ings 
H : Sungt'ao THnff fe $fc JSS P'nnaan T'ing ^ % $| and J2ra- 

Aspect and Characteristics. — This Province has the 
appearance of a mountainous sea, as already stated above (p. 174). 
Seven-tenths of it are mountainous, says the Chinese proverb. These 
mountains, though rising from a table-land, are however less 
elevated than those of Yunnan j| •$, and the climate is moister 
and more unhealthy. On account of this marked mountainous 
structure, Kweichow Jf *}\\ is probably with Kansu *# Hf, the 
Province in which the means of communications are the most 
difficult. Kweichow j(; ji\ is inhabitated for the greater part, per- 
haps its three-fourths, by an alien population. The same variety 
of races however is not found there as in Yunnan j| ffc. Its min- 
erals would afford it an abundant source of wealth, were they 
properly worked, but they are too much neglected. Its soil 
produces scarcely anything except opium and timber. As this 
Province is one of the most picturesque in China, it is on the 
other hand, one of the most wretched, owing to its unproductive 

Geological constitution. — Kweichow is a vast table-land of primary forma- 
tion covered over with layers of the secondary period, more or less folded and disclosing 
occasionally to view the primary strata. Limestone is the predominant rock. Here 
and there, it underlies alluvial basins of recent formation, or is veined by seams of 
porphyry and granite. Schist and red sandstone ai-e also frequently encountered. 

Orography. — Kweichow jf >)>\] is a large table-land 
covered with mountain masses and peaks, which assume the 
characteristic shape of sugar-loaves. The South- Western part 
is the highest, even the valleys lie at an elevation of from 5,000 
to 6,500 feet, while the summits rise to 8,000 or 9,000 feet. 
This table-land has a great number of basin-shaped depressions, 
and is intersected by rivers, which run in narrow and deep chan- 
nels. Towards the S., the table-land descends abruptly, and it 
is through a series of steps that a passage is effected from one 
valley to another. The (able-land itself, or rather the moun- 
tainous group, has a mean altitude of about 4,200 feet (see p. 176). 


Climate. — Moisture and dense fogs prevail throughout! the whole Province of 
Kweichow, but particularly in the deep valleys of the S. Here, out of 5 Winter months 
(from October to February), scarcely more than 25 days of fine weather can be found. 
The climate is also very changeable. This is due to the peculiar configuration of the 
Province, and to the fact of its being wedged in between Yunnan and Kwangtung. In 
Summer, the thermometer rarely reaches 86° Fahr. upon the table-land, while in 
Winter, it falls to 18° or 14° Fahrenheit. 

Hydrography. — The waters of Kweichow j|; >)\\ flow 
partly into the Yangtze }J£ -^ j£, partly into the Si-kiang "jJEf fri 
which shirts the Province to the S., and bears the name of Hung- 
8hni £l 7fc or Red river. 

The following rivers discharge their waters into the Yang- 
tze J§ =f i£ river. 

On the N. : the Wu-kiang J| yX, the principal river of 
Kweichow -JJ >)\\, which traverses the Province in a S.W. — N.E. 
direction, then bends to the N., at Szenan Fu ,g, ~\ftjff. The Wu- 
kiang Ji§ f£ flows through deep and narrow gorges at a depth of 
2,300 feet, and becomes navigable from Szenan Fu ,g„ ~fi{ ^ 
in the flood-season. It flows into the Yangtze, near Feu Chow 
?pi ffl* in Szechw'an B )W- 

On the N.E.: the Hoh-kiang fo jfc. It is navigable up to 
Tap'ingtu ^ 2p gf, not far from Jenhwai T'ing £ |g Jj|g. This 
river forms in the upper part of its course the boundary limit 
between Szechw'an )\\ and Kweichow Jf >)]\. 

On the E. : the Yuen-kiang UtiL- This is the great water- 
way through the Eastern part of the Province. The river is 
navigable for small junks up to Chenyuen Fu ^ ^ ffi. Ligh- 
ter craft may however go further up when the water rises, but 
rapids are numerous. It empties itself into the Tungt'ing }|^ |jg 
lake, in Hunan $f\ $f. 

The affluents of the Si-kiang |J f£ are : 

On the S. W. : the Hwa-kiang ffc ££, which with its 
tributaries, carves through the table-land, narrow and deep chan- 
nels. It is navigable from Pehtseng £| ^ for small boats. 

On the S. E. : the Liu-kiang ■$$ ££, navigable from 
Sankioh 5£ JB> where it attains 330 feet in breadth. Soon 
afterwards, it is contracted, and flows between narrow and 


steep banks. It joins the Si-kiang |f jj£ towards the centre of 
Kwangsi Jf ]§. 

The Si-Jciang jg ££, scarcely navigable in this part of its 
course, flows between high hills of sandstone, and is obstructed 
with rapids and rocks. 

Fauna and Flora. — The fauna of Kweichow bears a close resemblance to that 
of Kwangsi $f Bf (see Kwangsi : fauna and flora), and varies much with the altittide. 
In the low and deep-lying valleys, it is tropical, as evidenced by the palm, orange and 
banana-trees which grow there. It is also much varied throughout the rest of the 
country, rice and sugar-cane being cultivated in places. The varnish-tree (rhus 
vernicifera) grows especially in Kweichow, as well as the tallow (stillingia sebifera), 
gum-lac, wood-oil (aleurites cordata), vegetable wax (fraxinus chinensis) and camphor- 
trees. The oak and fir are the species the most widely diffused. Among the wild 
animals, suffice it to mention the tiger, panther, bear, wild-boar, wolf, fox and monkey. 

Agricultural Wealth. — In regard to agricultural wealth, 
this Province produces principally the opium-poppy, varnish, 
oil, wild silk and timber. The North-Eastern part is relatively 
well wooded, as also the South-Eastern portion. In this same 
South-Eastern region, excellent tobacco is grown in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lipo hsien |g jjg $£. 

The other agricultural products are : wheat, maize, beans, 
hemp, buckwheat, rape, barley, indigo, tea, cotton and gall- 
nuts. A special breed of ponies is also reared. 

As to fruit trees, Kweichow j|£ >}\\ possesses the peach, 
apricot, plum, cherry, orange and arbutus. Strawberries are 
raised in a few parts of the Province. 

Mineral Wealth. — Besides quicksilver, (which is found 
principally at Pehmatung g || j|FJ, to the N. of Kweiyang Fu 
~M % /ft> in the N.E. near Wuchw'an hsien §gj||jg£,and in the 
S.W. near Hsingi Fu || j^f) ; iron, coal, copper, zinc and 
argentiferous lead abound throughout the Province. Sulphur 
and nitre are very common, and fine marble quarries are also 
worked. As there is no salt in the Province, it is imported by 
the Northern rivers from Szechw'an \JQ )\\. 

Kweichow jtf jfl has also mineral waters, and those of 
Shihts'ien Fu ft |$f }ft are visited by thousands of bathers. 


Population. — The N.E. and N.W. of Kweichow are thinly populated, but 
the rest of the country is even more so, especially the E. and centre. The population 
is composed of very heterogeneous elements. The Chinese form but a fourth of this 
population, and occupy especially the N. and E. and also the towns throughout the 
rest of the Province. They are active and engaged in trading. Among them is a large 
number of immigrants from Szechw'an and Hupeh. 

The rest of the country is inhabited by the aboriginal Miaotze $! J- tribes, the 
IkiasTfcifc (barbarian race) or Chunghias t\i %* (old Chinese race) and the Laics 
J$ $£. The Ikias are principally confined to the low-lying valleys of the S.W.; the 
Miaotze occupy the W., the centre, and S.E.; and the Lolas the S.W. {see section V. 
ch. II. Population). 

The Miaotze, having taken advantage of the Mahometan rebellion in Yunnan, 
rose up against the Chinese, but were massacred in large numbers by the Imperial 
troops, and this considerably diminished the population of the country. They are even 
at present largely kept under military rule, especially in the S.E. The insurrection 
which they started, lasted from 18G0-1809. — The Miaotze are divided into a great 
many tribes, numbering it is said, more than 50. They are often called from the 
colour of their dress: Peh-miao £ $ (white Miaos), Heh-miao j& jg (black Miaos), 
and Hwa-miao ~i$ "® (flowery or civilized Miaos). 

The Chunghias are the descendants of former soldiers, who settled down in the 
country in the X th century A.D., when Kweichow was subdued by China. They are 
nearly all of high stature and form a sturdy race. Their complexion is darker than that 
of the Miaotze. Various names have been given to them: TsHng Chungkia fj t\i %* 
(blue-gowns), T'ujen i \ (sons of the soil), or what they like better Lao Penhia 
-Jtft%L <the old stock). They style themselves Pudioi or Pudici. Like the Miaotze, 
they wear the queue and Chinese jacket, but discard the long gown. The females wear 
a dress different from that of the Chinese women. 

The Chinese themselves are divided into old and modern Chinese. The old 
Chinese are sub-divided into many tribes whose customs are similar with one another. 
The modern Chinese are of recent immigration and came from Kwangsi, Hukwang 
(to-day Hupeh and Hunan) and especially from Szechw'an. 

The Miaotze and Chungkiatze are, generally speaking, suspicious of strangers, 
addicted to lying and drunkness, but are good workmen. They live also at variance 
with one another, but there is still more antipathy between the Chinese and the Miao- 
tze. Those latter have a special administrative organization. 

Language. — Each of the non-Chinese races speaks its own dialect, which 
varies much according to the tribe. The Chinese speak Mandarin. The Chungkiatze 
speak a dialect resembling that of Siam (Shans), but it is not fixed by any written 

Towns and Principal Centres. — KWEIYANG IV Jj; 

% Jft Population, 100,000 inhabitants. All the roads of the 

Province converge towards this town, which is situated at an 
altitude of 3,300 feet, and is built in the largest plain of Kwei- 
chow jj; j|||. This plain is about 40 miles in length and 4 in 
breadth. The city derives its importance chiefly from the pre- 


sence of the High Provincial Officials. Its commerce is of little 

To the N. of the Capital : 

Tsuni Fu jg J|| )ft. — Population, 45,000 inhabitants. A 
pretty busy town on account of its trade in wild silk, its manu- 
facture of cloth, and its paper industry. 

To the N. W. of the Capital : 

JPihtsieh hsieii J|| fjj %.— Population, 20,000 inhabitants. 
Principal centre of the Western region, but the surroundings 
alone are populated. Cloth is manufactured there. 

To the S. W. of the Capital : 

Nganshun Fa ^cjlg jvf. — Population, 50,000 inhabitants. 
It lies in a beautiful plain and is the second important city of 

JBsingi Fu jg. j| Jj?f. — Population, 40,000 inhabitants. 
Before the Mahomedan rebellion, the town was said to contain 
over 70,000 souls. It is now rising from its ruins, and enjoys 
a certain prosperity, owing to the poppy, which is extensively 
cultivated in the neighbourhood. The city stands at an altitude 
of 4,250 feet. 

To the S.E. : 

Ktichotv T'hif/ "j*J *}\] ||. — A very small town, but head- 
quarters of a military circle. A Taot'ai resides there and 
controls all relations with the native population. 

SanMoh ^ jjjj. — A pretty little town, at the terminus of 
navigation on the Liu-kiang ^J £f. It is an emporium of 
Chinese goods for the Miaotze "g" ^f tribes. Timber is floated 
from this place down to the Si-kiang jftf fx.' 

In the E. : 

Chenyuen Fu |t ^g Jjft . — A city which draws its impor- 
tance from being the principal terminus of navigation on the 
Yuen Jtc river, the centre of a well populated region, and a 
large market place for the distribution of goods. Two-fifths of 
the exterior commerce of Kweichow j| $\ are carried on 
through this place. 


Industry and Commerce. — Besides the extraction of 
quicksilver and coal, and the working of forests, we may 

mention as industries of the Province, the manufacture of cloth, 
which employs a large number of hands at Pihtsieh hsien J|| 
fjj jgji, in Tating Fu ^ % fft, silk-weaving in the N.E., and a 
few paper mills. 

The principal exports are : opium and varnish, raw silk, 
pongees, timber, beans, indigo and camphor. The chief imports 
are : piece-goods from Hupeh $J) 4fc, cotton -yarn, woollen goods, 
salt, kerosene and matches. 

Highways of Communication. — Communications are 
difficult in this mountainous country. Navigable waterways are 
not wanting, and we have mentioned them, only they do not 
penetrate far into the interior, but rather serve especially for 
communications with other Provinces. The country being too 
broken up, is ill-suited for carts, though these are used on 
the high table-lands of Yunnan j| '$. In Kweichow ^ j\] 
however, all transport has to be done by carriers or pack- 
animals. The principal roads, starting from the Capital, are 
the following : 

1° The road to Ch'ungk'ing Fu Jl J| Jft in Szechw'an 
JU, via Tsuni Fu & |g /ft. 

2° The road to Pihtsieh hsien jj| |p |g, in the Prefecture 
of Tating Fu J$ % ^f, which continues Northward towards 
Szechw'an |BJ J|j ; and Westward towards lAnver Yunnan j§| pg. 

3° The road to Upper Yunnan, via Nganshun Fu -^ Jl|f| $f, 
and which branches into several routes: one, the Imperial 
route, passing through Langt'ai T'ing f$ ^ Jj| : another, 
passing through Hsingi Fu M J| )ff. 

4° The road to Kwangsi ^ |f, \ia Tuyiin Fu ^fl £j ){f 
and Sankioh 5£ $J. 

5° The road to Hunan $f) ^, via Chenyuen Fu |g || Jft 
and Szechow Fu Jg £H }ft- The road to Kwangsi Jl "g" is 
connected with this latter at Kweiting hsien jif % )$£, in the 
Prefecture of Kweiyang Fu -jf |S§ ^. 



]Vote. — The Province of Kweichow -j^ >}\\ has only been 
incorporated with the Chinese Empire for two centuries. The 
whole portion to the S. of the Wu-kiang Ji§ j£ (Crow river), 
once formed a large kingdom, occupied by the Ikia lj| ^ tribe 
in the W., and the Miaolze "gf ^ in the E. China having seized 
it, added to it a detached strip of Szechw'an JJ5| )\\ (the actual 
portion of Kweichow lying to the N. of the Wu-kiang), forming 
thereby a new Province, with Kweiyang Fu j| ^ ffi as 
Capital. The S. Eastern portion still remained independent 
until the late war (1860-1869), at the close of which, it too 
was obliged to submit. Its petty princes continue to govern it 
under the supervision of Chinese officials. 



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Kwangsi and Kwangtung Provinces are governed by one 
and the same Viceroy, whose residence is at Kwangchow Fu |fj 
ffl Jff or Canton. They form the Viceroy alty of Liang-Ictvang 
ffi JJjH or two Kwangs. 

Both Provinces are irrigated by the Si-kiang "$§££, and offer 
partially the characteristics of the tropical regions. They are in- 
habited for the greater part by different races hostile to one another. 

The Provinces differ widely however one from the other. 
Kwangsi J| "jfff is a mountainous and quite inland region, while 
Kwangtung Jg| Tfc has its vast plain, and an extensive seaboard 
indented with numerous bays. Kwangsi Jf "gf is wild, barren, 
and almost a desert, while Kwangtung Jf Tf[ is well cultivated, 
rich and populous. Trade is scarcely possible in Kwangsi ^ |f ; 
Kwangtung J| jg, on the contrary, is one of the most commercial 
and enterprising Provinces of China. 


1° . Kwangsi Jt M 

Area. — 77,220 square miles. 

Population. — 5,142,000 inhabitants, or 66 per square 
mile. It is the least populous Province of the Empire. 

Name. — Kwangsi Jff Hf means "West of the Kwang", a 

denomination which refers to Kwangnan j^ ^ the old Annam 
Kingdom. Others would have it mean the "Broad West?', 

Boundaries. — Kwangsi is bounded on the 

N. — By Hunan Jgj ^ and Kweichow ff Jfl, 
W. — By Yunnan |f ]^f and Tongking ^f Tjr, 
S. — By Tongking ^ %( and Kwangtung ^ ^, 
E. — By Kwangtung JJf ^. 

Capital. — KWE1LIN FU fa # Jfr, situated to the N.E., 
on the Kwei-kiang jf£ ££. 

Other Prefectures. — These are lO in number. 

On the Kwei-kiang ^ j£ : 

1° P'ingloh Fu ^ ftg jff, 
2° Wuchow Fu m M ffi. 
To the N. of the Si-kiang, proceeding Westwards : 

3° Liu chow Fu $P #1 Jff, 
4° K'ingyuen Fu g ^ iff. 

To the S* of the Si-kiang \ ascending the basin of the Tuh- 
kiang ^ j£, from E. to W, : 

5° Siinchow Fu ffi ffl Iff, 
6° Nanning Fu If % Jfr, 
7° Szengen Fu S J91 Jflp, 
8° T'aip'ing Fu fc ^p Jfr, 
9° Chenngan Fu $| £ Jfr, 
10° Szech'eng Fu M $ $p. 

There are besides in Kwangsi Jg| |f two independent 
Chows >}§: Kweishun Chow j|§ Jl[p{ Jfl, Yuhlin Chow <jg ^ j|ty; 
and two independent Things |j; Tehseh THng *g" 'g, Jp§, and 
Shangsae Ting J^ ,§, Jg§. 


Aspect and Characteristics. — Kwangsi is a mountainous 
and desolate region, but well irrigated, and with prospects of 
becoming wealthy were brigandage effectually repressed. Activity, 
as well as the principal centres of population, are confined to the 
E. and S. E. t where waterways abound, and security for life is 
better assured. 

Geological constitution. — Kwangsi is the continuation of the Kweichow 
table-land, but its altitude is much lower. It is of limestone and sandstone formation, 
and has also schist veined with porphyry and granulite. Towards the centre, to the 
N. of Nanning Fu, is a rather vast granitic mass. In the W., clay-stone abounds. 

Orography. — The country is wholly mountainous, but 
chiefly to the W. and N. In the S.E., a ridge blocks the Si- 
kiang "g j£> which finally cuts through it, and penetrates into 
Kwangtung $$ Jfe. In the S., short and successive ranges of 
hills called "the hundred thousand hills", because of their great 
number, leave space between them for only narrow valleys. On 
the N.W. and N.E., is a succession of hills, crowned with those 
peaks and knolls which we have already mentioned when des- 
cribing Kweichow -f^ j\\. 

All these mountains run for the greater part from S.W. to 
N.E., and rise to an elevation of from 1,600 to 2,600 feet above 
the level of the rivers. The table-land itself attains an average 
elevation of 1,000 feet. 

Climate. — The climate of Kwangsi is tropical in the S., where the heat is 
excessive from May to September. This heat is moist and occasions much sickness. 
The climate is more temperate in the N., but there are sudden changes of temperature, 
and the cold is rather severe in Winter. Even in the S., upon the peaks that form the 
boundary line between Tongking and this Province, snow and ice are occasionally found, 
but are of short duration. In the Southern valleys, the thermometer never falls below 
37° Fahr., and rises in Summer to 100°, and sometimes to 104.° Fahrenheit. 

Hydrography. — One large river, the Si-kiang |f ££, 

traverses the Province from N.W. to S.E., and receives on the 
left two important tributaries, and on the right, a still more 
important one (see Ch. 1. p. 170). 

The Si-kiang, under the name of Hungshui jjj£ tJc, marks 
the limit between Kwangsi Jf "g and Kweichow jj; ^fl, down to 
Fuhk'ai ft |g. It flows in this region through deep sandstone 


valleys, and being obstructed with rocks and rapids, it is little 
available for navigation. Henceforward, widening from 240 to 
320 feet, it abandons its direction W.E., and follows a S.E. 
course. It is not navigable till a little above Ts'ienkiang hsien 
5S tL J|f,- ^ becomes a large and fine river after receiving 
the waters of the Yuh-kiang || jj£, which come in from the S. 
Numerous boats then ply on its waters, and it is navigable for 

The two tributaries on the left side are : 

The TAu-kiang ^J ££, which comes from Kweichow (J £ty, 
where it is navigable for small boats from Sankioh j£ J$|l. It is 
navigable for large junks from Ch'angngan-sze f^^tl^, a little 
to the S. of Hwaiyuen hsien |g JJ )$£. The Liu-kiang flows 
through rather fertile plains, but its usefulness is diminished on 
account of its rapids. It is especially availed of for the transport 
of timber, floated down from Hunan $Jj ^j and Kweichow j^M. 

The Kwei-kiung ^ JJ. This river comes from the N., 
and is connected by a canal with the Siang-kiang *#ff ££, which 
rises in Hunan JjJ j§. It is navigable despite its many rapids. 
It joins the Si-kiang H 2C at Wuchow Fu ,fg fi\ JjSf, and attains 
there a width of 330 yards. 

The tributary on the right is : 

The Tuh-kiung §J j£, which issues from Yunnan |§| |g, 
close by Kwangnan Fu ^ ]$f Jj!f. It is navigable for small 
boats from Pakngai or Pohai gij g, and for large junks 
from Pehseh T'ing "g" ^ J|i, whence it flows with a conside- 
rable descent through very low-lying plains, where however it 
is easily navigated. After receiving the Tso-kiang £ £p, its 
bed winds successively through long, narrow gorges, and vast 
plains. In low-water season, a rapid obstructs steam-navigation, 
below Kwei hsien jlj; jj|. Two landing places, one above the 
rapid, the other below it, render navigation possible during the 
whole year, up to Nanning Fu \% |^ JjSf, and even up to Pehseh 
T'ing "g ^ Jj§, in the flood-season. The Yuh-kiang ^ fc re- 
ceives on its right, above Nanning Fu |f| $fl }ff, the Tso-kiang 


& fL, forced by the confluence of two rivers, which come from 
Tongking ^ i£, and unite at Lungchow T'ing n jf| $\ |j§, in the Pre 
fectureofT'aip'ingFu ^2pjjSf. Both are navigable down into Tong 
king, large junks ascending as far as Lungchow T*ing g| j]] Jg| 
Another but less important tributary, the Yung-kiang ^ f£ 
which joins the Si-kiang ]flf Jq above Wuchow Fu ;fg jf+| Jiff 
establishes easy communication with Pakhoi :|t $J (Peh-hai) 
Goods coming by the Lien-kiang jj| jx» as f ar as Fomien (fig ^ 
^ Fohweik'ii, to the S.W. of Yuhlin Chow f| $C ft), are trans- 
ported thence upon the backs of carriers to the Yung-kiang §jj£, 
which is navigable from Pehliu hsien jfc Jft 5? anc * beyond. 

Fauna ;ind Flora. — On account of the devastation prevailing in Ewangsi, a 

great number of wild animals are found there : the tiger, rhinoceros, panther, tapir, 
wolf, bear and fox. Deer are also encountered, as well as stags, monkeys, scaly ant- 
eaters, and a large variety of serpents (the boa-constrictor, rattlesnake, green serpent, 
adder and aspic). Besides the birds common to the rest of China, there are some that 
bear a close resemblance to those of Hindustan. 

The flora is luxuriant and largely tropical. Suffice it to mention the sugar-cane, 
cinnamon and aniseed-trees, this latter growing profusedly in certain parts. Ground- 
nuts are also found, as well as the papaw-tree, the shaddock, the palm-tree, the pine- 
apple and orange, the lichee or persimmon, the mange-tree, arbutus, pomegranite, guava 
and betel-nut... The maple, ebony, teak-wood and mahogany-trees furnish excellent 

Agricultural Wealth. — Besides fruit-trees and timber, 
Kwangsi produces the sugar-cane, rice, cotton, and almost 
everywhere maize. The poppy and the mulberry are scarce. 
Potatoes are grown nowadays especially in the N. W. The 
fruit-trees of the N. : peach, plum, pear and walnut, are also 
easily grown. There are scarcely any forests, except in the 
N., but a great number of trees are found in the W. There also, 
buffaloes and ponies are extensively reared. 

Mineral Wealth. — The mineral wealth of Kwangsi is 
little worked, though it is considerable, and consists chiefly of 
gold, silver, coal and antimony. 

Population.— The population of Kwangsi, as we have seen, is very scant}-, and 
is centred especially in the neighbourhood of the principal towns, where it finds greater 
protection against brigands and evil-doers. It is composed of 3 principal races: 
the aborigines or Ikias ^ ^ (barbarians), the Cantonese, and the Hakkas *§£ ^ 
or K'ohkias (alien or guest families, squatters). 


The Ikias alone form a /> of the population, but their name varies much with the 
region which they occupy. Their dross, customs, manners, and the dialects they speak, 
closely resemble those of the Siamese (Shans). 

The Hakkas are a cross betwen Chinese soldiers and Ikia women, and have 
adopted most of the Chinese customs. They mingle with the natives, and being bold 
and enterprising, succeed often in supplanting them. 

The Cantonese are the least numerous, and occupy principally the S. and S. E. 
They are nearly all traders. 

Language. — Besides the Cantonese language, which differs very much from 
Mandarin, each of the Ikia tribes speaks its own peculiar dialect. 

Cities and Principal Centres. — KWEILIN FU fe ^ 

Jjlf (Cassia grove). — Population, 80,000 inhabitants. The town 
is situated at an altitude of 650 feet, and stands in the midst of 
an amphitheatre crowned with madreporite peaks, which give 
to the scenery a most peculiar aspect. The Southern quarters, 
which are the finest of the town, possess numerous fur and silk- 
stores, and clocks are manufactured. Almost all commercial 
relations are carried on with Canton, by the Kwei-kiang jg: ££. 

On the Si-kiang "jftf ££ : 

Wuchow Fu |g >Jfl }ft. — Population, 65,000 inhabitants. 
The most important city in Kwangsi Jg "jfff, and the centre 
of all trade in this Province, owing to its excellent position. 
Steamers reach it from Canton in two and a half days. 

On the Yuh-kiang |gf fx. : 

Nanning Fu ^ <pj fff. — Population, 25,000 inhabitants. 
A town noteworthy because of its trade, and its position as a 
transit centre. Numerous junks proceeding Westward, or des- 
cending the river, pass through the place. Western Kwangsi jtj 
"03 being inadequate for its own supply, is compelled to import 
rice and other commodities from Canton, and from the country 
round Kweilin Fu H $j fft. 

On the Tso-kiang & '{£ : 

lAingchoiv T*ing f [ $\\ Jgi. — Population, 12,000 inhabitants. 
This city owes its importance to its custom-house and its trade 
with Tongking jff ijr. 

On the Liti-kiang jjjl jf£ : 

lAuchow Fu ;jd/p *^\ $f. — Population, 35,000 inhabitants. 


It is situated within a bend of the river. Numerous junks come 
up to the place, and a small trade is carried on, chiefly in 
wood, brought from Kweichow j| >H1. 

Pehseh T'ing -g" Q |f . — Population, 20,000 inhabitants. 
A commercial centre trading with Yunnan jit j^f and Kwei- 
chow ji[ >H1, whence it imports opium in large quantities, and 
with which it exchanges cotton piece-goods, woollens, kerosene 
oil and matches. 

Industry and Commerce. — The country is too agitated 
to favour the development of industrial pursuits. Formerly the 
silk industry was important, but it exists no longer, and the 
manufacture of sugar has supplanted it. Star-aniseed oil is 
also found ; groundnut oil and indigo are likewise sources of 
industry for the country. 

Trade is chiefly carried on with Canton, Pakhoi, Tongking 
^ TjC, Yunnan ft j|f and Kweichow -jjf fi\. The imports are : 
cotton and woollen cloths, cotton-yarn, kerosene oil, opium 
and clocks. The exports are: sugar, star-aniseed oil, false 
gambir, timber, cinnamon and indigo. Traffic with the 
neighbouring regions is extensive. 

Highways of Communication. — The principal means 
of communication are the navigable routes, which comprise a 
vast network of waterways, and establish easy communications : 
with Canton by the Si-kiang ]§ j£; with Hunan JjjJ ]§ by the 
Kwei-kiang ^ ££; with Kweichow H $\ by the Liu-kiang ^J 
££ ; with Yunnan jf "^ by the Yuh-kiang ^ {£; with Tongking 
^ # by the Tso-kiang £ ft ; with Pakhoi ft M (Peh-hai) by 
the Yung-kiang § ££ and the Lien-kiang jj| tt« 

The land routes are badly kept up, and are nothing more 
than unbeaten tracks. Carts travel on their more level 

Open Ports. — Kwangsi has three ports open to Foreign 
trade: Lungchotv T'ing f[ }]] ||, in T'aip'ing Fu ^2p^=, Wu- 
chow Fu Jg ft\ fft and Fanning Fu ]§ ^ fft. 


Note. — Kwangsi J| "gj and Kwangtung Jf if( formerly 
made but one Province. Kwangsi was separated from the latter 
by the Emperor Hungwu gfc ft (1308-1390), of the Ming [JJj 
dynasty, and its administration entrusted to a Provincial 

The present system of governing the Province offers this 
peculiarity, that some of its district towns or sub-prefectures 
are still administered by hereditary chieftains. These officials 
are the descendants of soldiers who received this charge in 
return for former services. 


2° . Kwangtung 

Area. — 100,000 square miles. 

Population. — 31,865,200, or 318 per square mile. This 
region is the most populous of the whole Si-kiang "gf f£ basin. 

Name. — Kwangtung Jf jfc signifies "East of the Kwany", 

Kwangnan Jf ^ being the old Empire of Annam -$]$]. Others 
render it by the "Broad EasP\ 

Boundaries. — Kwangtung is bounded on the 

N. — By Fokien jjjg J|?, Kiangsi ft "jfff and Hunan $JJ jf , 
W. — By Kwangsi $£ ^ and Tongking %$ Tjr, 
S. — By the Gulf of Tongking and the South-China 

Sea jg $, 
E. — By the South-China Sea. 

Capital. — KWANGCHOW FU J^ f\] fff or Canton, si- 
tuated to the N. of the Si-kiang |Ef ft delta, and on the Chu- 
kiang ^ ft or Pearl River. 

Other Prefectures. — These are 8 in number. 

To the N. of the Si-kiang, proceeding from W. to E. : 

1" Chaok'ing Fu i g f , on the Si-kiang ^ ft, 

2° Shaochow Fu ffl M M, on the Peh-kiang ft ft, to the N. % 

3° Hweichow Fu M JH M, on the Tung-kiang t% ft, in its lower 

4" Ch'aochow Fu $j ¥\ )ft, on the Han-kiang f| j'i, not far from 

the sea. 

To the S. of the Si-7ciang 9 proceeding likewise from W. 
to E. : 

5° Lieuchow Fu H *H M, on the gulf of Tongking "& £, 

6° Leichow Fu If ^N Jfr, /* the peninsula of the same name, 

7° Kaochow Fu % ^H #f, a little to the N. of the Leichow 

8° K'iungchow Fu ffi, ¥\ $f, in the N. of the island of Hainan 

There are besides in Kwangtung J| )j| 5 independent 
Chow )>[\ cities: Tien Chow j^ >)i\ 9 Nanlisiunff Chow ]|j $f| }N1, 


Maying Chow Jt ^ >ft\, K'in Chow jfc >Jfl , Loting Chow H % 
>}]\ /and 3 independent T*ings jf| : Lienshan T'ing $L |Xj M> 
Tangkiang T'ing % fr Jg, and Ch'ihk'i T'ing ^ g| J|. 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Kwangtung is for the 
most part a mountainous region, except in the delta tract; it is 
however well watered, and provided with means of communications, 
by its canals, rivers and coast. Along the latter, we find nume- 
rous islands, of which the largest is Hainan jff ]^f, and the most 
commercial, Hongkong :ff $]c. As in Kwangsi J^ "gf, several 
races are intermingled in Kwangtung J| ^. Enterprising, com- 
mercial and industrious, brought into contact for long years with 
foreign traders, the Cantonese have exerted great influence over 
the neighbouring countries, and even as far as America. Although 
situated partly in the tropical zone, the Province, owing to the 
monsoon, enjoys in Winter a dry and almost cold climate. These 
conditions preserve the inhabitants from that excessive exhaustion 
resulting from moist and prolonged heat, and at the same time, 
favour the growth of many tropical products, which constitute its 
chief wealth. If the Province enjoys no longer, as in former times, 
the monopoly of trade with foreigners, nor the privilege of con- 
veying ambassadors to Peking ^ ^ (see p. 145), it remains 
however the great distributing centre of the Si-kiang ff fj^ 
valley, and exchanges its wares with remote regions, and chiefly 
with Szechw'an JJG| J||. 

Geological constitution. — More than half of Kwangtung, the W. and N.W. 
especially, is of the same formation as Kwangsi, and is composed of sandstone and 
limestone interspersed with porphyry and granite. As the coast is approached, granite 
px-edominates. The delta is of alluvial formation, and is broken by hills of red sand- 
stone overlying a granite basis. The Leichow peninsula is of red clay-grit formation, 
while the island of Hainan is granitic and schistous. 

Orograpliy. — Almost wholly mountainous, this Pro- 
vince has however a large plain, extending over the delta of the 
Si-kiang |f ££, and the lower part of the Peh-kiang ^ fj^. All 
its mountains run in the general direction S.W. — N.E., and are 
continued in the sea along the coast, where they attain in some 
islands an elevation of 3,000 feet. On the continent, they rise 
to a height of 5,000 feet, and even in the N., to 6,500 feet. The 


principal peak of Hainan Jg jg, attains an altitude of 4.900 
feet. It is part of the large mountain mass, which stretches 
out into ridges and forms a large portion of the island. 

Climate. — The climate of Kwangtung is very changeable and depends on the 
dry N. E. wind, or the moisture-laden one which blows from the S. W. From October 
to April, the former prevails, and in the neighbourhood of Canton, seldom causes the 
temperature to fall below 32° Fahrenheit, but the high ridges do not fare so well, and 
are at times covered with snow. The rainy monsoon, which occurs in Summer, occasions 
often dangerous epidemics. Macao is famed for its excellent climate, due to its site, 
whereby the town is protected from the cold, and from the moist heat of the delta. It 
does not escape however the plague and the cholera. Hongkong, less well situated, 
is subject to fogs. Both Macao and Hongkong are often visited by typhoons which 
cause such terrible ravages on the coast. 

Hydrography. — The Si-kiang "gf £[, with its two large 
affluents on the left : the Peh-kiang 4fc {L ana * the Tung-kiang 
}g j£, drains the greater part of the Province. The Han-kiang 
•$? iL an d its affluents water the N.W. The S.W., less favoured, 
has but a few short rivers, which flow directly into the sea. 

The Si-kiang jflj f£. When this stream enters Kwangtung 
Jgt l|[, it is already a fine, large river. At Chaok'ing Fu ^ J| Jft y 
it is over a mile wide. Further on, it flows through a narrow 
gorge, and is only 270 yards in width. Its course here becomes 
very impetuous and its depth increases. This gorge, the last 
through which the Si kiang "g ££ flows, is three miles long. 
After issuing from it, it widens anew to a breadth of one mile. 
It subsequently runs, now through vast and well cultivated 
plains, now between parallel ranges of barren mountains. In the 
flood-season, it discharges its overflow into the Peh kiang 4fc j£, 
through a canal nearly half a mile in length. At Sanshui hsien 
H 7K B?o it divides into several branches. At this place, the 
delta begins. Its Northern branch, called the Chu-kiang %fc fr 
or Pearl River, flows past Fatshan {$ |Jj (Fohshan) and Canton 
M W Mt ana * empties its waters into the sea through the JBocca 
Tigris or Bogue, called also the Gate of the Tiger's Head 
^ M PI (Huteu-men), between Hongkong and Macao. The 
Southern branch, less frequented, goes by the name of the Si- 
kiang, and terminates S. of Macao. Between these two branches, 
and in the environs, is a network of canals and rivers, and a 


countless number of boats ply on their waters at the rise and 
fall of the tide. Depths are extremely variable, and the sand- 
banks shift frequently from one position to another. A number 
of embankments have been constructed to protect the low-lying 
lands from the floods caused by the rise of the waters. These 
contrivances sometimes give way, and then the flood rushes on, 
devasting all before it, until it is stopped by a new embankment. 
The vast sheet of water is not drained off until the low-water 
season sets in. 

The Peh-kiang 4fc £C, an affluent of the Si-kiang "g J£, 
rises in the South of the Meiling |g |jj range, which separates 
Kwangtung |§ ^ from Kwangsi Jr ]*§*. It is called at first by 
the name of Tseng-shui }( 7JC, and becomes navigable for small 
craft at Nanhsiung Chow ]$" $(£ >}\\, but navigation on its 
waters is rather difficult, on account of the rapids and the lack 
of depth, down to Shaochow Fu fg ^fl fff. Here it receives 
on the right the Wu-shui f£ 7]^, which comes from the S. of 
Hunan jgJJ j£f, and is also partly navigable. It then abandons 
its first direction N. E. — S.W., and takes a Southern course, 
which it maintains to the end. It passes through wild and 
picturesque gorges, of which the last is that of Ts'ingyuen 
}ff j§L- Henceforward it flows in the plains, and reaches the 
delta near Sanshui hsien ^ ?K JK» dependent on Kwangchow Fu 
Jit jHI /jj- It is navigable for large boats from Shaochow Fu 
bB W J$f > but the Summer freshets render its current very violent 
and hard to ascend ; even the down-trip is not unattended 
with danger. — Its principal tributary on the right is the Lien- 
chow-kiang ji| j\] ££, which is navigable from Lien Chow 
51 W- — Th e Peh-kiang, formerly very important, as the great 
water route not only to Kiangsi ji£ W and Hunan $J) $<j, but 
also to Nanking ^ /£ and Peking :ffc Tj£, is now but of secondary 

The Tung-kiang JC iL rises in Kiangsi JX |Ef, ana * makes 
several bends Westward, the last being near Hweichow Fu jg 
j]\ ffi. Here it flows through a small delta into the large 
delta of the Si-kiang ]g £f\ The Tung-kiang ^ fx. receives 


several .affluents, and affords an excellent network of navigable 

The Han-Mang fl £H- — As regards its navigation, this 
river has neither the same importance nor the same interest as 
the preceding ones. Its affluents however, the principal of 
which is the Mei-kiang $f j?X, open communications with Fokien 
SB Jt» while its delta, covered with sugar-canes, possesses at 
a distance of live miles from the sea an excellent harbour : 
Shant'eu Jjj gg or Swat'ow. 

In the S. W. 9 the rivers of JAenchow Fu jj| >}[\ j^f and of 
K'in Chow %{ *))\. although very short, have a certain impor- 
tance on account of the large boat-population that lives on their 
waters. (For other details on the coast and islands, see Section IV.). 

Fauna and Flora. — The faune and flora of Kwangtung are identical with 
those of Kwangsi, hut the wild animals are less numerous, and the country is nearly 
everywhere under cultivation. The N. is pretty well wooded, especially with fir-trees. 

Besides the specimens already named, suffice it to mention in regard to the fau- 
na : fly-catchers, parrots, the mandarin duck and gorgeous butterflies ; and in regard 
to the flora : the fig and olive-trees, thujas and magnolias. 

In the island of Hainan, the fauna and flora have a closer resemblance to those 
of the tropical region. In the island are found large deer and stags, monkeys and very 
venimoUs snakes. It has also its cocoa-nut groves, arecas, nut-palms and pine- 

Agricultural Wealth. — The mountainous tract is rocky 
and unproductive, but that of the plains, of the delta and valleys, 
is excellent and well irrigated, and even produces three crops 
annually. The principal products are : rice, sugar-cane, wheat, 
cassia, tea, tobacco, groundnuts, ginger and oranges. The silk- 
worm is also reared in the Si-kiang |§" j£ delta. The grasscloth 
plant is cultivated principally in the N., as well as hemp and 
indigo. A species of rush, growing in the recent alluvial soil, is 
employed in making mats, which are in great demand. 

Cattle are extensively reared in the Province, as also poultry 
and bees, while the fish of the rivers and coast provide the 
inhabitants with a valuable food-supply. 

Mineral Wealth. — Extensive coal mines are found in 
the Prefecture of Shaochow Fu fg >)\\ jjSf, in the district of Hwa 


hsien j£ jg, in Kwangchow Fu J| *|fl flSf, and near the gull* of 
Tongking Jg ~ff % . Iron-ore mines are worked in several places, 
and salt is extracted from sea-water. The Province possesses 
also in various localities important mines of silver, copper, lead 
and tin. 

Population. — The population is especially crowded in the Si-kiang delta and 
on the coast, and offers the same divei-sity of races already noticed in Kwangsi. The 
principal of these races are : 1° the Cantonese, called also the Punti or Penti j£ Jfe 

(original or native stock) ; — 2° the HaJckas or E'ohkias %£ ^ (squatters, aliens) ; 3° 

the Jfoklos or Hsiolaos ^- jfe ( people from Fok, or as it is locally pronounced Hok 
Province, i.e Fokien Province) ; — 4° the Ikias ^ |$C (barbarians) ; — 5° the Yao or Y11 
tribe $Sj (jackals) ; — (5° the Ti/ngkas or Tungkias yftij 0£ (cave-dwellers). — The Canto- 
nese form more than half of the population, and occupy especially the centre of the 
Province and the delta. They are active, industrious, and consider themselves the 
rightful owners of the soil. — The Hakkas descend from the same stock as those of 
Kwangsi. They came very likely from Fokien, and inhabit chiefly the N.E., but are 
also found throughout the whole Province intermingled with the Cantonese. They are 
excellent cultivators, and being of strong build are also employed as coolies or carriers. 
They furnish the largest number of Fokien emigrants. — The J/oklos, who come also 
from Fokien, are confined to the N.E. and the coast, but are less numerous than the 
other races. — The Tungkas are of short stature and are dark-featured. They are 
especially given to petty trades, and live on their boats in the neighbourhood of Canton, 
where they form floating villages. They seem to be near akin to the Hakkas, but are 
much despised by the other inhabitants of Kwangtung. — The Ikias or Miaotze are 
but semi-civilised, and inhabit especially the N.W. — The Yao tribes, who number about 
30,000, are located in the S.W. They seem to be of Burmese origin, and are much 
considered among the other races for their knowledge of medicine. Their jvengeance 
is much dreaded, as it is transmitted from father to son through several generations. 

In the island of Hainan, the population is composed of Sais or Sis, who number 
about 100,000. In the centre are found 5,000 Meus. The remainder is occupied by 2 
million Chinese who have settled especially along the coast. 

Language. — Each race clings to its own dialect. Cantonese however, on ac- 
count of its importance, is spreading more and more. It constitutes the Peh-hwa £f g§, 
or fashionable language, differs much from Mandarin, and has its own literature. — 
The llakka dialect is near akin to Mandarin, being a transition phase between Canto- 
nese and the latter. It is spoken by 4 millions of inhabitants. — The Swat'ow region 
has its own peculiar dialect, which resembles the Fokienese, and is spoken by 3 million 

Besides the Sai and Men dialects, Hainan has a Chinese dialect of its own, called 
the dialect of KHungchotv Fu. 

Towns and Principal Centres. — KWANGCHOW FU 

M W Jrt or Canton. — Population, 900,000. Capital of Kwang- 
tung, from 1664, at which period it secured this privilege from 
Chaok'ing Fu j|| J| ffi. It is a large city, as its name signifies 




(Kwang meaning broad), and very ancient. It is built on the 
left bank of the Chu-kiang ^ jX or Pearl River, and its suburbs 
extend along the river far beyond its walls, above and below 
the city. A fishing population of well nigh 20,000, form on the 
river a peculiarly interesting portion of the city. Well situated 
for facility of communications, it became the most populous 
centre of the delta. Several times the Capital of an independent 
state, it enjoyed, up to 50 years ago, the monopoly of commerce 
with foreigners. The rapid rise of Hongkong, and the opening 
of other ports have since diminished its importance. It is 
nevertheless a great manufacturing and commercial city. Its 
principal industries? are : silk-spinning, factories of cotton and 
woollen cloths, satins and paper. Its articles of household 
furniture, tortoise-shell, lacquer and stoneware, its fans and 
pottery enjoy a world-wide reputation and are sold far and wide. 
Its exports are chiefly silk, tea and matting, while it imports 
cotton-yarn and piece goods, woollen-cloth, rice, sugar, beans, 
kerosene oil, flour, coal, cutlery, opium, tobacco and matches. The 
total trade of the port has been in 1903, Hk. Tls. 110,559,826; 
in 1904, Tls. 96,247,076; and in 1905, Tls. 92,243,650. 

Opposite the town is Fati ^g ${jj (Hwa-ti), famous for its 
gardens, and nearby is the island of Shameen J^Ur? (Shamien, i.e. 
sand-flat), upon which are established the Foreign Settlements. 

Large steamers are unable to reach Canton, but anchor at 
Whampoa H j^ (Hwangpu), 10 miles further down, where 
they find sufficiently deep water and a safe anchorage. Here 
also are repairing-docks and vast warehouses for the storage of 
cargo. Whampoa itself is a rather large place, extending 2\ 
miles along an island of the same name, which lies on the right 
bank of the Chu-kiang Jj jj£. 

On the Si-Jtiang "gg j£ : 

Chaok'ing Fu 4j§ J| Jff. — Former Provincial Capital, now 
a decadent city but not without some importance. It has splen- 
did houses, well-stocked shops, and its streets are paved. Con- 
siderable trade is carried on in tea, porcelain and marble slabs, 
which are quarried in the vicinity. 



On the Feh-kiang ;|fc ££ : 

NanJisiung Fu $j ^ /jj. — An ancient city well situated, 
formerly famous, and even still a large transit-place for goods 
entering from Kiangsi ft lS> or forwarded through the Meiling 
# $ pass. 

Shaochow Fu gft >}[\ ffi. — A large town, and a much fre- 
quented port, at the confluence of the Wu-shui f^ 7)^ with the 
Peh-kiang # \£. 

Sanshui hsien 5£ ?jc $£ (Samshui). — Population, 5,000 
inhabitants. It is separated from the Peh-kiang 4k 2C by a large 
suburb, which is used as its port. This town is agreeably 
situated at the foot of beautifull hills, and owes its activity to 
its position. Samshui is a port open to foreign trade. 

Above Canton: 

Fatshan {$ |X| ^ (Fohshan chen). — Population, 500,000 
inhabitants. A large town, 12 miles in length, renowned for 
its vast silk manufactures, cloth-making, embroidery, cutlery, 
matting, paper and porcelain. The town is divided into two 
parts by the river, and is not fortified. 

On the Tung-kiang jj[ ££, at the head of the delta : 
Shihlung fi h|. — Population, 100,000 inhabitants. A large 
sugar and food-stuff emporium. 

To the N.E., at the mouth of the Han-kiang ff: ££ : 
Swatow Jill JJf (Shant'eu). — Population, 60,000 inhabitants. 
A port situated five miles from the sea, and exporting chiefly 
sugar, groundnuts and camphor. Among its imports are bean- 
oil cake from Manchuria, employed in large quantity for manu- 
ring the fields; also rice, kerosene oil, cotton and woollen cloths. 
Numerous emigrants start every year from this place. 

To the S. W. : 

Fakhoi ft $ (Peh-hai). — Population, 20,000 inhabitants. 
A port situated on the gulf of Tongking. It is the commercial 
outlet, and the mart for a large portion of Kwangtung Jf }g, 
Kwangsi Jf ||, and even of Yunnan U ]§ and Kweichow jff $\. 
Its chief exports are star-aniseed and star-aniseed oil, hides. 



indigo, opium and tin, while its imports are cotton-cloths and 
kerosene oil. 

In the Island of Hainan $£ "$| : 

KHungchow Fti JH^HJ^. — Population, 35,000 inhabitants. — 
HoiJiow $f O (Haik'ow) is its port, and trades principally with 
Hongkong*. It exports pigs, sugar, betel-nuts, leather and 
poultry. Its imports consist of cotton-cloths, rice, kerosene oil 
and India opium. 

Note. — On Hongkong ^ $£ (Hsiangkiang) and Kowloon ;*L ft (Kiulung), 
both British possessions ; Macao $| | ir j (Ngaomen) belonging to Portugal, and Lappa 
fj$ jfc (Ktmgpeh), an island opposite Macao ; Kwangchowwan ^ #| $f, belonging 
to France, see Section IV. Coasts. 

Industry and Commerce. — Canton and Fatslwm are the 

two principal industrial centres. We have seen the principal 
articles, and may add thereto the manufacture of matches, 
jewellery and glass-ware, sugar-refining and iron-works. 

Trade is carried on through Swatow and Pakhoi, but 
Canton holds the first place as a commercial centre, its exports 
going as far as Yunnan J| "^f and Szechw'an ffi- We have 
stated their nature when describing the principal ports of this 

Highways of Communication. — Communications are 
carried on principally by water routes. The Si-kiang |§ J£ 

delta offers an excellent network of navigable streams. The 
river itself is a convenient outlet towards Kwangsi J| "gf and 
the adjoining Provinces. 

The Teh-kiang jfc ££ has long been the water route towards 
the N. The river forks into two at Shaochow Fu ffg >)[\ jjSf, one 
stream leading to Kiangsi f£ |f, via Nanhsiung Chow "^^Jfl; 
the other on the W., leading to Hunan $f\ }g, via Wushui J^Tfc. 
From Nanhsiung Chow, a land route continues through Kiangsi. 
This road is paved, and as it issues from the immense plain of rice- 
fields, it winds through quaint and picturesque hills. All along, at 
regular intervals, are built sheds to afford shelter to the carriers. 
These number about 50,000, and travel unceasingly to and fro, 
in two nearly endless files, The boundary-limit of the two 


Provinces is at the Meikwan ^ || or plum-tree barrier, situated 
at an elevation of 1,000 feet above the sea level. Between that 
place and Nanngan Fu $j ^ /Jj, the journey is still made by 
land and then by water. The same process is repeated on the 
route through Hunan $j ]{f. At Ichang hsien g jfi j|g (de- 
pending on Ch'eng Chow >ff|$ jltl), the Wu-shui ffi 7K is abandoned 
for a paved road, which leads via the Chehling JfJ |j pass to 
Ch'eng Chow on the Lei-ho ^ JpJ. This road is 30 miles long, 
and is bordered throughout with inns and warehouses. The 
Chehling pass attains an elevation of about 1,000 feet, and like 
the land route is situated in Hunan $J] "jg. 

The Tung-kiang J|[ j£ supplies an excellent way North- 

The Lienchow Fu j$| ft] Jff and K'in Chow jft ft\ rivers 
open easy commnications between Pakhoi 4b $$ (Peh-hai) and 
Kwangsi J| |g. 

A railway connects Samshui ]£ 7j< (Sanshui) and Fatshan 
^ jjj with Canton, and will subsequently be continued to Kowloon 
^L||. Another is to run between Canton and Macao. 

The Peh-kiang 4b \L valley is the natural course which the 
Canton-Hank'ow line will follow. 

Carts, though occasionally met with, are little employed. 

A regular steamship service brings the principal ports 
into constant communication with one another. 

Open Ports. — Kwangtung has six ports open to Foreign 
trade : Canton or Kwangchow Fu jg ft] ]{f, Swatow or Shan- 
t'eu \\\\ Hi (in the Prefecture of Ch'aochow Fu $Jj ft\ Jft), Hoiliow 
or Haik'ow $J p (in the Prefecture of K'iungchow Fu Jj| 
ft\ Jff< Hainan #J fl Island), Pakhoi or Peh-hai ft $b ( in tne 
Prefecture of Leichow Fu fjj ft] Jj^f), Samsui or Sanshui 
hsien H ?fc $| (* n tne Prefecture of Kwangchow Fu Jf ft] 
ffi), and Kiangmen £r P*j (i n the Prefecture of Chaok'ing Fu 
S St ffi)- There are besides three ports of call: TLanchuh ~{j* 
fj* (in the Prefecture of Chaok'ing Fu |ji Jg /jf), Chaok'ing Fu 
3i J8 $f an d TehkHng Fu ^ jg Jfif, and three custom stations: 
Wlvampoa or Hwangpu jir jjf (in the Prefecture of Kwang- 



chow Fu |i£ >}\] ffi), Koivloon or Kiulung %, ffl? (in the Prefec- 
ture of Hweichow Fu Iff >)\\ f^) i and Lappa or Kungpeh :)jl: ;|[* 
(in the Prefecture of Kwangchow Fu JlT{ >}[\ /ft). 

Three ports have been ceded to Foreign Powers : Macao 
or Ngaomen ^Hf*], occupied by the Portuguese from 1,553, and 
ceded officially to Portugal in 1887 ; Hongkong or Ilsiangkiang 
§ $jc, ceded to England in 1842 (to which must be added the 
Koivloon eartension on the mainland, leased in 1898) ; and 
Kivangchoivwan Jg£ 'J|| Hf , in the Prefecture of Leichow Fu fg j\\ 
j£f, leased to France in 1898. 



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Imbault-Huart. — Le Voyage de l'Am- 
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Raquez. — Au Pays des Pagodes. Chang- 
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The Aborigines of Hainan. — China Re- 
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(FOKIEN jjjg Jg AND CHEKIANG ffi ft), 

Fokien jjfg H forms with Chekiang j^f fr the Minche f$ gff 

Viceroyalty. The Viceroy resides at Foochow jjjg $\. Formosa. 
Island or T'aiwan jg $f, was formerly a part of this Viceroyalty. 

The two Provinces, both separated from Kiangsi fx. W by 
high chains of mountains, both having a coast-line abounding in 
bays and ports, both irrigated by short rivers, both principally 
composed of porphyry and granite, remain considerably isolated 
from the rest of China, and have a race and dialect proper to 
each. Doth have a large agricultural population. In the East, 
their climate is tropical in Summer, and is without severe cold in 
Winter. Towards the W ., it becomes more continental, and the 
mountains are covered with snow during the Winter. 

Fokien JgU has few plains; Chekiang jjjf££ in its Northern 
part has a very large one, the continuation of that of Kiangsu 
iL M- Chekiang jjjf £q being more industrial, has larger towns 
and easier communications with the neighbouring regions. 

Tea is cultivated in both Provinces. Moreover, Chekiang 
produces silk in large quantity, while Fokien seems to possess 
abundant mineral wealth. 

The Northern part of Chekiang -$f fc has greatly suffered 
from the T'aip'ing ^ 2p rebellion. Fokien jg $J, more isolated, 
has seldom suffered from the revolts which have afflicted the rest 
of China. 


1°. Fokien W g 

Area. — 46,332 square miles. It is after Chekiang '$f fa, 
and Kiangsu JC fr the smallest of the Provinces. 

Population. — 22,870,000 inhabitants, or 493 to the 
square mile. It is one of the most populated Provinces, and 
occupies the fourth place, coming successively after Shantung 
llj J|C, Kiangsu fa $£ and Hupeh $j ft. 

Name. — The name Fokien comes from two of its principal 
towns : JFWchow Fu |g fll )ft and Jifienning Fu Jg % Jft, and 
means "Jiappv establishment". 

Boundaries. — Fokien is bounded on the 
N. — By Chekiang JJjf fa, 
W. — By Kiangsi fa g , 
S. — By Kwangtung ^ %, 
E. — By the Formosa Channel and the East-China Sea. 

Capital. — FOOCHOW jjjg ]\\ Jft, on the Min-kiang $ fa. 
Otlier Prefectures. — These are 8 in number. 

To the N.E., on the coast: 
1° Funning Fu M #? Jfr. 
To the N.W., ascending the Min-kiang f$ fa and its 
tributaries : 

2" Yenp'ing Fu M ¥ Jfr, 
3° Kienning Fu & fg Jft, 
4° Shaowu Fu 8K ^ /ft. 

On f/tc coast, to the S, of the Min-hiang : 

5° Hsinghwa Fu H ft JfiF, 
6° Ts uenchow Fu £ ft) Jfr, 
7° Changchow Fu it #1 Jff. 

To */ie #. W. : 

8° T'ingchow Fu vT *H Iff. 
There are besides in Fokien «m>© independent Chow j\\ 
cities: Yungch ( un Chow fa ^ >)\\ and Lungpen Chow §§ JH M- 


Aspect and Characteristics. — Fokien is a mountainous 
country, with the special characteristic that its chains are 
almost parallel, and run S. W. to N. E. These chains hinder 
the development of rivers. These latter either run into the sea 
after a short course, or flowing between two chains, join the 
largest river, the Min-hiang f$ jf£, which with great difficulty 
has forced its way through the mountain ridges. Enjoying an 
extensive coast-line with numerous bays and fine harbours, the 
Province is well fitted for producing a sturdy race of fishermen. 
It has also furnished the largest number of emigrants. Its 
well cultivated soil produces good crops, especially tea, which 
is in great demand. On account of its isolation, Fokien jjjg Jj: 
has, perhaps better than any other Province, maintained its 
dialects, which differ greatly from those of Chekiang Jjjf ££ 
and Kwangtung Jf ^, and still more from the Mandarin lan- 
guage. These dialects are spoken by those who have emigrated 
to America, to the Straits Settlements and to South Africa. 

Geological constitution. — The mountains which run through Fokien, as 
well as through part of Chekiang, are probably of less ancient formation than those of 
the rest of China, and bear a close resemblance to the geological formations of Japan. 
They are the outcome of a mighty upheaval, interspersed in the centre with pcrphyry 
and granite. Sandstone, as well as schist and limestone, are also found there, but 
these do not form the principal formation. Volcanic strata are met with in some 
places, especially in the islands. 

Orography. — Fokien fg |j; is covered with a series of 
mountain-chains running parallel to the sea. The most Wes- 
tern of these, the Taytt-ling ;fc JjH U, forms the limit between 
Fokien fg Jj: and Kiangsi ££ |Rf . The summits of these chains 
generally exceed 3,000 feet, and attain near Chekiang JJjf ££, 
even an elevation of 9,000 feet. The surface rises in ge- 
neral from E. to W. Thus Yenp'ing Fu j§ zp /ft is '.00 
to 600 feet higher than Foochow Jrg >)]\ Jj!f, but even along 
the coast, there are a few summits which reach over 3,000 

Climate. — The climate of Fokien is semi-tropical in the Eastern portion of 
the Province, and the thermometer rarely falls there below 32° Fahrenheit. In the 
Western part, the climate is temperate and even very cold during Winter. 




Hydrography. — A large river, the Min-kiang |i&] jf£, 
with its tributaries, drains the greater part of Fokien jg J|r. 
Several coast-rivers irrigate the N. E. and S. E. The affluents 
of the IIan-kiangff:tn water the S. Western part of the Province. 

FOOCHOW |g n fff AND THE MIN RIVER ffl ft. 

The Min-kiang ^M tL ov Snake river. This river is for- 
med by three principal tributaries which unite near Yenp'ing 
Fu J|E ^ Jjjf. These are : 1° the Kienk'i $}: §g, which comes 
from the N. E., and passes through Kienning Fu Jj: tjlf Jj^f ; 2° 
the ShaowukH $[$ g£ '/J|, which comes from the W., and runs 
through the Prefecture of the same name ; 3° the NinghwakH 
SS VC $li coming in from the S. W., running near the 
district city of the same name, and after a bend towards the 
S., taking again a Northerly direction. The largest of these 
tributaries is the KienkH, which, almost from its source near 
Chekiang Jjff j£, is navigable for small boats, despite the rapids 
and rocks that obstruct it. Fairly large-sized craft, called 
tea-boats, can go as far up as Kienning Fu ^ $g ^, in the flood- 
season. Those three rivers, like their tributaries, swell rapidly 
in the flood-season, and in the heavy Summer rains. Their 
level then rises considerably above the ordinary, and their current 
becomes exceedingly rapid and impossible to ascend. 


From Yenp'ing Fu jiE ?JS jj$p, the Min-kiang [$] f£ is com- 
pletely formed, its current becomes slower, but shoals, rocks 
and rapids render it of little use till Shuik'ow 7)^ P is reached. 
Here navigation on the river begins in reality, and fair-sized 
junks find enough water in every season, and the shoals are 
no longer to be feared. After a bend below Foochow jjjg >}[\ Jj^f, 
the river flows into the Eastern China Sea by two branches, 
between which lies an island. The Northern Channel is the 
deepest. At low-water, the depth on the bar is 12 feet, and 
large ships cannot enter the river, but are compelled to await 
the rise of the tide, when the depth of the water reaches 27, 
and sometimes 30 feet. Steamers have again to stop, and this 
time finally, at Pagoda Anchorage, 9 miles below Foochow, 
which is itself 35 miles distant from the moulh of the river. 
Uocks lying across the bed of the river above Pagoda Anchorage, 
with the alluvial deposits thus formed, have created a second 
bar, which only boats of light draught can cross. Throughout 
all its last part, between Foochow and the sea, the Min-kiang 
[M] fx. runs through a deep valley, and widens out occasionally 
from half a mile (o 2 miles. The Min-kiang HI) Jr\ with its 
tributary the Kienk'i Jj: g|, is about 350 miles in length. 

To the S.E., is the I.ung-JHang jj| j£, a river scarcely 
navigable even for local craft, on account of its little depth and 
its numerous rapids. It flows into the sea, near Amoy J| p*j 

(For the coast-line see Section IV). 

Fauna and Flora. — The fauna and flora of Fokien are those of the tropical 

zone, in the Western part, and those of the temperate zone in the Eastern portion of 
the Province. Even in this latter part, the valleys offer specimens, although in small 
quantity, of the flora of the tropics. Suffice it to mention only the species the most 
widely diffused : the tea, orange and banana-trees, the Ucliee or persimmon, splendid 
fir-trees, maples and campbor-troes. The sugar cane is cultivated in the region around 

Agricultural Wealth. — This consists principally of tea. 
Rice, wheat, the sugar-cane, the opium poppy, as well ns ginger 
are also cultivated. The inhabitants, by a skilful system of 


terraces, have succeeded in cultivating every patch of ground, 
even to the summit of steep hills. 

To this wealth must be added the fishing industry, which 
supports a large number of people, especially along the coast. 

Mineral Wealtli. — The mineral wealth of Fokien is most 
important, but so far it has not been worked. It consists of 
gold, silver, lead, tin and coal. 

Salt is extracted from sea-water. 

Population. — Fokien, owing to its isolation, has better preserved its primitive 
race than any other of the Provinces. The people are prond, energetic and venturesome, 
and furnish excellent fishermen, as well as good cultivators and colonists. They have 
their dialects, customs and dress, and like the population of Kwangtung, hold aloof from 
and despise the boat people or Tungkias \\p[ %., who are scattered throughout the coun- 
try. In the N.E., the Siakas or Siil-'ias^k ^(Siik'ohs) have their own peculiar dress and 
customs. Their hair is of a brownish colour. They intermingle with the Chinese, and 
seem to be of the same race. — It is stated that the opium habit has caused more 
ravages in this Province than anywhere else. 

Language. — Fokien has its own peculiar language, which comprises several 
dialects. The principal of these dialects are : 1° the Fohienese dialect properly so-called. 
It is harsh and guttural, and spoken by about 5 millions of the population. It is used 
throughout the Prefectures of Fokien, Yenp'ing and Hwahsing ; 2° the Amoy dialect. 
It has its peculiar nasal sounds, and is spoken by 10 millions and more of the population, 
both in the Province and in the island of Formosa. The greater part of Chinese emi- 
grants speak this dialect, which has also numerous variations,. 

Towns and Principal Centres. — FOOCHOW jjg >}\\ Jff. 
— Population, 624,000 inhabitants. — A large city situated in 
a well-cultivated region, on the left bank of the Min-kiang f$ j£, 
and about 35 miles from its mouth. The walled town, including 
a Tartar-quarter, is 2 miles from the water's edge. A numerous 
population swarms also on the banks of the river. Opposite the 
town is the Foreign Settlement, on Nant'ai ^ ■£ Island. A 
bridge, 435 yards in length, made of splendid flag-stones and 
known as the Long Bridge, or Bridge of ten thousand ages }% 
j| jfi* (Wanshowkiao), unites Nant'ai with the left bank of the 
Min-kiang, and the populous Island of Chungshow tf ||- Foo- 
chow, though the home of expectant officials, and a literary 
and military centre, has also considerable industries and trade. 
Silk and woollen stuffs, paper and household furniture are 


manufactured there, while timber, canes, paper umbrellas, silk, 
tea, camphor, paper and oranges are exported, in exchange for 
cotton and woollen goods, kerosene oil, sugar, Hour and matches. 
Formerly the tea-trade was extensive, but it has of late declined, 
Ceylon tea having supplanted it on the English market. The 
total trade of the port has been in 1903, Hk. Tls. 1G, 738, 718; 
in 1904, Tls. 17,265,968; and in 1905, Tls. 17,724,198. As at 
Canton, a large boat-population has established itself a little 
above Chungshow tp j|. 

Nine miles down the river, at the place where the two 
streams meet, and below Nant'ai island, is Pagoda Anchorage 
or Losingt'ali |g j| ig, and Mamoy arsenal. This arsenal, 
situated on the left bank of the river, opposite a small island 
where docks are established, employs 1,700 workmen, and 
constructs large ships. The establishment is administered by 
French experts, in the employ of the Chinese Government. 

Along the coast, proceeding from the mouth of the Min- 
kiang gg j£ to Kwangtung J| ^ : 

Tsfuenchow Fu Jf^ jf| }{j . — Formerly a celebrated port, 
but at the present day obstructed by sand-banks which have 
caused it to be supplanted by Amoy. It still remains a large 
and populous town. Several consider it to be the ancient Zaitun 
mentioned by Marco Polo, and then one of the most populated 
cities of the world. Trade is carried on through the port of 
Nganhai % #J. 

Amoy or Hsiamen J f^. — Population, 114,000 inha- 
bitants. The harbour, situated to the W. of an island at the 
mouth of the Lung-kiang flft., is excellent, and one of the finest 
on the coast. It has very good anchorage and docks, where 
large steamers may be repaired. Emigration is extensive, and 
has at times reached 90,000 in a year. Its exports are princi- 
pally : bricks and tiles, hemp bags, paper umbrellas, tea, sugar 
and tobacco. It imports cotton and woollen goods, kerosene oil, 
rice, mats, Hour and matches. Trade is chiefly carried on with 
Formosa and Japan. The total value of the port has been in 
1905, Hk. Tls. 18,654,610. A Japanese Settlement was marked 



out in 1899, and its occupants are extremely enterprising. — 
Amoy is connected by submarine cable (French-owned) with 
Tongking. — The Japanese line from Formosa, lands at Sharp- 
Peak H ^5 iJj (Sanshih-shan, i.e. three stone mountain). 

Opposite Amoy is 
the little island of 
Kulang-sil g {g lljj| 
(Drum-wave island). 
In the midst of the fo- 
liage and around the 
foreign houses, rises 
a new Chinese city, 
with more elegant 
and better builtdwell- 
ings than those of 

Ch€ingchow Fit $f£ 
m Jff- — Population, 
500,000 inhabitants. 
A large town, with 
broad paved streets, 
situated on the Lung- 
kiang itt£L> 25 miles 
from the sea. 

T'ungngan hsien 
m&M- —A rather 
frequented port, lying 
at the extremity of 
a bay, to the N. of 
Amoy. The surround- 
ing country, like that 
of Changchow Fu, is 
rich and well cultivated. Vast plantations of sugar-cane are 
now started there. 

Ascending the Min-kiang g£] ft and the Kienk'i M M : 


Yenp'ing Fu JiE £p Jfr. — Population, 200,000 inhabitants. 
A town situated at the confluence of the principal tributaries of 
the Min-kiang. 

Kienniny Fu $ % }ff . — A town built at the junction of 
two rivers, in the principal tea-growing country, at a place to 
which large boats can ascend, and on the road leading from 
the N. to Foochow, to which facts it owes its activity. It is better 
constructed and more populated than Yenp'ing Fu. Its trade 
consists chiefly in tea and salt. 

Ch'ungngan hsien ^ % Jg. — Population, 100,000 inha- 
bitants. A district town situated at the foot of the Wui -jj£ Jj(£ 
hill. This hill rises to about 1,000 feet over the level of the 
plain, and is composed of schist, sandstone and granite. The best 
tea of Fokien jjfj| ^ grows in the neighbourhood. English people 
call it the "Bohea hiW\ and the tea grown there "BoJiea tea". 
Ch'ungngan hsien is the principal market for the article, and it 
is forwarded in large quantities through Kiangsi fx. W- 

On the N. of the Min-kiang, upon the coast, proceeding 
Northwards : 

lAenJeiang hsien jig %£. M>- — Population, 250,000 inhabi- 
tants. A frequented port. 

Fuhning Fn jjfg % JjfJ . — A port formerly of considerable 
importance, and still a thriving and busy town. The best opium 
of Fokien is cultivated in the neighbourhood. 

Industry and Commerce. — We have seen, when des- 
cribing the principal towns, the chief articles of industry and 
trade. In regard to exports, the most important are timber, 
bricks, pottery, silk, tea, sugar, paper, camphor and oranges. 

Highways of Communication. — Besides a very brisk 
service of boats along the coast, especially to Foochow |g j\\ 
JjJ, there are only 2 land routes which deserve to be particularly 
mentioned : 

1° The road which starts from Wenchow Fu jg >)\\ jj^f, in 
Chekiang $Jf £t> ana " leads to Foochow jfi| #| /jflf. 



2° The road which starts from Foochow, and passes through 
Yenp'ing Fu J|E 2p fft and Kienning Fu M % M- {t tnen f 0I '^ s 
into several branches, running some into Chekiang JjTf ££, and 
one into Kiangsi f£ |Rf, via Ch'ungngan lisien ^ ^ j§£. 

Open l*orts. — Three ports oi' this Province are open to 
Foreign trade : Amoy or Hsiamen ^ P 1 ] (in the Prefecture of 
IVuenchow Fu fa j]\ Jfl), Foochow jjig >)]\ ^, at Pagoda Ancho- 
rage, and Santnngao ]£ %$ j^ or Santuao (in the Prefecture of 
Fuhning Fu flS W /fr)- 

Note. — In the; Amoy dialect, the Chinese character ^ 

ch ( a (tea-plant), is pronounced teh, and it is from this source 
that the French word the, the German thee, the Italian te (also 
cut) and the Spanish te are all derived, as well as the English 
word tea* It may be also remarked here that the word Junk, 
French Jonque, Spanish and Portuguese Junco, comes from 1he 
Chinese word chw*an ftfr (boat or ship), pronounced in the Amoy 
and Foochow dialects respectively, ch'un and chHong 9 and in 
Javanese Jung. 


2°. Chekiang W& 

Area. — 36,680 square miles. Tt is the smallest of the 
eighteen Provinces. 

Population. — 11,580,000 inhabitants, or 310 to the 
square mile. 

Name. — Chekiang $f ft signifies "crooked river" Pro- 
vince. This name has been given it on account of the bore or 
tidal wave of its Northern river, which drives back, and as it 
were bends its waters. This is the meaning of the character 
$ft che i.e. to bend or break. 

Boundaries. — Chekiang is bounded on the 

N. — By Kiangsu ft j§, 

W. — By Nganhwei $^(, Kiangsi ft jg, and Fokien jpggg, 
S. — By Fokien jg ft, 

E. — By the Eastern China Sea. 

Capital. — HANGCHOW FU tfi >)\\ Jft.— Tt is built at the 
Southern terminus of the Grand Canal, and on the left bank of 
the Ts'ient'ang-kiang |g jgf ft. 

Other Prefectures. — These are lO in number. 

To the N. of Sang chow Fu $i >)]] jfJf, on the Grand Canal : 
1° Huchow Fu m 'M Iff, 
2° Kiahsing Fu ^ H fft. 

Ascending the Ts'ient'ang-kicmg $| ijgf ft and its affluents : 

3° Yuenchow Fu B M Jfih 
4° Kinhwa Fu & m JfiF, 
5° K'iichow Fu m 'M M. 

Not far from the coast, proceeding from the mouth of the 
Ts'ient'ang-kiang |jg i$* ft towards Fokien jjjg $jf : 
6° Shaohsing Fu ffl M iff, 
7° Ningpo Fu & & $f, 
8° T'aichow Fu £ W m. 

Ascending the Ngeu-Jciang g[ ft .* 

9° Wenchow Fu JS M Jff, 
10° Ch'uchow Fu tt fl Jfr. 


There is besides in Chekiang one independent T'inf/ 0; 
Tinghai T'ing % #J |g. 

Aspect and Characteristics. — Situated between Ngan- 
hwei $c$k and Kiangsu^^ on the N., and Fohienjjjfajlfc on the 
S., ChShiang $r ££ ha.8 some features of these three Provinces in 

the tracts which border on each of them. The Tayu-ling ^ jg 
^ or great stack mountains terminate in the Province. After 
crossing its centre from S.W. to N.E., they continue in the sea, 
and form the Chusan ffi Jj (Cheushan) archipelago. This range of 
mountains divides the Province into two strongly contras- 
ting regions. In the S., the soil, climate, fauna, flora, resources, 
language, people, the deeply-indented coasts, everything bears a 
strong resemblance to Fohien jjjg $^. In the Northern region, 
the contrary is the case, and the country resembles rather its two 
neighbouring Provinces : vast plains, canals, embankments, rice- 
fields, the culture of the silkworm in the E., lea-growing, 
wooded hills, rivers navigable in the flood-season, tracts laid, 
waste by the T'aip'ing -fa Zp. rebellion, tmt rising from their 
ruins in the Western part. The poverty of Chekiang ffi |£, in 
regard to minerals, is largely counterbalanced, by its agricultural 
products, the prosperous state of its industry, its excellent harbours, 
and a highly developed networwk of navigable streams. The 
Province is fast recovering the prosperity and dense population 
it enjoyed previous to the T'aipHng -Jfc ^p rebellion. 

Geological constitution. — In the Western part of the Province, to the N. of 

the T V i V 'nt' an g kiang, schist, sandstone and limestone are the predominant rocks. In 
the E. of the Province, the Great Plain is of alluvial formation. 

To the S. of the Ts'ient'ang-kiang, porphyry and granite are the principal rocks, 
with limestone and sandstone here and there, while traces of volcanic eruptions are 
found in the Chusan Islands. 

Orography. — The Tayu-ling ^ Jg g or great stack 
mountains terminate in this Province by two parallel branches 
running S.W.-N.E. The Southern branch reaches an elevation 
of nearly 4,000 feet in the T'ient'ai-shan Jf; •£ j]j, S. W. of 
Ningpo flf : {fc, and running into the sea, ends at the Chusan 
•fa llj (Cheushan) archipelago. 


The whole country lying S. of the Tayii-ling ^ $f ffi is 

Between Ningpo ^ g£ and TIangchow ^ Jfl, and also to 
the W., as well as to the N. and N. E. of llangchow, extends 
a large plain* 

Further to the W., throughout the central and upper region 
of the Ts'ient'ang-kiang g| JJ fa, the country is again moun- 
tainous, and resembles much by its broken and picturesque hills 
the S. of Nganhwei -$ ^. The T'ienmuh-shan ^ @ [lj or 
Heavenly Eye mountain, to the W. of TIangchow ^ j\\, is 
nearly 5,000 feet high. Another range more to the W., connected 
with the T'ienmuh-shan, and called Lungtan-shan f | ]|jj [Jj 
(dragon-gall mountain), constitutes the boundary-line between 
Nganhwei j£ % and Chekiang Jfff fa. 

Climato. — To the S. of the Tayii-ling, the climate is semi-tropical as in Fokien, 
but the heat is less intense. To the N. of the Tayii-ling, the climate is much more 
temperate, less warm in the Summer and colder in the Winter. Throughout the Great 
Plain, the climate is the same as that of Shanghai, though a little warmer on account of 
the difference of latitude. 

Hydrography. — The watershed of the Province is establi- 
shed by the Tayii-ling ^ J|f |g mountains. The Ts ( ient*ang- 
JHang |§ Hf fa, a large and beautiful river, runs Northward, 
while to the S. flow others of lesser importance. 

The Ts'ient'ang-kiang |§ JJ fa is formed by two streams, 
which run between the two parallel branches of the Tayii-ling, 
as mentioned above. These two streams flow in opposite direc- 
tions, one from the W., passing through K w iichow Fu |f ]ft\ 
ffi, the other from the E., passing through Kinhwa Fu ^ |jg jjf. 
Both unite at Lank'i hsien jgj f$ Jj|, and force a passage through 
the porphyry in the Southern branch of the Tayii-ling Js ]$[ $g 
range. At Yenchow Fu jg )]] fft, the river receives an important 
tributary from Nganhwei % ;jjfc, after which it flows into the 
sea at Hangchow ^ j>\]. The estuary widens out into a large 
bay, at the entrance of which lie tl e Chusan -fy |Jj (Cheushan) 

The Ts'ient'ang-kiang |g JJ fa is too shallow at its mouth, 


and too obstructed by shoals, to allow vessels of heavy tonnage 
to reach Hangchow ^ ^I'|. Small steam-boats run to Yenchow Fu 
He $1 iff' notwithstanding a few rapids. At the flood-season, 
fairly large junks go far up the river and its affluents. At the 
same period, several of these latter are navigable almost up to 
their source, although at times boats have to be carried over 
difficult places. Numerous rafts are also floated down on the 
river and its affluents. 

The tide is very strong at the mouth of the Ts'ient'ang-kiang 
SlliSDl; an d rushing against the current of the river, occasions 
a violent bore or eagre, which rises to a height of 15 feet, and 
is dangerous for small boats when taken unawares. 

Among the other principal waterways are : 

The Yung-Mang f§££ or Ningpo fl| $£ river, formed by the 
junction of two streams which meet at this city. It is navigable 
up to Ningpo for steamers of considerable tonnage. The two 
rivers however can be navigated for some distance further. 

The Tsiao-kiang ^ j£ or T'aichow Fu f? j>\] ffi river. 

The Ngeu-kiang g[ ££> also called the Wu-lciang. A fine 
river, the banks of which are rather steep, and resemble those 
of the Min-kiang @J ^Q, save that they are less cultivated. Des- 
pite its rapids, it is navigable for fairly large boats as far as Ch'u- 
chow Fu jg >}\\ JfJf. Several of its tributaries can also be utilised. 
It rises near the Northern border of Fokien jjjg jj Province, and 
flows into the sea a little beyond Wenchow Fu g >}\\ ^. 

Numerous canals intersect the North-Eastern plain. The 
principal of these is the Grand Canal jgi pf (Yun-ho or Transport 
river), which terminates at Hangchow ^ jt|, but its waters are 
not connected with those of the Ts'ient'ang-kiang |g Hf fx.- 
A canal connects also this town with Ningpo flf j}£ ffi. It 
passes by Shaohsing Fu #g M /jj, but terminates on the right 
bank of the Ts'ient'ang-kiang. The difference of water-level 
in the rivers and the canals prevents their inter-communication, 
and this is a great obstacle to navigation in these parts. Tra- 
vellers must either change from their boats or have them 
transported overland from one waterway to another. 


A canal, more lo the S., connects Wenchow Fu g ffl Jff 
and P'ingyang hsien Z£ p| Jgi. 

(For the T'ai-hu -fa #j] or Great lake, the Southern part 
of which borders on Northern Chekiang, see Section IT. Ch. IV. 
p. 156). 

To protect the country from the violent tides, a slrong sea- 
wall has been constructed from the Yung-kiang fj§ fx. to a point 
opposite Hangchow (\% ft\). 

(For the coast-line, see Section IV). 

Fauna and Flora. — To the S. of the Tayii-ling, the fauna and flora are those 
of Fokien, hut less luxuriant and less abundant. The banana becomes rare, but many 
orange and palm-trees are found and especially splendid bamboos. 

To the N. of the Tayii-ling, the fauna and flora are identical with those of 
Kiangsu and Southern Nganhwei ; the tea-plant grows there, and also rice and mul- 

Among the principal species of animals found in the Province, suffice it to 
mention the panther, tiger, wild-boar, wolf, deer, and several kinds of monkeys ; among 
the trees : the tallow and varnish-trees, the pine, fir and camphor-trees, the bamboo, 
mulberry, chestnut, azalea, camellia, kidnej'-bean tree and rhododenron or rose-bay. 

The coast and also the rivers abound with fish. On the coast are found oysters 
of extraordinary size, and in the rivers, turtles measuring 3 feet in length. 

Agricultural Wealth. — This consists chiefly in tea, rice, 
silk, cotton and indigo, together with fruit, especially oranges. 
Wheat, maize, the sugar-cane, hemp and the opium-poppy are 
also cultivated. 

Some parts of the Western region are fairly well wooded, 
and this is a source of revenue for the country. Vegetable 
tallow and beeswax are also important articles of trade. 

Mineral Wealth. — The mineral wealth of Chekiang is of 
little importance. Some coal-mines are worked at Ch'uchow Fu 
J§ W M • Building-stone, lime, gypsum and alum are the only 
articles which are lound to any extent. 

Salt is extracted from sea-water. 

Population. — This Province has much suffered and been almost depopulated 
by the T'aip'ing rebellion ; it has had however little recourse to the other Provinces to 
recuperate itself. The population, active and industrious, furnishes excellent seamen, 
who have succeeded in monopolizing a large part of the coast-trade of the neighbouring 
regions, especially of the lower Yangtze-kiang. They do not differ in features and 


customs from the population of this latter tract. S. of the Tay it-ling, are found dipersed 
here and there, remnants of a former race, the Zikas or Siikias %. %. called 
also the Yaus $j (jackals), probably on account of their resemblance with the tribes of 
the same name, who occupy the upper reach of the Si-kiang or West river. 

Language. — Mandarin is spoken in all the towns, and even in many places 
outside them. Tivo dialects however, are spoken by the people of the country : the 
Wenchow dialect, which prevails to the 8. of the Tayu-ling. It is near akin to the 
dialects of Fokien, and is not understood by a mandarin-speaking Chinaman. It is 
spoken by a million of individuals; — the Ningpo dialect, which is used to the N. of the 
Tayu-ling. It resembles tbe Sungkiang or Shanghai dialect, and is more easily under- 
stood by a Chinaman of the N. It is spoken by the great majority of the population 
throughout N. Chekiang. The T'aichowFu andShaohsing Fu dialects are two varieties 
of tbe Ningpo dialect; tbe latter is harder to be understood by a native of Ningpo. 

Cities and Principal Centres. — IJANQCHOW FU #£ 

>}\\ Jjff. — Population, 350,000 inhabitants. Situated 150 miles 
S.W. of Shanghai, and 80 from Ningpo, it is a treaty port and 
one of the finest and most famous cities of China. "Above is 
Heaven", says the Chinese proverb, "and below, Soochotv and 
Hangchow". It is built on the left bank of the Ts'ient'ang- 
kiang |$ Hf £Ci an d at tne Southern terminus of the Grand 
Canal. Its site is most beautiful, beside the river with its 
great tidal wave, while to the rear of the city rises a graceful hill 
crowned with pagodas and kiosks, and in the distance is a 
range of mountains furrowed with deep valleys. One of the 
sights of Hangchow is the famous Si-hu "g" J$j or West lake, 
celebrated by poets, covered with elegant boats, dotted with 
islets upon which are numerous kiosks and villas, while in 
Summer the surface of its water is decked with thousands of 
water-lilies. Hangchow is still noted as a pleasure-resort. It is 
also a silk manufacturing centre, but it no longer enjoys its former 
celebrity, for practically speaking, it has but one long street 
bordered with rich warehouses, the rest of the city being a vast 
desert since its devastation by the T'aip'ings. It imports kerosene 
oil, soap, sugar, iron and copper; and exports green tea, piece- 
goods, medicines and paper fans. The total net value of the port has 
been in 1903, Hk. Tls. 15,607,133; in 1904, Tls. 17,747,662; 
and in 1905, Tls. 17,496,980. 

About 30 miles to the N. of the city is the sanatorium of 


Mohkan-shan ft ^f- |]j , resorted to in Summer by foreigners. 

To the N, of Hangchow : 

Kiahsing Fu |g Iffi jff. — A town intersected with numerous 
canals, and ruined also formerly by the T'aip'ings ^ Zp. It is 
famous tor its gauzes and silk neckties. 

Huchow Fu $Jj >)\] fft. — Population, 100,000 inhabitants. 
A town situated like the preceding one, in a plain abounding 
in mulberry-trees and rice-fields. It was the last place where 
the T'aip'ings ^2p held out in Chekiang '$f££. Here their leader 
at the head of 60,000 men had to surrender after a desperate 
battle. The Province henceforth enjoyed peace (186'i). 

Along the sea-coast, a little distance inland : 
Shaohsing Fu $g H#f. — Population, 500,000 inhabitants. 
A large city styled sometimes like Soochow j$| *)]] the ''Venice 
of China". It is situated in the centre of a fertile plain inter- 
sected by large canals. Excellent rice-spirit is manufactured 
there. It supplies a large part of the secretaries to the various 
Provincial Government otfices of the Empire. 

Ningpo Fu ^f #£ J^f (tranquil wave). — Population, 200,000 
inhabitants. One of the five ports opened by the Nanking treaty 
of 1842. It is built in a plain, on the left bank of the Yung- 
kiang p| jh£, an ^ is 15 miles from the sea. The town is walled 
in and surrounded by a moat. The streets are fine and spanned 
by memorial arches. It possesses a valuable library of Chinese 
works, and manufactures household furniture, matting and 
carpets. The principal imports are kerosene oil, cotton piece- 
goods, matches, sugar, coal, opium, tin, iron, soap and candles. 
Its exports are rush-hats, matting, paper fans and umbrellas, 
green tea, carpets, raw cotton, medicines, groundnut oil and 
joss-paper (tinfoil paper in the form of shoes of sycee, burnt by 
the Chinese before the shrine of the god of wealth, and at the 
burial of the dead). Ice-preserved fish is a considerable article 
of commerce. The total net value of the port has been in 1903, 
Hk. Tls. 22,240,093; in 1904, Tls. 21,297,412 ; and in 1905, 
Tls. 19,163,630. 


Wtnchow Fu g ffl Jff- — Population, 80,000 inhabitants. 
A treaty port situated on the right bank of the Ngeu-kiang g£ ££, 
a few miles from the sea. It formerly monopolized the tea 
trade, but this has much declined of late, owing to careless 
cultivation and selection. The principal imports are kerosene 
oil, palm-leaf fans, cotton yarn and piece-goods, aniline dyes, 
sugar and matches. The escports are timber and soft wood in 
large quantity, paper umbrellas (kittysols), medicines, orangrs 
(33,385 piculs in 1905, or 39,744 cwt weight), otter skins and 
tobacco leaf. The total net value of the port has been in 1903. 
Ilk. Tls. 2,589,333; in 1904, Tls. 2,388,099; and in 1905. 
TIs. 2,257,021. 

In the Chusan -fy- ]\\ (Cheu-shan) Islands : 

Tinghai T*ing % % )jg. — Population, 30,000 inhabitants. 
Capital of the Chusan (Cheushan) j§ \[\ archipelago, and a com- 
mercial town, exporting matting, ropes and fruit. It is a strategic 
point of great importance, but its harbour is difficult of access. 

Ascending the Ts'ient'ang-kiang and its affluents : 

Yenchow Fu Jg j]] ffi. — Population, 15,000 inhabitants. 
A town well situated at the confluence of the Ts'ient'anj? kian£ 
and a tributary flowing into it from Nganhwei •$ {ft. The place 
does a good trade, and exports indigo, paper, timber, tea and 

lAink'i hsien % % %. — Population, 200,000 inhabitants. 
A large mart at the junction of the two rivers which form 
the Ts'ient'ang-kiang. Devastated by the T'aip'ing rebellion, 
it has rapidly risen from its ruins. The pawnshops and banks 
are in the hands of Nganhwei people t£c ® A 5 the foreign 
goods and native cloth stores are conducted by Shaohsing Fu 
|5®|j| merchants, while the Fokienese jg Qr A monopolize 
the sugar, date, fruit and general-merchandise trade. The 
Chinaware business is carried on by natives of Kiangsi ££ jg. 

Kinhwa Fu ^Ijljj^f. — A town well situated, and celebrated 
for its hams, its preserved eggs and its ginseng. 

K'ucliow Fu ;jjff $1 J{j. — A commercial city, up to which 
large junks can ascend, as to Kinhwa Fu. Excellent fruit grow 



in the surrounding country. It exports to Lank'i hsien j^j $S 
M> l ar £ e quantities of paper, cereals, bamboo and limber. 

Industry and Commerce. — The chief products of Che- 
kiang comprise silk piece-goods, carpets, matting and household 

Its principal exports are silk and satins, tea, rice and oranges; 
its imports are cotton piece-goods, kerosene oil and opium. 
Half the trade of the Province is carried on through Shanghai 

± m- 

Highways of Communication. — Nearly all the commu- 
nications are made by waterways, the sea route, rivers and 
canals. Ditches connect the water courses beyond the places 
where they are no longer navigable. It is thus that through 
communication is established with Nganhwei # ^, Kiangsi JX 
^| and Fokien fg $g:, as well as between the tributaries of the 
Ts'ient'ang-kiang ^g $j- fx an d of the Ngeu-kiang g[ ££. 

The important viaduct which reaches from the mouth of the 
Yung-kiang g j£ till opposite Hangchow Fu jfc fi\ }{f deserves 
special mention. Constructed formerly on a swamp, it is about 5 
feet wide and 95 miles in length, and is still used both as a road 
and as a tow-path for boats travelling on the canal, which it 
skirts, now on one side now on the other. 

Open Ports. — Chekiang Jjjf l£ has three ports open to 
foreign trade : Ningpo Fu ^ $£ j£f, Wenchow Fu gu. ffl Jj-f and 
Hangchow Fu fa )>\\ flJf. 

Note. — Hangchow Fu fa £ty was the capital of the Empire 
during the last half of the Sung dynasty A.D. 1127-1280. 

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Preliminary Observation. 

On account of its extent, and also of its importance, the coast-line of China 
deserves special attention. It might have been studied in portions, in connection with 
each of the Maritime Provinces; the knowledge of these Provinces would thereby 
have been more complete. This coast however forms a whole, heing washed by the 
same ocean, visited by the same ships which trade in its numerous harbours, and so 
it seemed preferable to make it the object of a special study. 

It would have been likewise necessary to refer constantly to general notions, 
which could not be repeated each time over. A collective study would moreover 
contribute to give prominence to the differences that exist between such and such 
a part of the coast. Besides, it will be easy to connect, should the reader desire 
it, the study of the Maritime Provinces and their eoast-line. The division here 
adopted, and references to the Provinces in which the towns are situated, will faci- 
litate this work. After some general notions, the coast of each of the Maritime 
Provinces will be studied separately, commencing at the N. and proceeding Southwards, 
thus : Chihli Hf £$, Shantung (Xl Jfc, Kiangsu fl M, Chekiang #f ft, Fokien 
jpg 3i and Kwangtung $ ^". 


1° . General notions. 

The study of the coast naturally comprises: the nature of its formation, its level 
and configuration, the seas bordering on it, the winds, currents and tides which prevail 
throughout it, its harbours and ports, lighthouses, buoys and beacons for navigation 
purposes, with an account of the shipping that is carried on along it. All these details 
are necessary indeed for the navigator and the merchant, but we cannot but touch 
upon them briefly in this work. 

Extent of tlie coast-line. — The coast-line of China is 
extensive, being upwards of 2,150 miles in length, or if we in- 
clude the minor indentations and inlets, from 4,500 to 5,000 
miles, which gives one mile of coast to every 306 miles of surface. 

Configuration of tlie Coast. — The coast of China has 
the form of an immense semicircle. The most advanced point is 
situated in the islands opposite Chekiang ffi £f_, longitude 123° 
E. of Greenwich. At both extremities are a gulf, and a promontory 
or peninsula : the gulf of Chihli j|[5t or Po7i-7iai $)j $J, and the 
Shantung \\\ ^ promontory on the N., the gulf of Tongking Iff 
M M 55 (Tongking-haiku), and the J^eichow Q >Jfl peninsula on 
the S. If the latter is less important than Shantung fj_j jg pro- 
montory, the island of Hainan $j£ jfj, which is its extension into 
the sea, makes both nearly equal in length. 

Seas. — The coast of China, like the rest of Eastern Asia, 
is washed by the Pacific Ocean. 

The Pacific Ocean or T ( aipHng-yang ^2p^£ (great peaceful 
sea), lies between Eastern Asia, Australia, N. and S. America. 
Expanding largely to the S. between Tasmania and Cape Horn, 
it narrows in towards the N., where it is separated from the 
Arctic Ocean or Pehp'ing-yang 4b?K#> by Behring Strait JUff |l$ 
(mehling-hsiah, i.e. dark pass). Its area is about 62,000,000 square 
miles. Bordered on the W. by archipelagoes and shoals, it attains 
on the E. great depths up to the coast of America, along which 
run lofty mountains. It is surrounded by a circle of volcanoes, 
several of which are still in activity. Its depth is very great, 
ancl varies from 900 to 4,000 fathoms, which it reaches to the 




Sandwich I*. 





China Sea. 

Hainan I. 

Gulf of Tongking. 


E. of Japan, in the Tuscarora 
depression; in the 8., near the 
Tonga or Friendly Islands, it at- 
tains in one place as much as 
5,000 fathoms in depth. Two 
principal currents traverse it on 
the N. of the Equator : 1° a 
5 warm one, called the Kuro-siwo 
Y< or blade sea, which comes from 
g the E., and after meeting the 
^ Philippine coast, takes a N. E. 
< direction, running along the E. 
% of Formosa, the Liuk k iu jfjjj J$* 

H Islands and Japan, and finally 


H warming the coast of North Ame- 

Z rica ; 2° a cold-current stream, 

\ which descending from Behring 

; Strait, divides into several bran- 

\ ches, and runs along the coasts 

of Kamchatka and Alaska. The 

latter is of much less importance 

than the former. 

In its Western part, the Paci- 
fic Ocean forms on the Asiatic 
coast several seas, separated from 
the deep waters by a chain of 
volcanic islands (the Philippines, Formosa, Liuk'iu, Japan and 
the Kurile Islands). These shallow and less saline seas are 
scarcely influenced by the kuro-siwo. They are the South 
China Sea or Nan-hai $| $J, and the Eastern China Sea or 
Tung-hai jjfc $J, the Yellow Sea or Hwang-hai ;ff $£, the Sea 
of Japan or Jehpen-Jwh y ;£. #J, and the Sea of Okhotsk ^ 
9. ^ J& M (Ngohhohts'ekoh-hai). Of these only the three first 
mentioned, border on the coast of China, and so we shall des- 
cribe only them. 


General remarks on the seas of China. — 1° They are far less saline 
than the Pacific Ocean. 

2° They are much less deep, never reaching over 1,000 fathoms, except in the 
depression which lies between Hainan Island and the Philippines. 

3° The height of the tides is exceedingly variable. It is hardly noticeable in 
the gulf of Chihli and at Hongkong, where it scarcely exceeds 6 h feet ; it is much 
more marked between Amoy and the Min-kiang or Foochow river, where it rises to 1*] 
feet and even more. 

4° The variation in the temperature of the water is much less than on the main- 
land. It has been calculated that in February, when the temperature of the sea 
attained 78° Fahrenheit opposite Hainan, it reached from 68° to 59° opposite Hong- 
kong, and was respectively 50°, and from 41° to 32° opposite Chekiang and Shantung. 
In August, when the temperature of the sea ranged from 82° to 8C° Fahrenheit opposite 
Hainan, it attained from 77° to 66°, between Hongkong and Shantung Point, and 
reached from 69° to 59° further to the N. The difference therefore between extreme 
heat and cold is found to be but 86° in those seas, while on the Continent, it reaches 
to and exceeds 140° Fahrenheit. It is thus easy to see the great influence which 
the proximity of the sea has upon the coast regions, either in raising their colder 
atmosphere, or cooling it in the hot season. 

The Yellow Sea or Hwang-hai J| \%. — This is situated 
between the Western coast of Korea, and the coast of China, from 
the Miaotao )§j $j islands to the mouth of the Yangtze-kiang 
}§ ~? iL' H ' s so called, because of the colour of its waters, 
which are yellow, being mixed with the silt of the Hwang-ho 
Jjr jpj. It formerly flowed directly into the sea, but since 1854 
reaches it through the Poh-hai jfjfj #$. — The Poh-hai itself is 
situated between the Eastern coast of Manchuria, the coast of 
Chihli jj| H and the N. W. coast of Shantung \\\ j^. It 
comprises two gulfs: the gulf of Chihli |j[ ^ to the W., and 
tfie gulf of Leaotung jgj Tg jf| (Leaotung-wan) to the N. 

The Eastern China Sea or Tung-hai jftjfj, lies to the S. of 
the Yellow Sea, between the strait of Korea, the South Japanese 
islands, the Liuk'iu JJ* $fc group, Formosa island, Formosa 
strait, and the coast of China, from the Min-kiang f$ f£ to 
the Yangtze-kiang ;gj ^f f£. 

The Formosa Channel is situated to the S. of this sea, between 
Formosa island, and that part of the coast of China, which extends 
between the Han-kiang ^ JC ana " the Min-kiang f$ f£ rivers. 

The South-China Sea or Nan-hai ~jfc $|, lies to the S. of 
Formosa channel, between the Philippines, Borneo, the Malacca 



peninsula, Indo-China and the coast of Kwangtung j^ jf(. It 
forms to the S. of Kwangtung the important gulf of Toughing 
(Tungking-haiku) )£ S » JR. 

Nature of the Coast. — The coast of China is of a twofold 
character : alluvial and granitic. 

The first exliibits straight lines or regular curves, the neigh- 
bouring country is flat and covered with marshes or lakes, 
the sea is shallow and interspersed with shoals, there are few good 
harbours, and these are accessible only to boats of light draught. 
Large rivers cutting a channel through the sand can alone enable 
vessels of heavy tonnage to enter; a bar is moreover sometimes 
formed at their mouths, and thereby lessens the depth of the water. 
Chihli jg[ %, the N. and N. W. of Shantung [\\ ]g, and Kiangsu 
^q j$ft have a coast-line of this kind. 

All the other parts of the coast are granitic These offer an 
uninterrupted series of indentations, the coastal region is hilly, 
the sea pretty deep, and almost free from shoals. Instead of these 
latter are countless islands and islets, which generally form deep 
and well sheltered havens. All along this coast-line, harbours 
are to be found, either beside a bay or an island, or near the banks 
of a river, and afford excellent anchorage. This latter coast may 
be further subdivided according as the mountain chains are parallel 
or perpendicular to the seaboard. 

In the former case, long chains of islands generally border 
the coast. These islands abound in excellent havens, but the 
currents that pass through them are at times dangerous, and the 
water between them is of little depth. 

hi the latter case, the chain of islands prolongs into the 
sea the coast of the mainland. They have lengthy and deep bays, 
which are closed at their extremities. Long excursions must be 
often made to find through these islands a safe anchorage. 

Shantung jjj ]f£ and Chekiang offer a coast-line especially of 
the second kind ; both kinds are found in Fokien fljg $j ; as 
to Kwangtung ^ Jfc, its coast-line belongs rather to the first 


Coast Winds. — The prevailing system in the China seas 
is that called monsoons. Monsoons are periodical winds of con- 
siderable steadiness, blowing in one direction during part of the 
year, and from another, during the remaining part. At the time 
when the winds change, there is an intermediate stage during 
which they are variable. 

In the China seas, the wind blows as a general rule during 
Winter, from the N.E., and during Summer, from the S.W. 

This system is however liable to numerous exceptions 
according to localities and to latitude. It is also necessary to 
remark that this wind is subject to both a diurnal as well as an 
annual variation. 

The Winter monsoon begins to be felt in the N. of the East- 
ern China sea, about September, but in the S. scarcely before 
November. It sets in at times by a sudden and violent gale, 
which lasts from 10 to 12 days. It attains its maximum force 
in December, January and February. It lessens in March, 
April being considered in the N. as the finest Month. May is 
an intermediate season, during which the wind blows at times 
from the N.E., and at others from the S.W. 

The Summer monsoon commences to be felt earlier in the 
S., towards the middle or end of April, as a general rule. It fol- 
lows at first the Southern coast, and then reaches the high sea 
and the Philippines. It lasts also longer in the S. than in the 
N. ; thus it is felt at Singapore till the middle of October, and 
at the mouth of the Yangtze till the beginning of September. It 
blows regularly during June, July and August. This is the sea- 
son of torrential rain and cloudy weather. 

The Summer monsoon is much less constant and less violent than the Winter 
one, and so offers less hindrance to navigation when proceeding in a direction contrary 
to it. In the South-China Sea, the wind during this monsoon blows frequently from S. 
or S.S.E. In the Formosa channel, at the same period, July-August-September, a 
violent wind blows at times from the N.E. during the typhoons. 

At Shanghai, according to the Sicawei Observatory, the direction of the wind is 
as follows : 

"1° Diurnal variation. During the W inter monsoon, September-March, 
the wind tends to blow from W. in the morning, then from N., and from E, in the 
evening, as if the atmosphere were attracted sunwise. From 6 p.m. to 6 a. m., the 
breeze does not complete the circle, but backs to W. 

"During the Summer monsoon, June-July-August, the wind blows from S. 
towards midnight, shifting to the E. at sunrise, It then backs to the S. about 10 a. m., 



veers again towards the E. until sunset, and backs once more to the S. in the night. 
"During the transition period, March to May, the direction passes progres- 
sively from one system to the other. 

Winter Monsoon. 



The letters J. F. M... indi 
cate the months of the year : 
January, February, March 

Direction of the Wind. 

"2° Annual variation. From November to January, the wind blows from 
N.N.W., the greatest sally to the W. being in December; in November and January, 
the wind blows from the same direction, bearing closely on the N. In February, it 
blows from N.N.E., and in March, from N.E. ; from April to August, it comes from 
S.E., July giving the most Southerly resultant; in September and October, it blows 
from N.E., bearing closer and closer on the N., which it crosses again in November. 

"In the annexed diagram, as given by the same Observatory, the length of 
the lines connecting each apex of the polygon with the centre (c) of the mariner's 
card, is proportional, not to the force of the resultant (which may be very small), but 
to the aggregate of the wind for the month. The lines CN and CD, give at the same 
time the set direction of the resultant. 

"It may be seen hereby that the sum total of the wind is the least in October, 
and the greatest in July". 

The following is, according to the above Observatory, the cause of these monsoons 
and the direction from which they blow. 

"The Summer monsoon, or that which blows from S.W., is caused by the 
high temperature and low atmospheric pressure which prevail over the continent. 


"The wind rushes landwise from the sea, but is deviated to the right on account 
of the earth's rotatory motion. It is thus that the monsoon blows 
from S. or S.W. in Kwangtung, 
from S.W. in the Formosa Channel, 

from S.E. at Shanghai, 

from S.W. in Shantung, 

"The monsoon sets in progressively, the change beginning in March and April, 
in the N.; and in May, in the Formosa Channel. In June, the Summer system prevails 
along the whole coast. At Shanghai, it lasts from April to August, i.e. about i months. 

"The Winter monsoon, or that which blows from N. E., is caused by the low 
temperature and high atmospheric pressure prevalent on the Asiatic continent. The wind 
blows seaward from the land, always deviating to the right, and thus it turns around 
the continent in the direction of the hands of a watch, or forming a clockwise system. 
The direction is N. in Shantung, 

N.W. at Shanghai, 

N. E. in the Formosa Channel, 

E. at Hongkong. 

"Contrary to what happens in India, the Winter monsoon is steadier and stronger 
than the Summer one, at least in the Formosa Channel. A N. B. gale may be said to 
blow with short interruptions at the Pescadores, during the whole season. 

"The Winter monsoon sets in towards the first half of September, or even at the 
end of August. At Shanghai, it lasts nearly 7 months". 

Cyclones !g§ JU< (Siien-fung i.e. revolving winds). — The China seas are often 
visited by cyclones, which cause immense ravages on the coasts. 

Cyclones are whirling storms, and originate as follows. The barometric pressure 
is abnormally low over a more or less restricted area. All around this depression or 
centre, the wind blows sometimes with extreme violence, moving from right to left 
contrariwise to the movement of the hands of a watch (thus in the Northern hemis- 
phere ; in the Southern one, they move in an opposite direction). These winds blow 
spirally inwards towards the centre. 

The whole vortex of the cyclone has a movement of translation, of variable dire- 
ction and velocity. The area covered by the storm is sometimes very considerable, and 
may extend (as on the 3 rd of August, 1901) from Nagasaki to Masao, a distance of 
1,360 miles. 

Two distinct classes of cyclones may be distinguished: continental lancUtorms 
and typhoons. The former are experienced ia the N. of the China seas, the latter 
in the S. 

1° Continental landstorms. — Those originate in Siberia or Western China, 
and travel towards the sea, with a marked curve to the N. E. After crossing the coast- 
line, they generally gain more strength, and become very violent in reaching Japan or 
the sea of Japau. 

They are principally to be feared in Winter. Their passage is generally followed 
by a N. or N.W. gale, on the Northern part of the China coast; in the S., by a sometimes 
very severe increase of the N. E. monsoon. 

Their velocity of translation may reach 60 miles an hour or fall to 8. It averages 
from 25 to 30. 

2° Typhoons ^ J!, (Paofung i.e. violent or devastating winds). — These are 
formed over the Pacific, S. of the 20 th parallel, N. Lat. After travelling first to N. W., 


some of them cross the China Sea, towards Indo-China and the gulf of Tongking, whilst 
others bend to N. E., to visit the China coast or Japan. 

It is especially in Summer that they are dreaded. They are announced on the 
coast of China by a fall of the glass with N. E. winds, which veer round in accordance 
with the laws of cyclonic storms. 

Their velocity of translation, low whilst recurving, increases rapidly when they 
move away from the China coast. Typhoons scarcely approach Shanghai, except from 
July to September. They may travel at the rate of 50 miles an hour. 

Fogs #£ (Wu, i.e. mist or vapour). — Fogs, so dreaded by seamen, are common 
at the mouth of the Yangtze, in Spring, and quite exceptional in Autumn. The same 
fact is verified along the coast, down to the S. of the Formosa channel. 

On the N. coast of China, the maximum takes place in July; and the minimum, 
from August to November. 

At Hongkong, the densest fogs prevail in March and April. 

lighthouses, buoys and beacons, — To guide seamen in 
the darkness of the night, and through fogs, reefs and shoals, 
scarcely anything had been done up to 1854. A few smoky 
lanterns easily extinguished, some bamboo poles stuck into the 
mud, a bell tolled in foggy weather, were all that existed. 

Since that time, thanks to the energy of Sir R. Hart, In- 
spector-general of the Imperial Maritime Customs, numerous 
lighthouses have been erected at the most important points of 
the coast. Lightships have been placed at the most frequented 
places, and buoys and beacons fixed in the passages rendered 
most dangerous by reefs, currents or shoals. In 1905, there were 
to be counted no less than 102 lighthouses, 25 lightships, 113 
buoys and 109 beacons, along the coast of China and on its 
principal rivers. We shall mention the most important light- 
houses when describing each part of the coast. Two of them 
are connected with the Chinese telegraph system, and £ive timely 
warning of approaching cyclones to the Sicawei Observatory, near 
Shanghai _fc#J. In foggy weather, gongs, sirens, and the firing 
of cannon constantly warn ships and junks of impending danger. 

The first lighthouse on the China coast, properly speaking, 
was erected in 1867, near Chefoo jg[ jf;, in Shantung \\\ jf[, on 
K'ungtfung J§ |I|[p) j^ (K'ungt'ung-tao) island. As early as 1855 
however, a light had been placed on the T'ungsha ffjj j£J? ban/c 
at the mouth of the Yangtze $%-pf£ river. The latest constructed 
lighthouse is that of Tungyung jf[ $1 island, at the mouth of the 
Min-kiang f$ ££, in Fokien. It is 325 feet above the sea-level, 
and is visible to a distance of 25 miles. 



















The lighthouse of our Lady of Guia, has existed for long 
years at Macao. 

None of these lighthouses yet employ electric light. All 
use vegetable oil, except those of the N. which burn kerosene, 
as the severe cold would freeze vegetable oil. 

One of the most famous is the Pehyu-shan Jfc M \i} light- 
house, on Shasho island, S. of the Ningpo ^ : {fo river, in Che- 
kiang Jjff ££ Province. It is 345 feet above the level of the sea, 
and flashes its light to a distance of 26 miles. 

Tides ^ j§JJ (Haich'ao, i.e. sea-flow). — The sea rises and falls twice daily along 
the coast. This phenomenon is due to the united action of the sun and moon, which 
attract, and as it were heap up the waters of the globe. The moon however being 
nearer to the earth, exerts a predominating influence in the ratio of 2i to 1. It is shortly 
after the new and full moons that the tides are highest. In proportion as the moon is 
nearer, and its influence more combined with that of the sun, the more is its action 
felt. With the two bodies acting in concert, we have the spring or high tides, but 
when they act in opposition, we have the neap or low tides. 

Tides are locally affected by the eonfiguration of the coasts, variation in the depth 
of the ocean, winds, and also to a slight extent by the changes of atmospheric pressure, 
hence the impulse is not felt everywhere at the same time. This retardation is a matter 
of observation peculiar to each locality, and known technically as the establislimext 
of the port. It is thus that at Hongkong, the impulse is felt an hour earlier than at 
the Chusan Jfc ^J (Cheushan) islands. 

Between the Southern coast of Korea and the extremity of the gulf of Chihli, 
the difference is much more marked. It is only 8 hours after being felt in Korea, that 
the tides reach Shantung Point, 14 hours afterwards they reach the Miaotao /§j @j 
islands, and 20 hours later penetrate to the extremity of the Gulf of Chihli. 

Islands and promontories, around which the tides have to turn, greatly retard 
their progress. 

Tides are of great importance for navigation. Owing to them many rivers become 
navigable to a considerable distance from their mouth, shoals and bars can be crossed, 
and large boats may enter ports, which would otherwise be inaccessible. 

It is on the coast of Fokien, as stated above, that the tides of the China seas 
attain their greatest height, reaching about 17| feet ; South of the Formosa channel, 
they reach even 23 feet, helped by favourable winds in certain extraordinary circums- 

A rather remarkable phenomenon occurs on the coast of Tongking, where there 
is but one tide daily. A dissimilar curious modification is noticed in England, at South- 
ampton, Poole and Weyniouth, where 2 tides occur in twelve hours. 




2° . The coast of Chihli fi *M 

The coast of Chihli jj ^ is washed by the Poh-hai gjj $£. 
Low and frozen during part of the Winter, it would have little 
importance but for its proximity to Peking ;ffc -fir, and for the 
Peh-ho Q fpjj, which flows into the gulf of Chihli. 

Tlie I*oli-liai j^J $J. — Poh-hai signifies "arm of the sea". 

It forms in fact a kind of small sea to the W. of the Leaotung 
|g jg promontory (called also Laot'ieh-shan ^ $\ |Xl), and of 
the Miaotao % islands. The strait of Chihli separates the 
Leaotung promontory from the Miaotao archipelago. Its greatest 
depth is 40 fathoms. The Poh-hai is not so deep, and attains 
at most 24 fathoms. Along the low coast, it is necessary to 
keep at a distance of 10 miles, to find a depth of from 16 to 20 
feet, unless a river running into the sea opens up a deeper 
channel through the sands. The principal rivers which thus 
enable large ships to approach the coast are the Leao-ho jg£ 
}pf, the Teh-Uo £j }pj and the SLwang-ho ^ |pj. The first flows 
through Manchuria, the second through Chihli, and the third 
through Shantung [Jj }|f. 

The Poh-hai washes the Western coast of Leaotung, the 
Chihli coast, and the North-Western coast of Shantung. 

Gulfs. — Two gulfs are formed by the Poh-hai : the gulf 
of Chihli, and the gulf of Leaotung, The latter is but the 
continuation into the sea of the great Manchurian valley. 

Islands. — There are no islands of importance along the 
coast of Chihli, but there are several long sand-banks. The largest 
of these is the Ts'aofeitien ~g jfij faj, called also Shaliutien }p 
jff jaj, situated to the N. E. of the mouth of the Peh-ho. It is 
very low, and is distant from the coast about 10 miles. It 
measures from 20 to 25 miles in length. A lighthouse, 50 feet 
above the sea-level, has been erected on it, and is visible to a 
distance of 10 miles. 

Ice. — From the month of November, the ice begins to form on the rivers and 
over the coast of Chihli. It extends all along the shore and seldom disappears until 
March. The Peh-ho remains however navigable at times until the month of January. 
Navigation then stops, and ships may find good shelter near Ts'aofeitien, where the 
sea is not icebound. The ice forms on the sand-banks at low-water, and is carried by 
the rising tide upon the coast, where it develops into a thick mass. The buoys are taken 
out of the river during the period while it remains frozen. 


At this season, seamen should beware of floating ice, which attains sometimes 
about one yard in thickness. 

In the N. of the gulf of Leaotung, the ice lasts much longer, 4.] months on the 
average, i.e. from the end of November to the middle of April. 

Winds. — From October to March, the wind blows from the N., and from April to 
September, from the S. When it comes from the W., it is laden with dust, as in the 
interior of Chihli, and obscures the atmosphere to a distance of about 5 miles out from 
the coast. 

Nature of tlie coast. — The coast of Chihli is low, 
sandy, and scantily inhabited by an impoverished population. 
As the coast-line is but slightly above the sea-level, the smallest 
objects viewed from the sea assume gigantic proportions. 

Towards the N„ near the Great Wall, the coast-line rises a 
little, and offers a few good harbours in which the water is deeper. 

Ports. — Three only deserve to be mentioned : 

TsHnwatiff-tao Jg 3£ %. — Population, 5,000 inhabitants. 
An excellent harbour, situated near Shanhai-kwan |1] $£ p) 
and the Great Wall. It is free from ice and has deep water, 
thereby enabling large steamers to enter - it at all seasons of the 
year. Ships with a draught of 17 feet can anchor at its pier. 
Iron and coal abound in the neighbourhood, and so it is destined 
to become, especially for coal, a large export station. 

Peht'ang 4k Itf- — A. small port on the banks of a river 
bearing the same name. The water is shallow, and boats with 
a draught of 12 feet can alone enter it, and only at high water. 
Formerly its entrance was protected by two forts. 

Taku ^ ft*f . — A village situated at the mouth of the Peh- 
ho £g fpj. The forts which protected its entrance have been 
destroyed since the Boxer revolt in 1900. The mouth of the 
Peh-ho is about 320 yards wide. Three miles further up stands 
TungJcu ^ J£. 

Ships with a draught of 24 feet should keep off 8^ miles from the mouth of the 
Peh-ho. The bar obstructing the entrance is 2 miles long, and steamers with a 
draught of more than 10^ feet can hardly pass it. At low water of neaps, it has always 
at least 2^ feet of water over it. 

Even at high-tide, the entrance is dangerous, as the channel is narrow and hard 
to be made out when the water has covered its banks. 

Steamers with a draught of more than 10 feet can but with difficulty ascend as 
far as T'ientsin ^ ^ ^p. 

A lightship is stationed at the mouth of the river, while buoys and beacons 
show the channel over the bar and to the entrance of the river. 


3° The coast of Shantung 111 JfT 

The coast of Shantung is watered by the Poh-hai j*}$ $£, and 
the Hwang-hai J§[ $£ or Yellow Sea. In the upper part of the 
Province, that is as far as Tengchow Fu g >}\\ Jft and the Miao- 
tao M ft islands, the coast-line is low, and offers the same 
characteristics as that of Chihli jg §jjf£. Jn the Southern part, 
except in the vicinity of Kiangsu J£ g|, the coast is rocky and 
indented, and abounds in bays among which are found some good 
harbours. We may call it the coast-line of the promontory, in 
order to distinguish it from the other. We shall say but a few 
words about the former; the second requires more details. While 
dealing with this subject, we shall give a brief account of the 
Miaotao islands, which are of considerable importance. 

A. The N. W. coast of Shantung . 

This commences at the Miaotao J|jj Jj, islands, and forms an 
arc of a circle, somewhat irregular and broken up on the W ., by 
the mouth of the Hwang-ho jH jpj • At first, some 10 or 12 
miles inland, hills run along the shore, and throw out a few spurs 
into the sea. After bending Northwards, this part offers but low 
plains intersected by turbid rivers, and quite resembles the coast of 
Chihli. Long sand-banks extend along the shore, and allow only 
flat-bottomed junks to approach the shore. 

The Hivang-ho ^ fpf itself can be entered only by small 
junks. A bar situated at three miles from its mouth obstructs 
the entrance, so that the depth at high-tide is but 7 \ feet, and 
at slack water only 4 J. The river is moreover constantly dimi- 
nishing the depth of the Poh-hai jjgj $|, by the alluvial deposits 
which it brings down, and so the gulf seems doomed to become 
one day an immense plain, continuing that of Chihli jf[ ^. 

B. The Miaotao M & Islands. 

Between Tengchow Fu )f£ >|fl Jft point and LaotHeh-shan 
$k 18 tij or Regent's Sword, the distance is about 60 miles. 
A great part of this space lying between the Poh-hai j^J $J and 
the Hwang-hai J| $J or Yellow sea, is occupied by the Miaotao 


J§! l|j archipelago, a remnant of the mountainous chain that 
formerly connected Leaotung jjg l£ with Shantung |Jj ^. This 
archipelago comprises about 15 islands, forming two groups, 
the Northern and Southern. 

Ch'angshan J| |Jj , the largest, is 7 miles long, while its 
highest summit attains 470 feet in height. 

Heuki $£ $g, more to the N., is smaller, and reaches an 
elevation of 325 feet above the sea-level. It has a lighthouse 
of the 1 st order, 329 feet above the sea-level, and visible to a 
distance of 24 miles. 

The surest route for ships passing through the Miaotao group is to the S. of this 
island, and hence adopted by steamers going to Taku ^C $J. 

To the N. of the archipelago, the passage is easy, and is rendered more so by 
the Laot'iehshan lighthouse, 31G feet above sea-level, and visible to a distance of 25 

The archipelago has good anchorage where ships are quite safe. The best is on 
the S. of Ch'angshan J| |X|. 

C. The coast of th e Shantung promontor y. 

The coast of the promontory is washed by the Hwang-hai j^ 
$f or Yellow Sea. High, broken and indented, it offers a series 
of bays and promontories, these latter often running out into the 
sea in the shape of dangerous reefs and sometimes of islands. 
There are however much less islands along this part of the coast 
than opposite the three Southern Provinces, but none of them 
is considerable. There are some good harbours, but these are 
more numerous on the N. On the S.E., as well as on the N. W., 
the hills diverge from the coast, while this latter becomes straight 
and low, and abounds in long sand-banks. 

Bays. — The bays of this part of Shantung open wider, 
and run less inland in the N. than in the S. The principal 
are: on the North: Chefoo ^ ^ or Yent'ui $\ jf bay, and 
the bay of Weihaiwei j^ ffi f§f ; — on the East, Yungch'eng 
Jg %$ bay and the bay of Sangkeu-Jc'oiv Jj| flf p ; — on the 
South, the bays of Shihtao-Wow ^J /(, P, Shuhshan ffi \\\, 
T.aoshan £fc |Jj and Kiaochow |)J >}]\. 

Capes. — The principal capes are: Chefoo cape, the North' 
piaster n and South- Eastern capes of Shantung, cape Adhins or 


Ch'anshan jlfg \[}. and the two headlands which enclose Kiao- 
chow bay, the Southern, called Cape Jaeschlce, and the Northern, 
Tiunishan ffi V& \[\. 

Islands. — On the N., K'ungt'ung |?J? [|j| |* island, in Che- 
foo bay, and Alceste island or Hailu-lao $£ gj| /^, on the N.W. 
of the promontory. 

On the S., Staunton island or Sushan-tao J$£ |]j $j, the 
Central islands and the islands in Laoshan ^ |Jj bay. 

Ice. — Ice is more rarely found, and lasts less long in the Yellow Sea than in 
the Poh-hai. It often however obstructs some bays, hinders navigation, and as in 1877, 
blocks measuring from 4 to 5 feet in thickness have been seen floating opposite Chefoo. 
Even in the S., in the Bay of Kiaochow, the water is partially frozen over during Win- 
ter, and one may walk on the ice without danger. 

Wind. — There is nothing to add to what has been said above (p. 243). 

Tide. — The tide is first felt at Staunton island, and extends rapidly thence to 
tbe whole coast of the promontory, attaining in the vieinity of Alceste island (Hailii- 
tao) its greatest velocity, 3 to 3 ^ knots at high tides. The tide, which rises to only 
5 £ feet on the E. of the promontory, reaches 11 A feet (8 h feet at slack water) in 
Kiaochow Bay. 

Nature of the coast. — Composed of gneiss and granite, and 
of a volcanic nature near Tengchow Fu %fc >}\\ Jff, it is for the 
greater part broken and often skirted on the mainland by chains 
of hills. At times, it rises abruptly, and at others, it is low and 
sandy. In several places, it runs out into the sea and rises in 
dangerous reefs, which compel ships to keep at a great distance 
in sailing round it. Among the ships wrecked in these regions, 
mention must be made of the German gunboat "litis", which in 
July 1896, sank at Flat Rocky Point, a little to the N. of the light- 
house erected on the South-Eastern promontory, and at the entrance 
to Sangkeu-k'ow ^g P bay. 

Iiiglitltouses. — Seven lighthouses are erected along the 
Shantung coast: 1°, the Chefoo light on K'ungt'ung |^ [I|[a] |5 
island. It stands at 242 feet above the sea-level, and is visible 
to a distance of 22 miles. During the year 1905, this light was 
removed to the top of the old stone beacon or Tower Hill ; 
2°, the 2 nd and 3 rd , at the entrance to Weihaiwei jf$ ffc $j bay; 
3°, the 4 th , at the extremity of the N.E. promontory; 4°, the 5 th , 



at the point of the S.E. promontory. It is 96 feet above sea-level, 
and visible to a distance of 16 miles ; 5°, the 6 th , on Chalien 
tt J§i % island (Chaolien-tao), to the S.E. of Kiaochow bay; 
and 6°, the 7 th and last, at the entrance to Kiaochow bay. 

Coast-towns. — Teagchow Fu ^ >}\\ Jft. — Formerly an 
important port, but at the present day invaded by sands, and 
accessible only to junks, which carry on there a fairly good 
trade in wheat and peas. 

Chefoo ^5J, or more properly Yent'ai 'Jgj j£ (the Chinese 
name of the place called Chefoo by foreigners, is Yent'ai, Chefoo 
being but a large village on the opposite side of the bay). — 
Population, 82,000 inhabitants. An excellent port-town, on the 
W. of the bay of the same name. The harbour, protected by a 
headland, except from the N.E. wind, affords excellent anchorage, 
wilh a depth of from 20 to 40 feet, and even 45 at the entrance. 
On the E. of the bay is a chain of islets, among which the most 
important, K'ungt'ung (^ j||p], was ceded to France in 1860. A 
lighthouse, 242 feet above sea-level and visible to a distance 
of 22 miles, has been erected upon it. The place enjoys a dry 
and salubrious climate, and a beautiful shore, which makes it an 

— ^£ 

Cfyejoo Poipt 


Towex Yo'upt 





attractive health-resort for foreigners. The principal exports are 
fresh eggs, beancake and bean oil, straw braid, rush mats, silk, 
felt caps, vermicelli, groundnuts and dried fish. The imports are 
cotton and woollen goods, kerosene oil, hemp bags, straw mats, 
aniline dyes, ginseng, sugar, iron, coal and matches. The total 
net trade of the port was in 1903, Hk. Tls. 38,183,912 ; in 1904, 
Tls. 34,255,175; and in 1905, Tls. 39,131,384. {see Section I. Ch. 
IV. p. 84. Shantung). 

Weihaiwei J^ Jg $f . — A port leased to Great Britain by 
China, on July 1 st 1898, "in order to provide Great Britain with 
a suitable naval harbour in North-China, and for the better pro- 
tection of British commerce in the neighbouring seas". The 
leased territory comprises the island of Liukung ffl] % Jf^ (Liu- 
kung-tao), all the islands in the bay, and a belt of land 10 English 

Cape. Cofc ot T^ipgty t'eu 




miles along the coast-line. Its area is about 285 square miles, 
and the population 150,000. In addition to the leased ter- 
ritory, there is a sphere of influence extending over an 
area of 1,500 square miles. The climate is excellent. The 
chief port of the dependency is Port Edward, which has good 
anchorage, with a depth of 45 feet. The Government is adminis- 
tered by a Commissioner. In 1905, the revenue amounted to 
$ 105,930, while the expenditure was $ 146,000. The grant 
from the Home Government amounted to £ 3,000. Mining and 
the planting of fruit-trees have been of late much developed, and 
progress would be improved were the place connected by rail 
with the interior. Weihaiwei is a port of call for steamers 
running to and from the N. of China, and there is regular 
steam communication with Shanghai, (see Sect. I. ch. IV. p. 85). 
TsUngtao flf j^ (Green island). — A port at the entrance of 
Kiaochow Jjf ft\ bay, and leased to Germany by China, in 1898, 
for a period of 99 years. The leased territory comprises the bay 
up to high-water mark, its islands, and the N. and S. tongues of 
land at the mouth of the harbour. Its area is 193 square miles, 
but if we include the sphere of influence, or a zone 30 miles 
from all points of the leased territory, the total is about 2,750 
square miles. The interior of the bay is not very deep, but its 
entrance has 16 to 24 fathoms of water. It affords good shelter 
to ships, and is not icebound. Ts'ingtao has a foreign population 
of 1,110 persons, and 120,000 Chinese. 

The entrance to the bay is f of a mile across. A lighthouse, 
108 feet above high-water level, stands on the S. W. end of the 
headland, and is visible to a distance of 10 miles. Another, 
92 feet high, and visible 4 miles, is erected within the bay. 
The harbour is rapidly developing. A pier, 4 miles in length, 
encloses the inner wharf. The area of the latter is about 1 | 
square miles, and it has been dredged to a depth of 6 fathoms. 
A second wharf will be soon completed. A floating dock, capable 
of taking in vessels of 16,000 tons capacity, commenced work 
towards the close of 1905. From January 1906, the free-port 
area has been reduced to the harbour. Henceforward all mer- 




10.20.30. Depth in metres (1 metre - 1,093 yard). 
gff?| Sftnd ' 100.500. Height in metres (100 metres * 328 feet). 



chandise pays import duty according to the general treaty tariff, 
and then travels to the hinterland without further restriction. 

The surrounding towns and villages are rapidly developing, and their population 
is also increasing. They enjoy like Ts'ingtao the great advantage of being connected 
with the interior by railway. 

The port of Ts'ingtao can be easily fortified, owing to hills which surround it 
on the W. and E., and rise respectively to 1,600 and 5,000 feet. In the vicinity are 
important coal-beds, and the coal extracted will soon become the staple export article 
of the port. 

Trade increases every year, but is still however far behind that of Chefoo. The 
Imperial Maritime Customs report the total net value of Kiaochow to be for 1905, Hk. 
Tls. 22,322,680. 

A weekly service connects the port with Shanghai. There is besides a steamer 
running every 5 days between Shanghai, Ts'ingtao, Chefoo and T'ientsin. 


4° The coast of Kianrjsu K M 

The coast of Kiangsu is washed, partly by the Yellow Sea or 
Hwang-hai jg[ $$, partly by the Eastern China Sea or Tung- 

hai jf[ $J. Low and bordered by sand-banks, it is of little 
importance, except at the mouth of the Yangtze $^ ^ £k not 
far from which, stands the great commercial port of Shanghai, 
built upon the Hwangp'oo ^ : $j river. For the sake of clearness, 
we will study : 1°, The coast N. of the Yangtze ; 2°, The mouth of 
the Yangtze and the port of Shanghai; 3°, The coast to the S. 
of the Yangtze. 

A. The coast to the N. of th e Yangtze. 

Long, low and flat, this coast is bordered by immense sand- 
banks, between which are found only shallow channels. 

The most important of these banks is situated to the S.E. 
of Hai Chow $| )\\, and is called the Tasha ^ fjp or Great 
sand-bank. It is more than 90 miles long by 30 wide. It has 
been formed, like the other shoals, by sands and alluvial detritus 
deposited there in former times by the muddy waters of the 
Hwang-ho ^ Jpp 

The coasts are protected by long embankments, provided with 
numerous sluices, whereby the overflow of the water escapes into 
the sea in the flood-season. 

A single island deserves to be mentioned, the Yuh 3£ ^ or Pearl island, to the 
N.E. of Hai Chow ^ )\\ headland. This headland, situated to the S.E. of Hai Chow, 
reaches an altitude of from 800 to about 1,000 feet. Some 16 miles further to the N., 
lies the port of Ts'ingk'ow "pf - P . It is situated at the extremity of a canal closed on 
the W., and is the only port on this long coast. It is an important fishing station, and 
sends its catch down to the Shanghai _h #1 market. 

B. The mouth of the Yangtze an d the port of Shanghai. 

The great river called the Yangtze j§ ^ discharges its 
waters into the sea, through a large mouth, which measures no 
less than 60 miles from the extremity of Haimen j& P^ to Yang- 
tze cape or P'ootung $} % point. Though obstructed with 

262 section iv. The coast-line of china. 

islands and sand-banks, this mouth has two good channels, one 
of which, the Southern, is highly valuable for navigation. The 
sand-banks shift constantly, but owing to lighthouses, buoys and 
beacons, ships can easily enter, and ascend either to Shanghai 
J^ *$j£ or to the numerous ports situated up the river. We can 
give but a brief account of the main characteristics of the mouth 
of the Yangtze and of the port of Shanghai. 

Islands and sand-banks. — Among the islands which 
lie at the mouth of the Yangtze, Ch'ungming &~ fjfj is by far 
the most important. It is about 40 miles long, and from 5 to 8 
broad. Its area is 270 square miles, and its population a 
little over i, 000, 000, or about 3,500 to the square mile. It has 
been formed by constant alluvial deposits from the Yangtze £g 
^ fX, river. It is low and flat, and protected by embankments 
from sea-action. It is being constantly eaten away at its North- 
western extremity, while it is gradually increasing at the other. 
The island is highly cultivated, and produces rice, maize, cotton, 
yams and excellent sugar-cane. The soil, especially in the N., 
is considerably impregnated with salt. It possesses no harbour 
of importance, nor any town of considerable size, except the 
district city of the same name. 

Further to the S., in the same direction N.W.-S.E., is a 
chain of islets, among which Hwangsha ^ fp- or House island 
is the most important. These islets are continued on the E. by 
a large sand-bank called T'ungsha 3g ty shoal. 

E. of the mouth of the Yangtze, 40 miles from the S. E. 
extremity of Ch'ungming, is a sand-bank by far much larger 
than T'ungsha bank, and called the Great sand-bank of the Yang- 
tze (Yangtze-tasha) % ^^ $\ It is over 125 miles in length, and 
from 30 to 40 miles in breadth. It is composed of grayish or 
dark-coloured sand. As there are from 10 to 22 fathoms of water 
over it, it is no hindrance to navigation, and moreover the 
water on both sides attains a great depth. 

Channels. — The mouth of the Yangtze ^ ^ XL has 
three channels. 

TJie 1 st , or upper branch. This is situated between 
Ch'ungming ^ 1$ and Haimen $| P*j. Small junks alone can 


sail through it, for it is very shallow, and is constantly invaded 
by the sand. A new island is actually in process of formation. 
It may totally emerge one day, and thus connect Ch'ungming 
with the adjoining promontory of Haimen. 

The 2 ,ul , or North channel, called also Shaweishan ty Jg 
llj, is situated to the S. of Ch'ungming, between that island 
and the series of islets and sand-banks which terminate at the 
T'ungsha Jjs) fp bank. It extends from E. to W., but narrows 
in and diminishes in depth. Towards the E., it is about 2 miles 
wide, and has a depth of 46 feet, whilst in the W., its width is 
only a little over a mile, and its depth from 16. \ to 20 feet. 

The 3 rd , or South channel, lies between the right bank 
of the Yangtze and the islets just mentioned. It is the best 
and the most frequented route. It is from 17 to 20 feet deep at 
low-water of spring tides, and from 13 to 19 t\ opposite the 
mouth of the Hwangp'oo ^ \$ or Shanghai river. 

lighthouses. — Several lighthouses are erected at the 
entrance to the last two channels. Two are situated on the 
Northern side of the N. channel: one at Ch'ungming Point, 
called I)rin7cwater lighthouse or Ch'ungmingtao-tungkioh ^ fy\ 
$j 3K f§ ; the other, more to the E., called Shaweishan light- 
house. Two are on the Northern side of the S. channel: one, 
on Hwangsha island, near the Kiutoan ji "|£ light-vessel ; the 
other, more to the S.E., is called the T'ungsha % %j? light. 
Five others are erected at Woosung ^ \% where vessels enter 
the Hwangp'oo J| ffi river. 

S. of the Southern channel, opposite P'ootung Point, is Gutz- 
laff island, called in Chinese Tach'ih ^ ^ or Tats'ihshan ^c 
jj£llj- It has a lighthouse, 283 feet above high-water level, and 
visible to a distance of 24 miles. It is besides an important 
telegraph station, 6 cables landing there. 

Tides. — The tidal current at the mouth of the Yangtze commences to the 
Southward. The water rises 14 £ feet at Gutzlaff in high tides, and nearly the same 
at the mouth of the Hwangp'oo. It reaches at the S. of Gutzlaff its maximum velocity 
of 3 knots at springs, and 2 knots at neaps on a flood; 4 to 5 knots at springs, and 3 J 
knots at neaps during ebh. At the latter place, and below Woosung, the tides take on 
the average 5 hours to rise and 7 to fall, or the ebb is longer than the flood. 




As the tide rises and falls, a rather peculiar swirl or rotatory movement is pro- 
duced at the mouth of the Yangtze. Its different phases may he seen in the annexed 


The tide is felt at Shanghai 2 hours after it has passed Gutzlaff. It is subject 
to diurnal inequality, which causes the day tides to he the highest in Winter, the mor- 
ning tides in Spring, the night tides in Summer, and the evening tides in Autumn. 

Woosung Inner and 
Outer Bars. — Two bars 
prevent large steamers ascen- 
ding as far as Shanghai. The 
first or Outer Bar, a little 
below the mouth of the Hwang- 
p'oo, is rapidly silting up, and 
had in 1897, 20 feet of water 
over it at low-water of springs, 
but at the present, it has scar- 
cely more than 13. The second 
or Inner Bar lies within and a 
little up the river itself . It un- 
dergoes less change and tends 
rather to improve. A periodical 
silt of from 2 to 4 feet generally 
sets in upon it in May and 
ends in October, after which 
it again scours away. Attempts 
at dredging having proved 
ineffective, the river aband- 
oned to itself has formed a 
new island, called Gough 
island. The Junk channel 
to the E. of it, has but a depth 
of from 10 to 13 feet at 
low- water of springs. 

Paosrjaq ^ 


Wooaurjc; LA 

Iks e ***Q 

^^ >T ~ r ~<C" 

gffcpaittpt foujt. ^^ 

<* EW 

swjh liUnd 

11 o 

u ^ 

Mm ^> 


f^ <? 


TwnfKa^oo lUpi 

SHANGHAI and the Hwangp'oo River. 



18 ft. 

16 ft. 

14 ft. 

12 ft. 

10 ft. 


on the Outer and Inner Woosung Bars 

at low water of the syzygies. 

(According to W. F. Tyler. Coast Inspector I. M. C). 











/ \ 




J \ 


/ l 

\ i 

















1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 

The lower tracing exhibits the changes on the Inner Bar; 
the upper tracing those on the Outer Bar. 


Shanghai _fc f($. — (see also Sect. II. Ch. IV. Kiangsu. 
p. 160-162). Historian sketch. — If we believe old records, 
Shanghai, as its name means "out 9 orup to the sea", was formerly 
nearer the sea than it is at present, but little by little, sands and 
alluvial deposits accumulated to the E. of the port, and formed 
there the low flat plain nowadays called P'ootung ffi jg, or East 
of the Hwangp'oo. Through this plain the Hwangp'oo ^ jjj 
river opened a way to the Yangtze ;jg ^f. According to native 
annals, a custom-house was first established at Shanghai in the 
XI th century, and it was only in the XIV th that it was raised 
to the dignity of a walled city (3 \ miles in circuit) with 
sub-prefectural or district rank. In the XVI th century, it was 
attacked by Japanese pirates, who extended at the same time 
their incursions to Ningpo ^ $}r and Hangchow Jtfi j\\. Up to 1842, 
it was but a port of call for sea-going junks. At the above 
mentioned date, it was taken (19 th June) by British troops under 
Sir Hugh Gough, and formally opened to foreign trade, 17 th 
November, 1843. Captain Balfour, the British Consul, established 
there the limits of the English Settlement. The site originally 
selected, lay half a mile N. of the native city, between the Yang- 
kingpang ^ gg Jfc and Soochow %fc j^ Creeks, and extended 
backwards from the river to Defence Creek. Other extensions 
were subsequently granted, the last being that of 1901. The 
French were in 1849 granted the ground between the city walls 
and the British Settlement on the same terms. In 1860, this 
Concession was extended to the S., between the city walls and 
the river, and further to the W., in 1902. In 1862, Americans 
rented land immediately N. of Soochow Creek, in the place 
called Hongkew ft p (Hungk'ow). In 1863, the so-called 
American Settlement was incorporated with the British, into one 
municipality, styled the "International Settlement". The Muni- 
cipal Council administering the Foreign Settlement, N. of Yang- 
kingpang, began in 1855. A separate administration and council 
for the French Settlement were appointed in 1862. At Shanghai, 
and at all the other open Ports, Foreigners are in judicial matters 
subject to the immediate control of their respective Consuls. 


Tn local affairs, Foreigners within the Settlements govern them- 
selves by means of the Municipal Councils, under the authority of 
the "land regulations". Chinese residents in the Settlements 
arc amenable to their own laws, administered by what is called 
a "mixed courp', established in 1864. It is presided over by a 
Chinese official and is watched by Foreign Assessors from the 
principal Consulates. The working of this institution, despite 
some recent reforms, has never been satisfactory, as the judge 
has not sufficient authority and rank to enforce his decisions, 
which are besides frequently fraught with great vagaries. The 
Council in the International Settlement consists of 9 members, 
and in the French Concession, of 8. The resolutions of the latter 
are inoperative, until sanctioned by the Consul-General. The 
Council divides itself into Defence, Finance, Watch and Works 
Committee. In cases of contest or infringement of private rights, 
it can be sued before the "Court of Consuls". 

Population. — The census of the 14 th October, 1905, gave 
the number of Foreign residents in the International Settlement 
as 11,497 persons, while in the French Concession on the same 
date, there were 831 persons, aggregating a total of 12,328 
Foreigners, composed as follows : 

International Settlement. French Concession. Total. 

















































Other Nationalities 





The Chinese population was also found to be in the Inter- 
national Settlement 452,716 inhabitants, and in the French Conces- 
sion 84,792 inhabitants, aggregating a total of 537,508 persons. 
The population of the native walled city is estimated at 300,000. 

Industries and Manufactures, — Shanghai _fc $$ has 
several large docks, the principal of which are on the right bank 
of the Hwangp'oo river or P'ootung side. The Chinese Govern- 
ment has an arsenal, dock and shipbuilding establishment, a 
short distance above the native city. Several manufactories, 
both foreign and native, have sprung up since 1895, consequent 
upon the Japanese treaty allowing henceforth the importation 
of machinery. At the present day, there are 9 cotton-spinning 
and weaving mills in operation ; there are also a number of 
ginning factories, native and foreign owned. Of silk filatures, 
Shanghai has 25, which give employment to 20,000 natives. 
There are besides, paper mills, flour mills, mills for extracting 
oil from cotton-seed and beans, several printing establishments, 
soap and match factories. 

Trade and Commerce. — Shanghai is the great emporium 
for the trade of the Yangtze river, for the Northern ports of the 
China coast, and to some extent for Japan. The principal 
export articles are silk (97,800 bales, or 150,000 piculs in 
1905), tea (black, 104,323 piculs; green, 263,900 piculs; brick, 
98,389 piculs; leaf-dust and tablet, 19,574 piculs in 1905), raw 
cotton, cotton-yarn and cloth, beans and beancake, groundnuts, 
sesamum seed, wood-oil, rice, wheat, flour, straw and rush- 
hats, chinagrass, hides and goat-skins, bristles, wool, carpets 
and fresh eggs. The imports are cotton and woollen goods, 
machinery and engine oil, timber and soft wood, kerosene oil, 
opium, cement, palm-leaf fans, rush and straw-mats, gunny 
cloth and bags, aniline dyes, printing paper, stationery, photo- 
graphic materials, clocks and watches, glass, millinery and 
perfumery, shoes and boots, lamps and lampware, coal, iron- 
bars and nails, copper slabs and spelter, beer, wines and spirits, 
edible birds' nests, sugar, condensed milk, butter, cheese, 



soap, cigarettes and matches. The total gross and net values 
of the trade of the port from 1900-1905 were as follows : 

Gross and Net Values of Trade, 1900-1905. 


Gross Values. 

Net Values. 


Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 












1 15,480,170 




During the same period, the following duties were collected 
' by the Imperial Maritime Customs : 

Hk. Tls. 













Great Britain 

contributed in 1905 




— , 































Shipping and tonnage. — The port of Shanghai _fc $)• 
extends along the left bank of the Hwangp'oo J| jjj , to a distance 
of over 8 miles. The water frontage is lined throughout with 
landing places, jetties, wharves and warehouses ("godowns"). The 


river opposite the Foreign Settlements was formerly 1,800 feet 
broad at low-water, but it is to-day only 1,200. Ships with a 
draught of 16 feet can come up to the wharves. Shanghai is 45 
miles from the sea-coast, and 12 miles from Woosung J% }$, its 
outer port, with which it is connected by rail since the 1 st Sep- 
tember 1898. 

The windings of the Hwangp'oo jg }$f , and the two bars which 
are developing at its mouth, will perhaps one day necessitate 
extensive works. It has already been proposed to rectify the 
course of the river, and dig a canal to the W. , but the immense 
alluvial deposits brought down by the Yangtze render every 
attempt of this kind rather ineffectual. The Woosung bars are a 
great drawback to the prosperity of the port, and the cause of 
heavy loss to shipowners, through the impossibility of large 
draught steamers crossing them, and coming up to Shanghai. 
The average depth of water on the outer bar, at high-water 
springs, is 19 feet, the greatest being 23 feet. The Chinese 
Government has recently consented to the establishment of a 
"Conservancy Board", and this will, it is hoped, do much to for- 
ward the interests of commerce, and maintain the preponderance 
of Shanghai as the great commercial metropolis of China. Large 
men-of-war and huge liners, as the Manchuria, Minnesota and 
Mongolia, are compelled to anchor in the Woosung roadstead, 
beyond the outer bar, but middle-sized cruisers, and ordinary 
sea-going and river steamers trading on the Yangtze, can easily 
come up to Shanghai, and this amply imparts to the place an 
activity and bustle which are unequalled by any other port in 
the Far East. 

Shanghai is in constant communication with Japan, 
Manchuria, Korea, Southern Asia, Europe and America. Several 
steamship companies [see Sect II. Ch. I. p. 101) carry on regular 
services with the Yangtze ports and the coast. The number of 
vessels which entered and cleared at the port, as well as their 
tonnage, from 1900-1905, is as follows. 


SHANGHAI. Table of Shipping. 1900-1905. 




Cleared ( 




































































•Including towed passenger boats and cargo junks. 

It can be seen from this table that the total tonnage of the 
port is about 15 ^ million tons. 

Inland navigation, — Numerous small steamers ply on the 
llwangp'oo Jl *$J and the large canals, throughout the whole 
region around Shanghai, thus connecting it, some with Ch'ung- 
ming island i& flfj and Haimen $j£ f^ promontory, others with 
Soochow jjHM, Ningpo $gjgf and Hangchow {£$1- The number of 
these small craft registered at the close of 1905, amounted to 275, 
of which 205 were native, and 70 foreign owned. All trade under 
inland steam navigation rules. The total of these small steamers 
and passenger boats, entered and cleared for the year 1905, was 
6,870, transporting 94,102 tons. The total, which entered and 
cleared between Shanghai, Soochow and Hangchow, reached 
10,789, while the tonnage transported, amounted to 1,141,046 

C. The Coast to the 5. of the Yan gtze. 

From the mouth of the Hwangp'oo %$ft or Shanghai river, to 
ChekiangJjJfjlX, extends the low-lying region of P'ootung \$]fc. It 
is protected by several embankments from the inroads of the sea. 
Beyond the sea-wall, vast alluvial tracts are in process of forma- 
tion, and the delta is constantly growing seawards. Scarcely a 
few islets lie along this part of the coast. As soon as found 
inhabitable, they are occupied by immigrants from the overpeopled 
neighbourhood of Ch'ungming and Haimen, communications 
being kept up with the mainland through small sea-going junks. 


5° . The coast of Chekiang ffli it 

Chikiang marks the transition from a low and flat coast, to the indented and 
rocky coast-line of the South. The former is represented by the large hay of Hangchow 
#t ffl, down to which extends the Southern part of P'ootung ftBltC; the latter begins at 
the Ningpo & $fc river. 

1° The bay of Hangehow $j fli and its barrier of island s. 

Hangchow bay is as broad at its entrance as the Yangtze 
£& -p tt estuary, and is obstructed by a cluster of rocky 
islets, known as the Chusan -fa |]j (Cheuslian) archipelago. 
It forms the mouth of the Ts'ient'ang-kiang gg HjX, but affords 
few facilities for navigation, especially on account of its bore 
or tidal wave, the strength of the current, and the shallowness 
of the water. Hangchow bay is funnel-shaped. It is 60 miles 
wide at the outer extremity, and contracts gradually to 12 at 
the other. When the tide rises, the waters rush in with great 
force, and finding little depth, 6 or 7 feet at most, they are 
suddenly confronted by the current of the river, and more and 
more concentrated as they advance. These circumstances 
make them assume a wall-like formation, and growing to a height 
of several feet, they overflow the banks and are most dangerous 
for boast taken unawares. The immense pressure from behind, 
and the great height of the tides, which rise to 26 or even 30 feet, 
impart an extraordinary strength to the current, which rushes 
forward with a roar like thunder, and at a rate sometimes 
exceeding 6 knots. On this account, large boats prefer anchoring 
at Chap'oo JfH jff or Tsop'oo, 50 miles up the coast, and the 
outer port of Hangchow. Here they find water to a depth of 
22 feet. Boats with a draught of 2 \ feet can go up to Hang- 
chow only by stages. They come down, availing themselves 
of a few hours of ebb tide. On both sides of the bay, a sea- 
wall protects the vast adjoining plain. On the S. side, a little 
to the E. of Shaohsing Fu $g f| JjSf, sands are accumulating 
and forming an alluvial land, upon which already several 
houses have been erected. 


The Chusan <fo [J] (Cheushan, i.e. boat island) archipelago. 
— i From Ningpo or Kitao $f£ % Point, as far as Yangtze Cape, 
extend several groups of islands and rocky islets, of which the 
principal are the Chusan -Jffy |jj islands, the Volcano islands or 
Stishan |I$L |Xl , the Rugged islands or Tangshan ^ (]j , Parker 
islands or JPahkohlieh-tao /\ jfe ^lj jj, and the Saddles or 
Mangan-tao $| $£ $j. 

The total number of islands in the archipelago is over a 
hundred. Chusan -fy Jj or boat island is the largest, and im- 
parts its name to the whole archipelago. It is nearly 25 miles 
long, and from 6 to 10 broad. Its highest peak attains 1,300 
feet. The population of Chusan is about 70,000. Tinghai T'ing*fc 
$£:$! is the capital of the island, and has a population reckoned 
at 30,000. It exports salt fish, raw cotton, sweet potatoes and 
salt. The harbour is one of the best on the coast, and accessible 
by three or four passages. Ships find there good shelter and 
excellent anchorage at a depth varying from 23 to 50 feet. 

Navigation is difficult throughout all this archipelago, on account of the very' 
strong current which runs at 7 or 8 knots, and is extremely variable because of the 
numerous windings it has to make. Fogs, which are frequent from March to July, 
render navigation still more dangerous. 

laglitliouses. — Several important lighthouses are placed 
near the difficult channels. We have already (p. 263) mentioned 
Qutzlaft or TachHh ^c ff: lighthouse. Six others are erected : the 
1st , at the Saddles (Mangan-tao) g| $£ % 5 the 2 nd , on Bonham 
(Pehtsiehshan) £3 |jS \\} island; the 3 rd , on Volcano (Siishan) H 
|Jj island; the 4 th on Steep (Siaokweishan) >]> f| \[\ island; 
the 5 th / at Lohkiushan ^% llj, and the 6 th , on Tiger (Hushan) 
jfc llj island, at the entrance to the Ningpo flf jj£ river. 

2° The coast of CMMang, South of Hangeho w Bay. 

Below the Ningpo river, the coast becomes indented, hut still 
remains low, and is bordered with shoals, which emerge at low- 
water, and extend to a distance of 2 -|. to 3 miles. Some good sea- 
ports and excellent bays give it a certain importance, but Shanghai 



h vft is too near , and its position too central, to allow the develop- 
ment of another large port on the coast of Ch6kiang j$r££. A naval 
port alone would perhaps be advantageously situated in these parts. 

Bays. — Numerous and deep bays or estuaries open along 
the coast, below the Ningpo 1g $£ river, and down to the frontier 
of Fokien jjj|j Jj\ The principal are : 

The estuary of the Tung-Tciang p§ j£ or Ningpo river 
(see Ningpo. p. 275). 

Nimrod bay or Siangslian-kiang g£ |Jj iL- — This bay 
penetrates deeply inland to a distance of more than 25 miles, 
and seldom exceeds 4 miles in breadth. Numerous islets render 
the entrance to it rather difficult. It has good anchorage and 
well sheltered inlets, but no sea-port of importance. It is 
separated from Sanmen ^£ p*j bay by a long headland. 

Sanmen ]=» ^ bay. — This bay is accessible by 3 passages, 
hence called Sanmen, or "the three gateways". Larger and 
enjoying a wider opening than the preceding one, it is also dotted 
with islands and islets. The N. channel forms the roadstead 
of ShiJip'oo Ting fi jflj Jj|, so called from the town situated 
beside it. Depths vary from 16 to 28 fathoms, but there are 
also some dangerous shoals. The S. channel is 16 miles wide, 
and has a maximum depth of 12 fathoms. It gives access to 
excellent anchoring ground with depths varying from 23 to 30 
feet. Further on, the depth diminishes, but anchorage varying 
from 36 to 42 feet may be found down almost to the extremity 
of the bay. Too exposed to winds from the high sea and to 
typhoons, frequently also shallow, this bay lies moreover in an 
impoverished region, and the islands in it are the rendezvous 
for pirates. It thus does not deserve the reputation formerly 
bestowed upon it. 

Taichow -§ Jff jjSf bay. — Wide and shallow, a bar renders 
the entrance to it still more difficult. Ships with a draught of 
more than 11 | feet cannot cross it, except at high tides. At 
high-water of springs, vessels with a draught of 19 \ feet can 
ascend as far as T'aichow Fu ■£ ^Jfl ffi. 

Wenchow jg j§ bay, or the estuary of the Ngeu-kiangi 
g£ ft- — This bay has fairly good anchorage. The best is in: 
Bullock harbour, situated in the midst of a group of islands. 


Islands. — The islands in this part are numerous and 
generally of granitic formation. None of them have any great 
importance, either in regard to extent or position. Those to be 
chiefly remembered are the groups in Nimrod or Siangshan- 
kiang ^ llj j£, a ^d Sanmen Jj£ f^ bays. Further Southward 
are the Fehkishan fl: |f lil anc ^ NankisJian "^ ft ill 9 r oups. 
A good harbour is found in the latter. 

lighthouses. — The Fehyushan Q fa \\] lighthouse is 

the only one of this coast. Erected on Shasho island, a little 
outside the bay, it is 345 feet above high-water level, and visible 
to a distance of 26 miles. 

Coast-towns. — Ningpo^^ alone deserves special mention. 
The others : Shihp'oo T'ing ^ -jg Jjg, T'aichow Fu ■£ $1 $f, 
Wenchow Fu $J >}\\ jjtf and Nariki ^j ff, have scarcely any 
commercial importance. 

Ningpo Fu ^ ffi ^ (tranquil wave). — Population, 
260,000 inhabitants. One of the five ports opened by the Nan- 
king treaty of 1842. It is situated on the Yung-kiang p§ £k, 
12 miles from its mouth and 15 from the sea. Ships with a 
draught of 16 feet can reach the port at high-water of spring 
tides. The bar at the entranc to the river has but a depth of 
12 feet over it at low-water of springs. The trade of Ningpo 
is principally carried on with Shanghai. Three steamers, one 
Chinese, one British, and one French, carry on a daily service 
between the two ports. The imports are cotton goods, iron, 
lead and tin, kerosene oil, sugar, coal, opium, flour, medi- 
cines, soap and matches. The exports are rush-hats (3,413,940 
in 1905), matting, paper fans and umbrellas, silk, green tea, 
carpets, raw cotton, medicines, groundnut oil, "samshu" or rice- 
spirit, joss-paper (9,596 piculs in 1905), and cuttle-fish. The 
total net value of the port was in 1903, Hk. Tls. 22,240,093; 
in 1904, Tls. 21,297,412 ; and in 1905, Tls. 19,163,630. 

Large steamers anchor at the outer port, Chenhai hsien j| 
$f ]||, a small district town with a population of 35,000 inhabi- 
tants, and situated at the mouth of the river. (See Section III. 
Ch. IV. Ohekiang. p. 233). 


6° . The coast of Fokien M H. 

The coast-line of Fokien has no large bay like that of Hang- 
chow j^i >}\\, nor any archipelago comparable with that of Chusan 
•fy llj. The coast is indented and broken, and forms a series of 
bays, several of which penetrate far inland. They afford good 
shelter and anchorage for ships. There are also several excellent 
ports, two of which, Annoy or UsiamSn JJ| P^, and Foochow 
JBI %■> are of great importance. 

These parts are generally rocky and abrupt. They become 
however sometiynes low and sandy, and are bordered by shoals and 
reefs. They are then dangerous, especially on account of the 
currents which run there with great violence, and the services 
of a pilot are necessary to approach them with safety. 

They are washed on the N. by the waters of the Eastern China 
sea or Tung-hai jf( $J, and further down by those of the For- 
mosa strait. 

Bays. — The principal are, proceeding from N. to S. : 

Narikwan $j gg bay. — This hay is about 10 miles long, 
but is shallow, except at its entrance. 

Samsa or Sansha ^ fp bay. — This bay lies between the 
island of the same name and the coast. It is very deep and 
affords good shelter. It is said to be on a small scale like the 
inland sea of Japan. 

The bay or estuary of the Min-Jciang [*tj jj£. — [see below : 
Foochow. p. 278). 

Hait'an $| Jj» bap and 2>ass. — Lying between the island of 
the same name and the coast, this inlet may be entered by ships 
with a draught of 21 feet. Excellent anchorage is found there, 
with depths of from 30 to 50 feet. The tidal stream is very strong, 
and is to be guarded against when vessels enter and depart. 
The current attains a velocity of 5 knots at high-water of spring 

Hsinghwa fji ft bay. — This is a fine bay, but the entrance 
to it is difficult. 




Ts'tienc7iow Fu J§^ >}\\ jjj bay. — The entrance to this bay is 
shallow, but good anchorage and shelter are found in the 

Tiger's head or Hut'eu )& 0J bay, 

Amoy or Hsiamen Jj j 3 ^ bay, — [see below : Amoy. p. 279). 

Tungshan |g |Jj bay. — This bay has deep anchorage, 
and is one of the best of this coast. 

Islands. — Rocky and bare, they are nearly all inhabited 
by fishermen whose boats go far out to sea. The most important 
is the island of Amoy, though it is not the largest. The Sam- 
sa or Sansha ~, W group, including the upper J^ £ jf 


(shangsantu) and lower f £ |p (hsiasantu) islets, Hainan #} 
Jj£ island, Quemoy or Kinmen <§> f^ (golden harbour) island, 
T*ungshan j$ ^ and White dog island, are the largest. 

Mtflit houses. — Several lighthouses are erected on the 
coast of Fokien, especially at the entrance to the Min |SJ river, 
and to Amoy harbour. Four are in the lower reaches of the Min 
river : 1° Tungyung ^ ?|f lighthouse, on Tungyung island ; 
2° the Middle dog or Tungk'uen-shan ^ ^ \\\ lighthouse; 
3° Turnabout or Niushan-tao ^ {Xl lb lighthouse. The two 
latter are 257 feet above high-water level, and visible to a dis- 
tance of 23 miles; 4° Ockseu or Taokweisu ft || ^ lighthouse. 
It is 286 feet above high-water level, and visible to a distance 
of 24 miles. Four others are at the entrance to Amoy harbour: 
one, on Dodd or Pehting 4fc $| island, a second, on T*aitan -Jfc 
JJH island, and two others, respectively on Ts'ingsu ^J- |^, and 
Chapel or Tungting i|f ;$£ islands. 

Coast-towns. — Only three are of importance at the present 
day, from a commercial standpoint: Foochow, Amoy and San- 

Santungao ££ %$ jg|. — Population, 8,000 inhabitants. It is 
situated on Santu inlet and is the port of Fuhning Fu jjg ^ )ft. 
It is the best and safest port on this coast, and exports principally 
tea, camphor, paper and pottery. The total net value of its trade 
was in 1905, Hk. Tls. 2,220,032. In 1900, a jetty, 160 yards 
long, was constructed there. The harbour however has so far 
realized but little the hopes entertained of its future success. 

Foochow fg ij\ fft. — We have spoken above (Section 
III. Oh. IV. p. 222) of the city, here we will describe only the 
entrance to the river. 

About 6 miles outside the Min-kiang f$ f£, there is an 
outer bar which is exposed at low-water, and then becomes a 
large sand-bank. At high-water of spring tides, there is but 
one channel which is navigable for ships drawing up to 19 feet. 

The inner bar has a depth of 6 | feet over it at low-water, 
but as the tide rises to a height of 18 feet, it is easily crossed. 

Between the two bars, there is excellent anchorage in 
moderate depths, s 


Two other difficult passages have to be crossed before 
reaching Pagoda anchorage: the Kimpai or Kinp'aimin £ $j* 
P^ pass, and the Minnganmen |Mj 4g P'J pass. The first, lying 
to the N. of Wuhu jg, }% island, is narrow and dangerous at 
high-water of spring tides, as the stream then runs with great 
velocity and develops a considerable eddy. The second, longer, 
is less dangerous, although the current, at high-water of springs, 
attains there a velocity of from 4 to 5 knots. 

The channel at the S. of Wuhu island cannot be crossed on 
account of the sand-banks that have formed there. 

Pagoda anchorage or Losingifah g| jg ^ is excellent, 
but ships must anchor carefully, as the force of the current is 
very strong. 

This anchorage lies to the S. of Pagoda island. The sand- 
banks which are found there shift constantly from one place to 
another, and so a pilot is necessary when vessels require to 
anchor there. 

Boats drawing less than 1 \ feet of water can alone proceed 
further up the river, and reach Foochow, where considerable 
trade is carried on. 

Anioy or Hsiamen JfjP H . — Population, 114,000 inhabitants. 
It is situated upon the island of Haimen $| Pj, at the N. of 
a fine bay, and has consequently rapidly developed. The island 
is about 40 miles in circumference, and contains large vil- 
lages besides the city. It is hilly and rugged in its Southern 
part, and has a sandy beach at the extreme S. Rocks extend to 
more than J of a mile from the shore. Opposite the island, on 
the W., and about J of a mile from it, is KulangsU gjf jg |ftj| 
(drum-wave island). It is a mile and a half in length by one 
in breadth, and contains the residences of nearly all the forei- 
gners. The population is 3,500. Between these two islands lies 
the inner port of Amoy, one of the best harbours and most easy 
of access on the coast of China. It is two miles long, and from 
400 to 600 yards broad. The entrance is at the S., but is 
difficult, as the passage is obstructed by dangerous shoals. 
There is good anchorage and deep water, but the place is visited 


occasionally by typhoons. The outer harbour is at the S. of 
Haimen and Kulangsu islands. It has good depth and holding 
ground like the inner harbour, and so can be entered without 
assistance from a pilot. 

Springs rise 17 -J feet at Amoy. In March and September, 
the rise is scarcely perceptible. 

Amoy has excellent dockyards, where large ships can be 
easily repaired (see Section III. Ch. IV. p. 223). 


7°. The coast of Kwangtung JM.'M 

The coast of Kwangtung is rocky like that of Fohien J§ JJ, 
at least to a great extent, and indented like it. It has also good 
bays and possesses the largest island of China, Hainan $J j^f, the 
long peninsula of Leichow flf fl\, and the vast delta of the 
Si-kiang "j5f £L- Of all the Provinces of China, Kwangtung is 
the best provided with excellent ports. It can boast of Hongkong 
(Hsiangkiang) § $£ , Canton (Kwangchow Fu) J| >}\\ Jft, Swatow 
(Shant f eu) ^II jjf, Haihow (Haik f ow) $J U, Macao (Ngaomen) 
H ?*\> Pakhoi (Peh-hai) ft #J, and Kwangchow-wan J| ffl $f . 

Its coast is washed by the South-China sea or Nan-hai ^f 
f$, and borders on the S. W. upon the gulf of Tongking jfc g}r. 

Bays. — The principal bays are : 

Swatow or Shant'eu }tfj jg| bay, at the estuary of the Han- 
kiang |g £n (see Swatow. p. 284). 

Hunghai or Hwanghai igr $$ bay. — This bay is large 
but shallow, and exposed to the winds which blow from the 
high sea. 

Mirs or Tap'Snghai J$ )fl)§ jf$ bay* — This bay affords good 
shelter and anchorage in depths of 54 feet. 

Hongkong (Hsiangkiang) ^ $£ bay (see Hongkong, p. 

Zappa or Kungpeh ^t ft bay, opposite Macao (Ngaomen) 

ft fl. 

Kwangchow Jf >}\\ bay (see below, p. 290). 

Islands. — We shall mention only those more generally 
known : 

Namoa or Nanngao ]^f ;jj|. — This island is 12 miles long and 
is well populated. Some peaks rise from 1,600 to 1,900 feet. 
The inhabitants live principally by fishing. 

Double island or Masii #f |1$L. — This is a small island lying 
to the S.E. of Swatow. It offers the phenomenon of appearing 
double when approached from the S.E., hence its name. 

Hongkong (see below, p. 284-286). 


Pedro Blanco, also called T'aits'ing-chen ;& T»f §|-, or 
T'aising-tsan ^ g f . — This is but a mere rock, well known 
on account of its prominent position, and its affording a land- 
mark for seamen. It is a little more lhan one degree to the E. 
of Hongkong, and has almost the same latitude. 

Lantao or Tasushan ^ Aj| \[\. — This island is situated to 
the W. of Hongkong, and opposite the Northern branch of the 
Si-kiang *g j£ delta. It is 13 miles long by 6 broad. Some 
of its peaks attain an elevation of 2,900 feet. 

The Lamina archipelago or Nanya $| Y, to the S. W. of 
Hongkong. Lantao and Lamma islands belong to Hong- 

The iM&rone islands or Laowanshan ^ |§ |Jj . — This 
group of islands lies to the S. W. of Lantao, and helps to 
guide seamen who enter from the S. towards Hongkong or 
Canton. One of them especially has a very peculiar dome- 
shaped peak which rises to a height of 1,300 feet. 

The Stream or Chit/an )\\ islands, situated some 60 miles 
to the S.W. of the Si-kiang delta, and not far from the coast. On 
the largest of these islands, Shangchw'an _t )\] or Sancian, also 
called St John's, S l Francis Xavier, the great apostle of India, 
died in 1552, at the time that he intended to preach the 
gospel in China, as he had already done in Japan. 

Hainan $J ~$f (South of the sea). — A large island between 
the China sea and the gulf of Tongking. It is 185 miles long by 
120 broad, and contains an area of 13,900 square miles. It is 
very mountainous. The central and Southern mass is called the 
"Five finger mountain", and has peaks rising to an elevation of 
4,900 feet. Its mountains contain gold, silver, copper and iron; 
the lowlands are extremely fertile. The coast is indented and 
broken, and occupied chiefly by Chinese, while the abori- 
ginal and barbarian tribes are confined to the interior. The 
capital of the island is K'iungchow Fu £f| fi\ ^, on the N. W. 
coast. Hoihow or Haik'ow jfc p is its port, and is open to 
foreign trade since 1876 (see Section III. Ch. III. p. 211). 

Round island or Weichow |[j $fl. — A small island of 
volcanic formation lying to the N. E. of the gulf of Tongking 
3fl?5C* It is 4^ miles long by 3 broad, and has a population of 


6,000 inhabitants. In the S., is a good port, which is a very 
busy fishing centre during three months of the Winter. 

The JParacels or TsHhchow A^ ty\ (seven islets). — These 
lie to the S.E. of Hainan, and seem attached rather to Annam 
than to China. 

Tides. — The tide is much less felt along the coast of Kwangtung than upon 
the coast of Fokien. At Stvatow or Shant'eu, the tides reach from 5 5 to 8 h feet at high- 
water of springs, but from April to October, they seldom rise beyond 2 ^ feet. At Hong- 
kong, the maximum is 7 | feet. The tide is here more than elsewhere extremely com- 
plicated, as the lowest ebb does not coincide with high-water of springs, and besides 
there is but one tide daily. At Canton, the height of the tide varies from 2 $ to 5 % feet. 

Currents. — On account of the weakness of the tidal-steam the currents here 
have not the velocity of those that prevail along the other parts of the coast. 
They scarcely reach 2 or 3 knots at the most. Swatow is however an exception, and 
has currents which attain a velocity of 4 knots. 

Ughtliouseg. — The lighthouses on the coast of Kwang- 
tung form 3 groups : those of Swatow or Shant'eu \]\\ gff ; those 
at the entrance to the Canton river ; and those of the strait of 
Hainan $$ $sf. 

The Swatow group comprises 4 lighthouses : 1° The Zamocks 
or Tungp'eng-tao JtflJft lighthouse. It is 241 feet above high- 
water level, and visible to a distance of 22 miles ; 2° Sugar 
Loaf or Tehchow ^jijHI lighthouse* It is 200 feet high and visible 
to only 8 miles ; 3° Cape Good Hope or Fiaokioh $£ f% light- 
house* It is 171 feet above high-water level, and visible 15 miles. 
These 3 lighthouses are all erected upon islets ; 4° Breaker 
Point or Shihpeishan %j #$. llj lighthouse. It is 153 feet above 
high-water level, and visible to a distance of 19 miles. 

The group at the entrance to the Canton river comprises 
3 principal lighthouses : 1° one, on Waglan or Hunglan ^ ^ 
island. It is 225 feet above high-water level, and visible 22 
miles; 2° Gap Bock or Maweichow ^ J| $\ lighthouse. It is 
140 feet above high-water level, and visible 18 miles ; 3° Guia 
or Macao (Ngaomen) jj| f^ lighthouse. It is 332 feet above 
high-water level, and visible to a distance of 20 miles. 

The group of the Strait of Hainan $| $3 comprises also 3 
lighthouses, but of less importance : 1° that of Haihow or Hai- 
k*ow $J p harbour. It is 93 feet above high-water level, and is 
visible 10 miles; 2° Cape Cami or Kwankiaowei \$ $ &. It is 67 


feet above high-water level, and visible 14 miles; 3° Lamko or 
Linkao^^ lighthouse. It is 63 \ feet above high-water level, 
and visible to a distance of 13 \ miles. 

Sea-ports. — The principal are : 

Swatow or Shunl'eu \\\\ $}| . — Population, 00,000 inhabitants. 
This port is situated at the mouth of the Han fyfe river. Ships 
with a draught of 20 feet can easily enter the bay. The rows 
of posts laid by fishermen between Double island and the ancho- 
rage are alone to be guarded against, especially at night. Trading 
vessels can find good holding ground with a depth of 30 to 30 
feet opposite the town. The bay is in constant communication 
with Amoy, Foochow, Hongkong and Shanghai [see Section III. 
Oh. III. p. 210). 

Hongkong or Hsiangku nig ^f jig (fragrant lagoon). — Hong- 
kong is an island at the Eastern entrance of the Canton river, and 


including Kowloou and the New Territory. 


a Crown Colony of Great Britain. It is a mass of granite, schist 
and basalt, varied with hill and dale, woods, rocky creeks and 
sandy beaches. The Peak upon which stands the signal-staff 
is 1,825 feet high. The island is 11 miles long and from to 2 
to 5 broad. The colony has been increased in 1898, by the 
lease for 99 years, of a tract of territory on the mainland. The 
whole of the Colony, now including Kowloon j[^ f j (acquired by 
the Peking Convention of 1860), has an area of 400 square miles. 
The population, according to the census of November 20 th , 1906, 
is 305,400 inhabitants, of whom 294,426 are Chinese. The white 
residents, exclusive of the army and navy, number 10,981. The 
chief town is Victoria (population, 182,000), on the N. coast of 
the island, facing the mainland. 

When the island was first taken possession of by Great 
Britain, in January 1841, it had a population of only 2,000 
inhabitants, mostly fishermen. Since its cession by the Treaty of 
Nanking, in 1842, and its erection into a British Colony, April 
5 th , 1843, it has uniformly prospered. The harbour, which lies 
between Kowloon and the N. coast of the island, has a water-area 
of 10 square miles, is well sheltered, and is one of the finest in 
the world. It is unfortunately situated within the cyclonic limits, 
and in 1874, as many as 33 large vessels, several hundred junks, 
over 1,000 houses, and many thousand lives were lost. Another 
disastrous and terrific typhoon, the incidence of which was 
aggravated by the absence of warning from the local observatory, 
swept over it on September 18 th , 1906. During the tornado, 
9 vessels were sunk; 23 went ashore, including H. M. sloop of 
war "Phoenix", and two French torpedo boats; 21 were damaged, 
among them being II. M. gunboats "Moorhen" and "Robin", 
and several large liners. Great destruction took place also 
among small craft, buildings collapsed, and trees were torn up 
by the roots. Over 1,000 dead bodies were recovered. The 
loss of property is estimated at over £ 1,000,000 sterling. 

Hongkong is the centre of a vast trade in many kinds of 
produce, chiefly opium, sugar, flour, cotton, ivory, betel-nuts, 
sandalwood, rice, tea, silks, woollens and salt. The exports 


to the United Kingdom are principally silk and hemp; and the 
imparts: cottons, metals and woollen stuffs. In the year 1903, 
the aggregate tonnage of the port was 21,710,000; in 1904, it 
reached 22,405,000. 

Hongkong is a free port. It is calculated that the traffic, 
which merely passes through the harbour without breaking 
bulk, amounts to over £ 20,000,000, and the total trade to 
£ 50,000,000 sterling per annum. 

Industry is also prosperous, cotton-mills and sugar refineries 
being particularly developed. Much encouragement has been 
given by the government to education. In 1902, there were 91 
schools subject to government supervision, attended by 5,754 
pupils, mostly Chinese. There are besides many private schools, 
attended by 2,983 pupils, and special schools for European 

There are excellent naval yards and docks, capable of 
holding the largest vessels. These give employment to 30,000 

Hongkong is the chief British naval station in the Far East. 
It also maintains a strong garrison for the protection of British 

Asa Crown Colony, it is administered by a Governor, aided 
by an Executive Council of 8 members, together with a Legislative 
Council of 14 members, including the Governor and a repre- 
sentative from the Chamber of Commerce. The Kowloon territory 
has also its special administration, partly Chinese and partly 

Canton Jf $1 Jfr and the Canton river or Chu-hiang J5£ ££, 
also called the Pearl river. 

We have described above (Section III. Ch. I. p. 170; and 
Ch. III. p. 207-209), the City of Canton and the Si-kiang delta; 
we shall therefore deal here only with navigation. 

The Pearl river is entered through the Bocca Tigris (Hu- 
men) JF*? f^ or Bogue. This name was given to it on account of 
Tiger islands or Hushan }& |Jj , which lie above the entrance. 
This latter is situated between Taikoktau or Takiohtfeu ^ 
j% ]jjf and Anunghoy or Tanianghsiai £g #g j|£. 

Once passed, the Blenheim channel or Sintsaoshui ^f jg 
7jC, is the best course for navigation, but two bars oppose an 



obstacle to ocean-going vessels. Ships with a draught of 22 
feet can reach Whampoa or Hwampu J§[ J^f, 9 miles below 
Canton. Vessels drawing 10 feet can alone go up to Canton, 
where the safest anchorage is within 150 yards of the river 
wall, at Shameen ty "j]jfl (Shamien, i.e. sand-flat). 

Canton was at an early date, the great port of European com- 
merce. The Arabs traded there in the X th century, the Portuguese 
reached it in 1516, and later on the Dutch and English. The 
East-India Company established a factory there in 1684, but 
its monopoly ceased in 1834. Since 1842, the proximity of 
Hongkong, and the opening of Foreign ports, especially in 
the N., have much limited its former trade, which of late years 
has exceedingly declined. Its exports are chiefly silk, tea and 
matting. The imports are cotton-yarn and piece goods, woollen 
cloths, rice, sugar, beans, kerosene oil, flour, coal, cutlery, 
opium, tobacco and matches. Canton is 95 miles from Hong- 
kong, and steamers ply daily between the two places. From 
1901 to 1903, its commerce nearly doubled, but it fell again in 
1904, and still further in 1905. The total gross and net values 
of the trade of the port from 1900 to 1905, were as follows: 

Gross and Net Values of Trade, 1900-1905. 


Gross Values. 

Net Values. 


Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 
















Whampoa or Hwangpu ^ j^J enjoys no longer the activity 
of former days, especially since Canton has been open to trade. 
Its dockyards have been purchased by the Chinese Government. 

Macao J|| ;gj? or KgaomSn ^ Pj. — A Portuguese colony 
situated at the Southern extremity of the Si-kiang |g jQ delta. 



The Portuguese first settled there in 1557, and during several 
centuries, especially during the eighteenth, it was the great 
trading centre between China and the West. Since the cession 
of Hongkong to Great Britain, its trade has constantly declined. 


with its dependencies of Taipa and Colowan. 

It was held at a rental to the Emperor of China of Tls. 
500 a year till 1848, when Governor Ferreira do Amaral 
refused to pay any longer, and forcibly drove out the Chinese 
Custom-house, and with it the last vestige of Chinese authority. 
He was treacherously murdered in August, 1849, near the 
barrier of Porta do Cerco, and his head taken to Canton. The 
sovereignty of Portugal over the peninsula was officially recog- 
nised by China in the treaty signed with Portugal in 1887. 

Macao has an area of 11 square miles, and with its depen- 
dencies, a population of 78,000 inhabitants, of whom 5,000 are 
Portuguese and 30,000 Chinese in the city alone. Macao is 
88 miles distant from Canton and 40 from Hongkong. It has 


several churches and possesses the Grotto of Oamoens, the 
celebrated Portuguese poet. The town is built in amphitheatre 
shape on the sides of a hill. It is very picturesque, and has a 
beautiful and well-shaded promenade, the Praya-grande, run- 
ning along the East sea-wall. Numerous visitors and invalids 
throng there on account of its salubrious and bracing climate. 
This however does not preserve it from epidemic diseases, 
which frequently break out there. Of its former commercial 
activity, it still retains a few manufactures, and carries on a 
small trade in tea (8,129 piculs imported from Lappa in 
1905), silk, opium, essential oils, tobacco, bricks and cement, 
fire-crackers and preserves. The harbour however is fast silting 
up, and will seriously injure trade unless efficient dredging 
operations are resorted to. Ships drawing more than 9J feet of 
water cannot enter the inner section of the port. This consists of 
a canal, running between the W. coast, and Lappa or Kungpeh 
$k ft island. Large sea-going vessels are compelled to anchor 5 
miles off, where they are exposed to the N. E. monsoon and to 
typhoons. During the year 1905, the number of junks which 
entered from Hongkong reached 518, while those that cleared 
for the same destination amounted to 368, transporting 115,986 
tons. The total value of the junk trade between Hongkong and 
Macao from 1900-1905 was as follows: 

1900 Hk. Tls. 4,314,397 

1901 — 3,923,534 

1902 — 4,293,060 

1903 — 3,321,752 

1904 — 2,979,779 

1905 — 2,253,254 

Lappa or Kungpeh $t 4fc. — Lappa is an island lying 
opposite Macao. A Chinese custom station is established there. 
The total net value of the trade was in 1903, Hk. Tls. 16,756,562; 
in 1904, Tls. 17,735,132; and in 1905, Tls. 16,858,584. 

Kwangchow-wan J| >}\\ jff. — The bay of Kwangchow is 
Situated in Kwangtung Province, to the E. of the Leichow ff »)\\ 




peninsula, and was leased to France by China on April the 22 nd 
1898, for 99 years, together with the adjoining islands and 
territory. The Chinese population of the territory is about 
190,000 inhabitants, and its area 84,244 hectares or 325 square 


The two islands of Nanchow ~f$H\ and Tunghai ^ $J, lying 
at the entrance of the bay, make an excellent land-bound port, into 
which ships can enter by two narrow passes, the N. one being 
the deepest. The bay is from 18 to 22 miles in length, and from 
6 to 7 broad, and has depths ranging from 3 to 11 fathoms. It 
is formed by the mouth of a river, and by several islands, the 
largest of which are Amphitrite or Tunghai iff $J island and 
Ui JRigaudiere. A new town is being built at Nivet Point, Several 
steamboats connect it on the S. with Pakhoi and Haiphong 
(Tongking), and on the N. with Hongkong. Kwangchow-wan 
is a free port. The territory is divided into 3 circumscriptions. 


The superior administration is performed by a first-class adminis- 
trator, under the control of the Governor-General of Indo-China. 
The tidal stream is very strong at the mouth of the bay. 
The entrance from the high sea is effected through a narrow 
and shallow channel, which runs through a line of breakers 
parallel to the coast. 

Hoihow or Haikfow Jg P. — Population, 12,000 inhabi- 
tants. A port situated on the N.W. of the island of Hainan #|]g. 
The water is shallow, and consequently ships have to anchor 2 
miles off. Its tides are moreover very variable, and typhoons are to 
be feared, Hainan beingthe playground of these destructive storms. 
Trade is however brisk, as the town is the only sea-port of the 
large island. The principal exports are straw mats, gunny 
bags, hemp, cattle and pigs, poultry, medicines, brown sugar, 
groundnut-cake, fresh eggs and betel-nuts. The imports are 
cotton and woollen goods, opium, kerosene oil, rice, beans and 
peas, flour, aniline dyes and matches. Communications are 
chiefly carried on with Hongkong, Pakhoi and Swatow. (see Sec- 
tion III. Oh. III. p. 211). 

Pakhoi or Peh-hai ;|fc $J. — Population, 20,000 inhabitants. 
This port is situated on the N. of the gulf of Tongking Jf[3{C, and 
was opened to foreign trade in 1877 . It was till lately a great depot 
and import channel for large tracts of Kwangtung, Kwangsi, 
Kweichow and Yunnan. It reached its greatest prosperity in 
1888. Then the decline commenced, and has continued ever 
since, the reasons being the proximity of Haiphong, the opening 
of treaty ports on the West river, and lately the French lease of 
Kwangchow-wan. The area of trade is at present restricted to 
the neighbouring regions. The exports are liquid indigo, brown 
sugar, groundnut-cake and oil, star-aniseed, pigs, duck feathers, 
hides, and leather. The imports are cotton goods, kerosene oil, 
opium, manufactured iron, lamps, rice, flour and matches. The 
total net value of the port was in 1903, Hk. Tls. 3,431,418; in 
1904, Tls. 3,013,416 ; and in 1905, Tls. 2,830,938. 

The town is badly located, being deprived in Summer of 
the S.W. breeze, and exposed in Winter to the full force of the 



N. E. monsoon. The harbour is good and easily approached. 
The entrance is effected through a large and deep channel, which 
ships have no difficulty in crossing at high-water, but at ebb 
tide only small craft can enter. During the year 1905, the port 
was visited by 119 steamers and 886 sea-going junks, while the 
number of clearances reached respectively 119 and 616. The 
total net value alone of the junk trade was Hk. Tls. 880,383. 

Time-zones of the Coast of China. — The time-zone system was adopted at 
Shanghai, on January the 1 st 1903, at Ts'ingtao on January the 15 th , and subsequently 
at other places. It has become official for all stations of the Imperial Maritime Customs 
lying within the coast zone, as well as for the telegraph and railway administration. 
In the 7 th hour zone, it is optional. 

Note. — The globe is supposed to be divided into 24 zones or sections, extending 
7° 30' on each side of the central meridians, and the local mean time is used for all 
places within that zone. The standard meridian passes through the centre of each 
zone, and in each of them, all clocks indicate the same time. In each zone, the 
maximum difference between the local mean time and standard time is 30 minutes. 
As one of the standard meridians is that of Greenwich, standard time is often called 
Greenwich time. The zone of the China coast, whose standard meridian is 120° E. 
from Greenwich, differs by 8 hours from that of Greenwich. That of Central and W. 
China, which has its standard meridian 105° E. from Greenwich, is 7 hours ahead of 
Greenwich time. Hoihow and Pakhoi lie both within the latter time-zone. 

References : 

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Phares en Chine. (Questions diplomati- 
ques et Coloniales. Paris, 1899). 

Fauvel. — Les bases navales en Chine. 
(Revue politique et parlementaire. Juin, 

Dufourny. — La Chine : ses chemins de 
fer et ses ports maritimes. (Annales des 
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Weurlesse. — Chine ancienne et nouvel- 
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Houette. — Chine et Japon. Paris, 1881. 

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Instructions nautiques sur les mers de 
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de Canton a l'ile Quelpaert. 1884). 

Fauvel. — Le nouveau port de San-tou- 
ao. La Geographie. 1900. Tome I. p. 385 

Die Wichtigten Hafen China. Berlin, 1901. 

Dentschrift betreffend die Entwickelung 
des Kiautschou-Gebeits, von Oct. 1903 
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de la Graviere. — Voyage de la Bayon- 
naise dans les mers de Chine. Paris, 

The China-sea Directory. Vol. III. 

Hongkong Chronicle and Directory for 
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Yangtze River. 1892.— ibid. N° 6. List of 
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— ibid. N° 20. Typhoon anchorages. 1893. 
(with plan of Hongkong and surround- 

Report of the Superintendent of the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey. —July 1 st , 1903 
to June 30 th , 1903. — Appendix V. The 
Cotidal lines for the world, by Iiollin A. 
Harris, with 36 Charts, (p. 397. tides in 
the China seas). 

Gundry G. — The China Coaster's tide- 
book and nautical pocket Manual. Shang- 
hai, 1906. (published annually, and 
contains valuable information on the 
tides, currents, winds and lighthouses of 
the China coast). 

Dechevrens M. — The typhoons of the 
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and October. Zikawei, 1884. 

Chevalier S. — Etude sur 1'etablissement 
de la mousson d'ete et d'hiver sur la cote 
de Chine. Zi-ka-wei, 1887.— The Bokhara 
Typhoon. October, 1892. — On the ty- 
phoons of the year 1893. — Essay on the 
Winter storms on the coast of China. 
Zikawei. 1895. 

Froc L. — Typhoon highways in the Far 
East. Zikawei, 1896. — The typhoons of 
September 9 th and 29 th , 1897. Zikawei, 
1898. —The atmosphere in the Far East 
during the six cold and the six warm 
months. Hints to Navigators. Zikawei, 

de Moidrey J. — Notes on the Climate of 
Shanghai. Shanghai, 1901. 

Bulletin de l'Observatoire de Zi-ka-wei, by 
the Jesuit Fathers. XXXII VoK 

Calendrier-Annuaire (published annually 
by the same. 1903-1907). 

Algue J. — The Cyclones of the Far 
East. Manila, 1904. 

Bergholz P. — The Hurricanes of the 
Far East. Bremen and Shanghai, 1900. 

Doberck W.— The Law of Storms in the 
Eastern Seas. Hongkong, 1898. 

Palmer. — The typhoons of the Eastern 
Seas. 1882. 

Deutsche Seewarte Die wichtigsten Hiifen 
Chinas. Berlin, 1901. 

Darwin Pr. G. H. — The Tides and kin- 
dred phenomena in the Solar System. 
(Bores, p. 59-71). 

GutzlafT C — Journal of three Voyages 
along the Coast of China. 1831,32,33. 
London, 1834. 

Chinese Repository. — Coast of China. 
(Vol V. p. 337-351. Vol. VI. p. 8-16). 

Forbes F. E.— Five years in China. Lon- 
don, 1818 (Nautical surveys. Ch. XV. p. 

Norman F. M.— Martello Tower in China. 
London, 1902. (Hongkong. Part. II. Ch. I. 
p. 81-98. Ch. V. p. 162-183. - Canton. Ch. 
VI. p. 184-204. — Whampoa. Ch. VII. 
p. 205-221). 

Col ling wood C. — Naturalist's Kambles 
in the China Seas. London, 1868. (Hong- 
kong. Ch. I. II. XIX. — Canton. Ch. XX. 
p. 330-351). 

Cummings G. F. — Wanderings in China. 
London, 1900. (From Hongkong to Canton. 
Ch. II. p. 18-41. — From Hongkong to 
Amoy. Ch. V. p. 78-86. — Shanghai. Ch. 

XXI. p. 265-275. — City of Ningpo. Ch. 

XXII. p. 276-283. — From Shanghai to 
Tientsin. Ch. XXIX. p. 351-359). 

Fortune R. — Visit to the Tea Countries. 
London, 1853. (Honkong. Vol. I. Ch. I. 
p. 1-14. — Canton. Ch. VIII. p. 115-134. 
Chusan. Vol. II. Ch. IV. X. and XV. — 
Ningpo. Ch. VI. and IX. — Shanghai. 
Ch. VII, XI and XII). 

Fortune R. — Residence among the Chi- 
nese. London, 1857. (Several coast-towns 

Davis Sir F. — Chusan in British Occu- 
pation. (Chinese Miscellanies. London 
1865. no 7. p. 127-162). 

Gundry R. S. — Sketches of excursions 
to Chusan and Pootoo. Shanghai, 1876. 

M c Leod J. — Voyage of H. M. S. Alceste 
to China. London, 1818. 

Halloran A. L. — Eight months' journal 
during visits to Liukiu, Pootoo, Shanghai 
and Ningpo. London, 1856. 

Bernard W. D. — Narrative of the voyage 
of the Nemesis. London, 1844. 

Colquhoun A. — China in Transforma- 
tion. London, 1898. (Hongkong. Ch. XII. 
p. 304-320). 

Norman H. — The Peoples and Politics 
of the Far East. London, 1895. (Outposts 
of Empire. Hongkong. Ch. I. p. 22-36. — 
Shanghai, p. 3-36. — Macao. Ch. XII. p. 



Michie A. — The Englishman in China. 
London, 1900. (The new Treaty Ports : 
Foochow, Amoy,Ningpo. Vol. I. Ch. VIII. 
p. 112-123. — Hongkong. Ch. XIV. p. 
271-286. — Shanghai. Ch. IX. p. 124-160. 

— Macao. Ch. XV. p. 287-398. — Piracy. 
Ch. XVI. p. 299-307). 

Cur/on G. — Problems of the Far East. 

(Great Britain in the Far East. Ch.XIV. 

p. 413-428). 
Freeman-Mitford A. B. — The Attache 

at Peking. London, 1900. (Hongkong, p. 

1-13. — Canton, p. 14-32. — Shanghai, p. 

33-42. — Chefoo and Tientsin, p. 43-54). 
Smith G. — Visit to each of the Consular 

Cities of China. London, 1847. 
The Colony of Hongkong. — China Review. 

Vol. I. p. 163-176. 
English Trade with China A. D. 1625-1834. 

— China Review. Vol. XX. p. 173-201 
and 211-245. 

Origin of the Colony of Macao. — China 
Review. Vol. XXIV. p. 137-142. 

Macao in the early days. — China Review. 
Vol. XXV. p. 183-188. 

Garai-x J. — Sanchoan, the Holy Land 
of the Far East. Hongkong, 1906. 

Bruce-Mitford. — The Territory of Wei- 
haiwei. Shanghai, 1902. 

Maclellan J. W. — The Story of Shang- 
hai, from the opening of the Port to For- 
reign Trade. Shanghai, 1889. 

Maidel E. — Physico-Geographical Sketch 
of the China and Yellow Seas. S* Peters- 
burgh, 1904. 

Admiralty Charts. — China. 

Map of Hongkong. — London, 1905. (topo- 
graphical Section. War Office). 

China. Imperial Maritime Customs. De- 
cennial Reports. 1882-1891. Shanghai, 
1893. — Decennial Reports. 1892-1901. 
Shanghai, 1904. Vol. I. and II. 

China. Imperial Maritime Customs. Trade 
Reports for 1905. 




Government and Administration. — Revenue and Expenditure. 
Imperial Maritime Customs. — Army and Navy. 

1° Government and Administration. 

The government of China is, theoretically speaking, an 
absolute monarchy. The Mmperor is the only and absolute 
master. His will is law, and is manifested by Imperial decrees. 
All State officials hold their authority from him. He appoints, 
removes, degrades, and punishes them as he pleases. Nothing 
restricts his power. He has indeed a Council, but is not bound 
to follow its advice. 

The Emperor is expected to act for the general welfare of 
his people. He is the representative of heaven, and if he fails 
to govern in accordance with its dictates, heaven will withdraw 
its mandate, and send calamities and misfortunes upon the people. 
Such is the belief prevalent throughout the Empire. 

The Emperor. — The Emperor is styled the Supreme 
Ruler (Hwangti Jl ^), the August Lofty One (Hwangshang 
%. Jl)i or simply the lA>fty One (Shang _£). The title, Son of 
Heaven or T'ientze J£ ^J , is given to him as a mark of respect. 
His popular appellation is : the Buddha of the present dap or 


Tangkin Fohye 'g* ^ {& Jf • He is also called the Master or 
Ijyrd (Chutze ;=£ ^f- ), and in adulatory addresses : the Lord of 
Ten Thousand years (Wansuiye "Jt^ jjfc jjg) ; the Holy One 
(Sheng J|) ; the Celestial Ruler (T'ienwang ^ 3£); *fc« Sovereign 
Ruler (Yuenheu 7c © ? tne Most Venerable (Chitsun :g d§0- 

Besides his personal name, which is never used, the Emperor 
has also a style or title of reign (Nienhao 4£ §$). The personal 
name of the reigning Emperor is Tsait'ien ($i1i$, anc * n * s st y^ e °f 
reign Kwangsu ft $£ (Brilliant Success). The style of reign 
may change, and is not always taken on the day of accession to 
the throne. 

The heir or successor to the throne is chosen by the Emperor. 
If he is not the natural issue of the reigning Sovereign, he must 
be adopted by him, on account of the requirements of ancestor 
worship. After his death, an Emperor receives a new or Temple 
name called Miaohao Jgf ^, and he is henceforth designated 
by this name alone. 

The Empress. — The Empress is styled the Imperial 
Consort or Hwangheu J|| fe ; the Empress Dowager is called 
Hwangt'aiheu j|| ^ )§ (Grand Queen); and the Emperor's 
Grandmother, T k aihwang T'aiheu -fc^k-fcJn (Great Grand Queen). 
In literary style, the Empress is called the One who occupies 
the Central Palace or Ohungkung rj* ^. As a mark of respect, 
the title of Mother of the State or Kwohmu |j|| -J3J: is also given 
her. When there are two Consorts of equal rank, one is called 
Sikung "jjf g, or Empress occupying the West Palace ; the other, 
Tungkung jf( g 1 , or Empress occupying the East Palace. 

Chinese Administration. — The Manchu dynasty, which 
has ruled the country since 1644, introduced but few modifications 
into the Government system. In some instances, Boards received 
two incumbents, Manchu officials being placed side by side with 
native ones. Some few new pieces were added to the governmental 
machinery, as necessity required it, among others : the Grand 
Council or Kiunki C ; hu j|l ^ jg established in 1732 ; and the 
Board of Foreign Affairs, formerly the Tsungli Yamen |g Ujg 
jgj PI, established in 1861. 


The administration comprises two principal divisions: the 
Central or Metropolitan, and the Provincial. 

Central Government. — According to a decree issued 
November the 6*- 1 ' 1906, the Metropolitan or Central Admi- 
nistration, hitherto carried on through the Grand Council and 
the six Boards, was remodelled. Of the former Boards, only 
the following remained : the Grand Council of State Affairs, the 
Grand Secretariat, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Board of 
Civil Appointments, the Board of Rites, and the recently estab- 
lished Board of Education. The official administration will be 
subsequently reformed in the Provinces, and the country thus 
prepared for a Constitutional Government, and the new order of 
things. The Central Administration is carried on at present 
through the agency of the following Councils and Boards : 

1°. The Hivei-i Chengwu Ch ( u -§• ^ jgr ffi jg, Grand 
Council of State Affairs or Privy Council. — This was formerly 
called the Kitinki Ch'u^tfggL (Place of Military Plans), estab- 
lished for the first time in 1732. In the late reorganization, it 
was maintained with its designation modified as above. It has no 
special function, but deals with all matters of general adminis- 
tration. It is presided over by the Emperor. The number of its 
members is not fixed. At present it is 5. They are called High 
Ministers of State or Hwei-i Tach'en UK ^ g[. Meetings are 
held every morning at dawn. Numerous Secretaries, called 
Siaokiiinki >]> j|i j||, perform the clerical work of the Council. 

2°. The Neikoh j^J ||f} (Inner Cabinet), Grand Secretariat 
or Imperial Chancery. — This department has lost much of 
its importance since the organization of the Grand Council of 
State Affairs. It is composed of 4 members (styled at present 
Tahsiohshi ^c ^ i, Grand Secretaries; but formerly called 
Kohlao [ffj ^, or Cabinet Elders, under the Ming §£j dynasty), 
two of whom are Manchus and two Chinese. They are all 
chosen from among the most distinguished officers of the State, 
usually Governors-General. Their functions are almost purely 
nominal, and the members sometimes do not even reside in 


Peking. Two Assistant Grand Secretaries, styled Hsiehpan 
Tahsiohshi ft $fc ;Jc <fl i, one Manchu and one Chinese, attend 
to the departmental work of the Cabinet. 

3°. The Waiwu Pu $\.%j%, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. — 

This was formerly the Tsungli Yamen, or to give its full title, 
Tsungli Kohkwohshiwu Yamen 1&M&M9'& WFl (literally, 
the Bureau generally managing each Kingdom's Affairs), which 
was established in 1861, after the capture of Peking by the allied 
forces of Great Britain and France. The present Ministry was 
instituted by decree of July the 21 st 1901. It is generally 
composed of 10 members, all of whom are Presidents or Vice- 
Presidents of other Boards, including a majority of the members 
of the Grand Council. They are spoken of collectively as Wang 
Tach'en 3E ^C £l> or tne Prince and Ministers. There are four 
special departments for the affairs of Great Britain, France, 
Russia and the United-States. The clerical work of each section 
is conducted by Secretaries, styled Changking lf| }{r, but 
commonly called Szeyuen ^ j|, or Szekwan j% *|f. 

China is represented near Foreign Courts by sto Ambas- 
sadors : 

One for England, Italy and Belgium ; 

One for France ; 

One for Russia ; 

One for Germany and Holland ; 

One for the United-States and Peru ; 

One for Japan. 

Before the institution of the Tsungli Yamen, Foreign affairs 
were under the control of the Lifan Yuen Jig g£ g£, Board for 
the administration of vassal countries. 

4°. The IAfan Yuen gg ^||%, Board for the administration 
of vassal countries. — This Board controls all the affairs of 
Mongolia, Turkestan and Tibet, and has on this account been 
sometimes called the Mongolian Superintendency. It has to-day 
one President styled Shangshu ffi ^ (literally, Controller of the 
Records), and two Vice-Presidents, styled Shilangf^ 1$ (literal- 
ly, Gentlemen in waiting). 


5°. The ShihJPu -J- $ft, Ten Boards or Ministries.— Pre- 
vious to the decree of November the 6 th 1906, there were but 
six Boards : Civil Appointments or Li Pu jg |ft, Revenue or Hu 
Pu F $&, Rites or Li Pu j| ^ War or Ping Pu ^ |ft, Justice 
or Hsing Pu ^flj|$, and Public Works or Kung Pu XIP- As stated 
above, all were remodelled and their number increased to 10 9 
as follows: 

1. Li Pu M SB, Board of Civil Appointments. 

2. Mincheng Pu g J#c £B, Board or Ministry of Home Affairs. 

3. Tuchi Pu H 3t bR, Board of Finance and Paymaster-General's 


4. Hsioh Pu & 2S, Ministry of Education. 

5. Fan Pu r£ nK, Board of Judicature or Ministry of Justice. 

6. Luhkiiin Pu g£ !? §B, Land Army Office or Ministry of War. 

7. Nungkungshang Pu M X M % Ministry of Agriculture, Works 

and Commerce. Besides its President and two Vice-Presidents, this 
Board has also two Councillors. 

8. Yiichw'an Pu fH Aft J$, Ministry of Posts and Communications. 

9. Li Pu m 3B, Board of Rites. 

10. Stinking Pu M. W % Ministry of Public Safety or Board of Gene- 

ral Constabulary. 

A Board of Admiralty or HaihiUnJPu $}1|!$ft will be also 
soon organized. 

In regard to the incumbents of all Boards, there is to be 
no further distinction, at least theoretically, between Manchus 
and Chinese. Each Board is also to have but one JPresident, 
styled Shangshu $$ ^f, and two Vice-Presidents, styled Shilang 
f£ |R, distinguished respectively in each class as senior and 
junior Vice-Presidents. 

6°. The Hanlin Yuen Igfc % ffi (literally, Forest of pencils), 
Imperial Academy or Supreme College of TAterature. — It is 

composed of all the Literati who have successfully passed the 
Palace Examination or Tienshi J§£ fft, and obtained the title of 
Hanlin or Imperial AcademisU It has two Chancellors, one 


Manchu and one Chinese. They are styled Shangyuen Ilsiohshi 
#!^^i- I* nas a ^ so several Headers and Expositors. Admis- 
sion to its ranks is the highest literary honour obtainable by a 
Chinese scholar. Its functions are of a purely literary character. 
Tt is entrusted with the compilation of dynastic history, imperial 
decrees, and literary works in general. Its members also draw 
up prayers and sacrificial addresses, write eulogiums of deceased 
Emperors, and make offerings at the tomb of Confucius. They 
are besides required to attend on the Emperor as readers, 
instructors, and sometimes as advisers. 

7°. The Tuch'ah Yuen %$ $£ |g, Censorate or Court of 
Censors. — The Censorate is composed of Manchus and Chinese 
recruited in equal proportion from the different official depart- 
ments. It has 2 Presidents, one Chinese and the other Manchu. 
They are styled Tsotu Yushi £ %$ $P *fe- There are besides 
4 Vice-Presidents, 24 Supervising Censors and 38 Censors. 

The Censors are privileged to animadvert on the conduct even 
of the Emperor himself, for any act which they consider unjust, 
illegal or extravagant, and they do so at times with boldness 
and courage, though they are occasionally degraded for their 
unpalatable advice. They also censure the manner in which 
all other officials perform or neglect their duties, and if there 
are any shortcomings, they may denounce them to the Throne. 
They receive appeals made to the Emperor, either by the people 
against their officials, or by subordinate officials themselves 
against their Superiors. In accord with the Ministry of Justice, 
they exercise an oversight over all criminal cases, and give their 
opinion whenever the death-penalty is to be pronounced. They 
superintend likewise the working of the different Boards, and 
are sometimes sent to various parts of the Empire as Imperial 
Inspectors, hence they are called the "ears and eyes" of the 
Emperor, Eulmuh Kwan ff @ ^. 

8°. The Tali Sze ^M^-> Grand Court of Revision. — This 
department, together with the Ministry of Justice and the Cen- 


sorate, exercises a general supervision over the administration 
of criminal law. 

All three are styled collectively Sanfah Sze 5£ g: fj], or the 
3 High Justices, 

9°. The K'intHen Kien ffc Ji Jj£, Imperial Board of Astro- 
nomy. — This department compiles the Imperial calendar, 
proclaims the days in which the Emperor is to offer sacrifice, 
and predicts the eclipses of the sun and moon. 

10°. The T<aich'ang Sze -fc ^ ^, Court of Sacrificial 

Worship. — This department is charged with all arrangements 
when the Emperor offers sacrifice. 

11°. The Hunglu Sze fi| Jf ^p, Court of State Ceremonial. — 

This department superintends everything connected with State 
meetings, and conducts the ceremonies. 

12°. Several other Departments are connected with the private service of the 
Emperor and the Imperial Palace. The principal are : 

The Tsungjen Fu^AJff or Imperial Clan Court. 

The Neiwu Fu ft £& tff or Imperial Household. 

The Lwani Wei i? H ffi or Imperial Equipage Department. 

The T'aipuh Sze ;& ft # or Court of the Imperial Stud. 

The Kwangluh Sze 3te H 3f or Court of Imperial Entertainments. 

The T'ai-i Yuen is. W hi ° r College of Imperial Physicians. 

Provincial administration. 

China Proper is divided into 18 Provinces, called Sheng %. 

These are not all governed in the same manner. Some are 
under a Governor-General or Viceroy, called Tsungtuh $gi *B' 
and commonly styled Chit'ai ^lj jf ; others have no Viceroy but 
only a Governor or SUnfu j$K :$&, commonly called Fut ( ai |jte jjf. 

A Viceroy administers one or several Provinces, has under 
him Governors, and in some cases fulfils this function himself. 


There are 8 ViceroyaUieB : 

1°. Chihli Jg $$. — The official residence of the Viceroy is 
at Paoting Fu % % j£f, though he resides in fact during the 
greater part of the year at T'ientsin Fu ^ }j£/fF- This Province 
has no Governor. 

2°. Leangkiang fff j>£, comprising the Provinces of Kiangsu 
iC J£i Nganhwei % $fr and Kiting si $£ |jj. — The Viceroy 
resides at Nanking f J or Kiangning Fu £q ^ Jff. There 
are 3 Governors, residing respectively: one at Soochow Fu j$£ 
f\\ JjJf, one at Ngank'ing Fu iScJI^f, ana " one at Nanch'ang Fu 

* s to 

3°. Shenkan ££ -JJ, comprising the Provinces of Shensi g$£ 
|f and Kansu *g* Uf. — The Viceroy resides at Lanchow Fu 
SI $\ )ff' m Kansu, and a Governor for Shensi g£{§, at Singan Fu 

H 3c/fr- 

4°. Mincht |S)8fr, comprising the Provinces of Fokien jg £f 
and Chikumg $f fr. — The Viceroy resides at Foochow Fu jg 
Jfl Jj!f, in Fokien, and a Governor for ChSkiang j$f ft, at Hang- 
chow Fu ft W *• 

5°. Leanghu M $8 or Bukwang jjjfj ^, comprising the 
Provinces of Hupeh $J] # and Hunan fft\ ^, or expanse to the 
N. and S. of the Tungtfing Hu jpj jg $J or Tungt'ing lake. — 
The Viceroy resides at Wuch'ang Fu j£ g fff, and a Governor 
for Hunan $J ^>, at Ch'angsha Fu ^ #> /ft. 

6°. Szechufan 03 J||. — The Viceroy resides at the capital, , 
Ch'engtu Fu J$ %$ /jSf. This Province has no Governor. 

7°. Leangkwang jig Jj, comprising the Provinces of Kwang- j 
tung Jif jf[ and Kwangsi Jf jig. — The Viceroy resides at 
Canton or Kwangchow Fu J| >)i\ jjj , and a Governor for Kwangsi j 
^ |g, at Kweilin Fu g t){ f . 


8°. Yunkwei |J iU, comprising the Provinces of Yunnan 
H j§ and Kweichow jif >|fl. — The Viceroy resides at Yunnan 
Fu :|| ^ j£f , and a Governor for Kweichow jj| jfl, at Kweiyang 
Fu # ft ®. 

Three Provinces : Shantung |X| ]jC> Shansi Jj "gf , and Honan 
J5f ^, Mi'6 wo Governors-General over them. Their Governors 
reside respectively at Tsinan Fu ^ ]g Jj?f in Shantung, T'aiyiien 
Fu Jc M ^ in Shansi, and K'aifung Fu ffl JJ JjSf in Honan. 

Seven Provinces : Chihli jj§[ ^, Kansu "{j* Jjf, Szechw*an 
[3 J||, Hupeh $jj 4fc» Yunnan j| g| , JFbkien Jg ^ and Kwangtung 
J^ iff, 7w*ve w© Governor, the Viceroy officiating as such. 

There are thus in all, 8 Viceroys or Governors-General, 
and 11 Governors. 

The Viceroy or Tsungtuh |g$, and the Governor or Sunfu 3$C|fc, are both 
invested with supreme authority in their Province. When they govern the same 
Province, they act in accord. There are however special departments which are 
administered by the one rather than by the other. The Viceroy controls the military 
forces within his jurisdiction, and so to him belong the inspection, promotion and 
changes of military officials, the repression of revolts, and the supervision of the salt 
administration.... To the Governor belong the inspection, promotion and changes of 
civil officials, the supervisorate of criminal cases, the collecting of the land-tax, of 
duties on certain manufactures, and transit-duties on native produce. This latter is 
collected at the numerous Custom barriers established throughout all the Provinces. 

Viceroys and Governors are almost independent in their Provinces, and have full 
control over the finances, army and the administration of justice. If their adminis- 
tration is bad, they are summoned to Peking, where they have to answer the charges 
brought against them. 

The Viceroy of Chihli is also Superintendent of Commerce for the Northern 
ports, and the Leangkiang or Nanking Viceroy, Superintendent of Commerce for the 
Southern ports. 

For the 18 Provinces, there are besides : 18 Literary Chancellors or Provin- 
cial Educational Examiners, styled hsiohcheng IQWt; H Salt Comptrollers, 
called Yenyiin Shisze$$&$£W], or Commissioners of tne revenue derived from the Pro- 
vincial salt monopoly; 8 Grain Intendants or Leangtao 1^ ^ (previous to 1905, the 
latter were subordinate to the Director-General of the grain transport or Ts l aotuh }ff tin 
whose function was then abolished); 3 Directors-General of the Yellow River 
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Provincial administration. — Besides the Viceroy or 
Governor, or both, there are in each Province the Szetao f!j Jj|, 
or 4 High officials immediately below the rank of Governor, 
and constituting in each Province a Committee or Board of 
Provincial Administration. These are : 

The Pucheng Sze tfj$tTi\, Financial Commissioner or High 
Provincial Treasurer, commonly called the Fant'ai ^ j£. 

The Nganch ( ah Sze %£ ^ fr], Judicial Commissioner or 
High Provincial Judge, colloquially styled the Niehtfai J^ j[-. 

The Yen Clieng Bg| gc, Salt Comptroller. — Chief Commis- 
sioner of the revenue derived from the salt monopoly. This 
function is sometimes fulfilled by the Viceroy or by the Governor. 

The Leang Tao |g JM, Grain Intendant. — Chief Comptrol- 
ler of the Provincial revenue derived from the grain tax. The 
Viceroy or Governor performs the same functions respecting 
the grain supplied to the troops in each Province, 

Territorial Subdivisions of tne Provinces. 

The Provinces are divided into Circuits or Intendancies 
called Tao Jg. Officials in charge of a Circuit superintend 
either the mere civil administration of their subordinates, and 
are styled Fensun Tao ft M, ptt I or a( *d to tnese duties the 
control of the military forces within their jurisdiction, and are 
styled Fenchow Tao ft ^ j§|. 

Intendancies or Tao ^ comprise : 

1°. First-class Prefectures or Fus Jj^ 5 

2°. Second-class Prefectures or independent Chows >H«|, 
styled in Chinese Chihli Chows ]j§[ ^ j{\. These 
are called Departments by some writers. They 
are subject to no Prefectural control, but depend 
directly on the Viceroy or Governor ; 

3°. Third-class Prefectures or independent THngs fl|, styled 
in Chinese Chihli THngs |g[ §£ Jgl. Like the inde- 
pendent Chows, they report immediately to the high 
Provincial authorities. 


First-class Prefectures or Fus, and ind^ependent Chou>s 
and T'ings, have subordinate to their control : 

1°. Sub-prefectures of the first order, called Hsiens |£ or 

2°. Sub-prefectures of the second order, called Shuh Chows 

JHJ ^ or dependent Chows. 
3°. Sub-prefectures of the third order, called Shuh T'ings 

^ or dependent T'ings. 
4°. Sub-prefectures of the fourth order, called I'umgpfan 

T'ings jj ^J ]J| or dependent sub-Things. 

(There are but 4 T'ungp'an T'ings or dependent sub-T'ings 
in the 18 Provinces : 3 in Sssechw'an J||, and 1 in Shensi 


Each Circuit is administered by an Intendant or Taotfai 

Jf£ J. T'ai J is a title of respect for officials, and may be 
rendered by His Excellency. Taot'ai means therefore "His 
Excellency the Intendant". This functionary has the control of 
a certain number of Prefectures or Fus, independent Chows or 
Ohihli Chows, and independent T'ings or Chihli T'ings. He 
attends to matters of general welfare, and controls all the 
officials of his Circuit or Intendancy. 

Every Prefecture of the first order or Fu ]ft is governed 
by a Prefect, called Chi Fu £p )ff (literally, he who knows or 
manages the Fu). The authority of the Prefect extends over 
all subordinate officials within his jurisdiction, and the people 
may appeal to his bench from decisions given by the lower 
courts or Sub-prefects. Part of his duty is also to preside over 
the 2 nd examination preparatory to the competition for the 
B. A. degree. 

Controlling each Prefecture of the 2 U<1 order or independent 
Chow is a Chi Chow £pjt| (literally, he who manages the Chow), 
or Chihli Chow jj| ^ #1, Magistrate of an independent Depart- 
ment, reporting direct to the Provincial Governor or Viceroy. 
He is distinguished from the Prefect by his having a fixed or 
well-defined territory over which he rules as local magistrate, 


while the Prefect is only at the head of, and controls the subor- 
dinate Sub-prefectures within his jurisdiction. In this ultimate 
capacity, he is obliged to refer certain matters to his Taot 4 ai or 
Siintao jg jgf. 

At the head of each prefecture of the 3 rd order or indepen- 
dent T*ing is a Chi THng £p Jjg (literally, he who manages the 
Ting) or Chihlitfing T'ungchi |j[ *j* £ ^ $p, Magistrate of an 
independent T'ing. His functions do not differ from those of 
the magistrate of an independent Chow. Like him, he also 
controls a Sub-prefecture, though regularly speaking, there 
should be no such Sub-prefectures. 

Every Sub-prefecture of the 1 st order or listen jj£, is 
governed by a Sub-prefect or District Magistrate called Chi 
Hsien £fl $$ (literally, ho who governs the Hsien). It is he who 
rules directly over and is in immediate contact with the people. 
His principal functions are the following : 1° to collect the land- 
tax either in bullion (Titingyin j| 7*$, there being no gold 
currency in China), or in kind, principally in rice or grain 
(Ts'aoleang }§ %%, literally grain-tax). He has also to collect 
the dues levied on trading establishments, and registration 
fees for the sale of land and house property ; 2° to judge 
criminal and civil suits ; 3° to seize and punish robbers and 
evildoers ; 4° to provide couriers for the government postal 
service ; 5° to inspect the establishments of benevolent societies 
and appoint their administrators; 6° to preside over the entrance 
examination preparatory to the competition for the B. A. degree. 
He must besides report every ten days to his superiors on the 
weather, the market price of food-stuffs, the cash or copper 
equivalent of the dollar and tael, and the general state of the 
crops. He has also to render a monthly account of the cases 
brought before his bench. 

At the head of each Sub-prefecture of the 2 nd order or 
Dependent Chow, called Shuh Chow J| j\\, is an official styled 
Chi Shuhchow £p j|§ Jty, or Magistrate of a dependent Chow. 
He discharges the same duties as the Chi Hsien, but has 
superior rank. , 


At the head of each Sub-prefecture of the 3 rd order or 
dependent Ting, is an official styled Shuht'ing Jg|[|i or Fumin- 
t'ing T'ungchi Jfe J£ fll l^l^O' Sub-prefect controlling a dependent 

THng. He fulfils the same functions as the Chi Hsien but has 
superior rank. 

Below and of lower rank than the above named officials is 
the Assistant of the Prefect, called Fut l ungchi fft |jf] £p (literally, 
assisting with him who manages) or also Fenfut'ing ft ffi J|§. 
He does not control the affairs of the people, but is entrusted 
with some special function, as the defence of the sea-coast, in 
which case he is distinguished by the title of Haifangt'ing 
T'ungchi #J |5§ || fp] £fl, or Maritime Sub-prefect; he may also 
control the police of a city, and is then styled, Tsungput'ing 
T'ungchi $| ffi J| [p] £p, Police Sub-prefect; or he may be in 
charge of water communications, and as such is called Shuili 
T'ungchi 7]< f lj IpJ £p, Sub-prefect of waterways. 

In several Provinces, there is at present a special Board 
called Tangwu Ii'nh J^ jffe ^ (literally, Foreign Affairs' Super- 
visorate), entrusted with the management of affairs connected 
with Foreigners, Commercial and Missionary. 

The Sub-prefecture or District, as it is commonly called, 
is itself divided wholly or partially into Townships or Sze fj]. 
Each of these is controlled by a petty official who fulfils almost 
the same functions as a Sub prefect. He is specially entrusted 
with the pursuit of robbers, gamblers, swindlers and ruffians, 
and practically judges all local cases brought before his bench. 
He is styled JPSn Sze ft ^ , ten Hsien ft jj$ or Fen Chow ft fll 
(literally, Deputy official), according as he controls with subor- 
dinate authority a township, a district or a department. 

The towns/Up is further subdivided into Wards, called JPao 
{£ or T*u [U, in each of which an Elder or one of the local 
gentry (sometimes two or three), fulfils almost the same functions 
as a country squire in England, while an agent, called Tipao 
J& $fc, Faoch'ang ffi -R- or JPaocheng {£ jE, discharges the 
duties of bailiff and rural constable. 

The Village Elder or Squire is called by the various names 
of Tungshi j|F ^ (literally, discerning things wisely, or local 


Don), Shentung $ J| (sash-wearing Don), Shenshi $ ^ 
(sash-wearing scholar or gentleman), and IAentsung j^ |g 
(silk-clad controller). The wishes of the people being previously 
consulted, the local officials select him from among the influen- 
tial families of the township. The approval of the same families 
ratifies the choice made, and the elect acts henceforward as 
Justice of the Peace in all local petty suits and squabbles. 

The bailiff or rwral constable, Tipao $jj ffi, generally 
a man of low standing, is much more under the control of 
the local official, and is held responsible for all misdemean- 
ours committed within the ward. In most parts of the country, 
he must witness all deeds of sale, and attend the marriage 
ceremony of widows.... He is the first to whom runners apply 
when sent to arrest a culprit. He is also the first witness sum- 
moned by local magistrates in every judicial inquiry. All 
matters of local importance are known to him, and generally 
speaking, nothing can be done without his connivance. 

Some Elders, called Tsungtung £| j[ (collective Elders) or 
Twantsung g£ |g} (body of Elders), administer several townships. 
On account of their ability, their literary degrees, and their 
family influence, these acquire at times such authority that they 
must be practically considered as the sole rulers of the locality, 
and the officials themselves have to reckon with them. 

Members of the local gentry, in charge of city wards, are 
styled Kiaitung $j j§f (street wardens), those in charge of market 
towns Tsihchu ^fl ^ (market wardens), while those of trans- 
port-stations or Wei fljjf and of Chai §{§ or military posts, are 
styled respectively Weiehu |jjj tjr and Chaichu gjg ^. 

To the above must be added the heads of families who 
assemble in their ancestral hall or Tz'et'ang fp) 3j£, in order to 
decide family questions. These impose sometimes very severe 
punishments (Kiafah ^ fy, domestic punishments), and decree 
even the death-penalty against one of their members, guilty or 
simply accused of having impaired the honour of the clan. 

The inhabitants of one or of several neighbouring villages 
assemble also at times for the same purpose, and to avoid the 


heavy expenses of a lawsuit, commit downright acts of lynching. 
Such conduct is undoubtedly unlawful, but superior authority 
seldom visits it with condign punishment, and rarely to uphold 
the cause of violated justice. 

In these cases as in many others, it must be admitted that 
the state of Chinese society is still in an uncivilized condition, 
and that the office of Attorney-General or Prosecutor for the 
Crown is unknown. 

In the last place comes paternal authority, much less res- 
tricted in China than in Western countries. The father or head 
of the family is absolute master in his home, and is responsible, 
at least in regard to damages, for misdemeanours committed 
by any member of his household, or anywhere on his property. 

Besides the officials above mentioned, there is an army of expectant mandarins 
and underlings, whose functions vary according to the importance and special require- 
ments of each district. We will mention here only the principal : 

1° The Eulfu Zl Jft and Sanfu H Mi or Assistant Magistrates to the 
Prefect. — These sometimes take the place of the Prefect in matters of minor impor- 
tance. They can he delegated by him to guard the seal (Huyin jf^Ep) of an official whose 
vacant post has not been yet filled. They are also commissioned to administer 
Departments which depend directly on the Prefect. They are then styled F&nfu ft Jff 
or Deputy Magistrates. 

2° The Put'ing ^ H (Police Sub-prefect) or Szeya J?9 $f , Police Assistant to 
the Sub-prefect. — This magistrate is a sort of Justice of the Peace, and sits espe- 
cially in the police court, where he tries all cases brought before his bench, as the 
Fensze ft HJ or Deputy Sub-prefect does in a Department. 

3° The Shiyd #Ji jjjt, Secretaries to the Sub-prefect. — These cannot on 
principle try cases with authority, but they sit in the court as Assessors of the Sub- 
prefect, and of the Police Magistrate or Put'ing. 

Other petty officers invested with administrative power are frequently stationed 
in the more important Sub-prefectures, and take at times the place of the Sub-prefect 
as Deputy-assistant Judges (Pangpan %$ #f). 

The administrative Bureau of a Sub-prefect is generally divided into 6 

departments, after the model of the 6 principal Boards of the Metropolitan Govern- 
ment, and comprises on a small scale a bureau of Civil Appointments (Lifang )£|p),of 
Finance (Tuchifang Bg.%^, formerly Hvfang p Jj£), of Bites (Lifang fg Jjj|), of 
Military Organization (Pingfang £c )J-), of Punishment or Justice (Fahfang $£ J%, 
formerly Hsingfangjft j£), and of Public Works {Kungfang If). As stated above 
(p. 297) this organization will be soon remodelled. 

Court Underlines, called Ch'aj£n f| \ (official messengers), or Laotsung 
^ $§ (venerable Controllers). — They are divided into four groups with distinct func- 
tions, but of these they generally keep but the title for themselves. Practically they 


are engaged in drawing up warrants of arrest, which is a more paying business, and for 
the serving or execution of which, they have at hand a large number of subordinate 
agents ^^nattached to the Court, and hence of no official standing. The latter, like 
the proper incumbents of the office, receive no salary, nay more are obliged to pay a 
fee for each arrest entrusted to them. They naturally indemnify themselves at the 
expense of the accused and prisoners, a necessity undoubtedly, but which affords 
ample opportunity for continual acts of extortion, commonly known in China under 
the euphemistic name of "squeeze". 

In every Sub-prefecture, a military officer, variously styled and ranked, is entrus- 
ted with the police of the district, under the orders and control of the Sub-prefect. 

In department towns or in some large villages of the Sub-prefecture, there are 
also other military officers who perform similar duties. They are called Tsungyd 
$& jg (controllers) or FuyG £(] jft (petty deputy officers), and command only 4 or 
even 2 soldiers, but they sometimes display the greatest ingenuity to expand and 
outstep when possible the limits of their petty jurisdiction. 

It is needless to add that the military division, as in other countries, corresponds 
in nowise with the civil division (See further on : Army). This is the reason why we 
cannot assign with greater accuracy the functions of these military officers entrusted 
with police duties. Moreover, they are regularly attached to the ranks of the Provincial 
Army, although on account of their special functions, and during their tenure of office, 
they are distinguished from those who fulfil camp or garrison duties. They may be 
withdrawn at the call of their superior officers, at least when regularly enrolled in the 
ranks of the army. 

Number of territorial divisions in the 18 Provinces. — 

The following table exhibits the aggregate of territorial divisions 

in China Proper : 

Intendancies or Circuits, called Tao Jg 95 

Prefectures of the first Order or Fus jjSf 184 

Prefectures of the second Order, also called Depart- 
ments, independent Chows or Chihli Chows |g 

^m 71 

Prefectures of the third Order, also called indepen- 
dent T'ings or Chihli T'ings \H ^ $g 26 

Sub-prefectures of the first Order, also called Districts 

or Hsiens f$ 1,277 

Sub-prefectures of the second Order, also called 
dependent Chows, dependent Departments or 
Shuh Chows J|[ ift| 154 

Sub-prefectures of the third Order, also called 

dependent T'ings or Shuh T'ings jj§ Jj| 32 

Sub-prefectures of the fourth Order, also called 
dependent Sub-T'ings or T'ungp'an T'ings %,% 

* < 


The aboriginal tribes of Szechw'an, Yunnan, Kweichow and Kwangsi : Miaotze 
jg ^, Lolas $£ £R an d others, have in some places a peculiar administration of their 
own. Authority is transmitted from father to son (or near relatives), and the local 
administrators or chieftains are called T'ukwan i If or T'usze Jfc g] (local chieftains). 
Some tribes are even under a semi-military administration (see pp. 188,191 and 201), 
especially in the S.E. of Kweichow. 

General appellation of Officials. Appointment to 
Office. — In the Chinese language, officials are collectively called 
Kwan *fs (rulers, magistrates). In Foreign countries, they are 
styled Officials , Magistrates or Mandarins, this latter word 
being derived from the Portuguese mandar (to command). 

Metropolitan High Officials have various titles [see p. 297- 
299). Provincial Officials, appertaining to ranks down to that of 
Taot'ai inclusively, are addressed as Ta Jen ^ A ov your 
Excellency. Those beneath the above-mentioned ranks (Prefect, 
Department and District Magistrates) are addressed as lalaoye 
~K$Li& (great old man) or your Honour, and in the lowest ranks 
simply as Laoyi ^£ jg, which is equivalent to Sir in English. 

Competitive examination is the stepping-stone to official 
employment. A large percentage however of incumbents, espe- 
cially of late, obtain office by purchase, though the Throne 
has at times attempted to supress the evil. 

The Yaiueii |fj p*j. — The official and private residence of 
any mandarin holding a seal is called a Yamen. Offices of man- 
darins who have no seals are called Kungsu fe 0f, or public 
places. An isolation wall called Tingpih |*J gg (shadow or 
screen wall) is placed before the entrance to counteract all evil 
influences, and a huge scaly animal called T'aot'ieh ?|| §j| (glut- 
tonous ogre), the symbol of avarice, is painted on the inside to 
warn the official every time he leaves his residence, to be on his 
guard against this degrading vice. Sometimes an enormous sun 
is painted on the screen-wall. The native legend explains that 
the ogre having attempted one day to devour the mighty orb 
unfortunately came to grief. It is also typical of the pure or 
Yang ||§ principle, and suggests that official administration 
should be upright and pure in a similar manner. 



Rank and degrees or Officials. — Officials are classed 
in 9 ranks called Kiup'in %, gp, distinguished by a coloured 
knob worn on the cap or head-dress, a square embroidered 
badge on the breast and back of their official robes, and a clasp 
on their girdle. Each rank is further divided into two grades : 
cheng j£ or principal, and ts'ung $£ or subordinate, the knobs 
of the latter being engraved with the character "show" H or 
longevity. The annexed table will exhibit distinctly these ranks. 

Insignia of Official Rank. 





Girdle Clasi's. 







Red — plain. 



Unicorn of Chi- 

Jade set in Ru- 


nese Fable. 



Red — chased. 


Golden Pheas- 

Lion of India. 

Gold set in Ru- 


Blue — clear. 




Chased Gold. 


Blue— opaque. 

Lapis lazuli. 

Wild Goose. 

Tiger of Man- 

Chased Gold with 
silver button. 


White— clear. 

Rock Crystal. 

Silver Pheas- 

Black Bear of 

Chased Gold with 



plain silver button. 


White — opa- 


Lesser Egret. 

Tiger Cat. 

Mother of Pearl. 


Gold — plain. 


Mandarin Duck. 

Mottled Bear. 



Gold— chased. 




Clear horn. 


Silver — plain. 


Longtailed Jay. 


Buffalo's horn. 

It can be seen from this table that the distinguishing badges 
of civilians are birds of gay plumage, while those of military 
officers are wild animals. The Chinese oriole is worn by the 
lowest grade of underlings and unclassed officials. The wives 
of officials wear the same embroidery as their husbands, but 
no knobs. 

Hereditary rewards for Merit or Tsiohyin §^.— There 
are 9 ranks of hereditary reward for merit. They do not confer 


aristocratic position as in Foreign countries, and last only 
for a fixed number of lives. The five first are called high ranks, 
while the four latter are inferior, and conferred mostly on 
military officers of the Imperial Equipage. These ranks are as 
follows : 

i. Kung & Duke. 6. K'ingch'e Tuyii $® ^ $ p |J Equery of the 

2. Heu ^ Marquis, j Imperial Equipage. 

7. K'ituyii j£ $g gf Imperial Equery. 

8. Yiink'iyii ££!!$ Standard-bearing Equery. 

9. Ngenk'iyii J& jR £J Equery by privilege. 

3. Peh $ Earl. 

4. Tze J- Viscount 

5. Nan KJ Baron. 

Titles of honour for Merit or Fungtseng j$ J§*. — The 
Throne grants also titles of honour to functionaries or their near 
relatives, as a reward for merit or service. These titles are 
set forth in all historical papers, family records, mortuary cards, 
ancestral tablets and tombstones. They are also displayed on 
ornamental boards near the entrance to dwelling houses. They 
may be conferred posthumously on officers killed in battle, or 
lost at sea, in the service of the State. 

Decorations for merit or Shangkung Jf 7%. — The 

principal decorations for merit are four : 

1°. The Yellow Biding Jacket, called Hwangmdtewa ;ffr Jg ffi 
or Hsingkwa fy |J|». — This is bestowed for military service. 
It has been awarded to two Foreigners, General Gordon and 
M r Giquel. To this distinction may be attached that conferred 
upon high public officials, of riding on horseback within the 
precincts of the Red Forbidden City, and called Tzekinch'engnei 
k'ima f * M R 1 g (see Peking p. 71). 

2°. The Flume or Feather, called lAngchih $fi / f&. — This 
is bestowed for public service, civil and military, and may also 
be obtained by purchase. It comprises three degrees, each 
marked respectively by the bestowal of a three-eyed, double-eyed, 
and simple-eyed peacock feather, while a very inferior degree is 
marked by a dark-blue or crow feather, called Lanling J| jgj. 

Note. — The riding jacket and feather are sometime^ 
withdrawn ay a mark of Imperial disapprobation. 


3°. The JBatfuru Qg^. Distinction. — BaPuru is a Manchu 
word meaning "brave". This distinction is conferred for active 
service in the field. It has no outward mark, but entitles to 
wear the one-eyed peacock feather. Among Foreigners, it has 
been conferred upon General W. Mesny, for service in Kweichow 

4°. The Soldier's Medal or Kungp'ai $) JJ$. — This is 
conferred upon soldiers at reviews and inspections, and has the 
character * 4 shang" Jf or reward in relief upon it. 

2° Revenue and Expenditure. 

Chinese Currency. — The Chinese unit of currency is 
the tael or l,ean<j ji|§. It is not a coin, but represents a Chinese 
ounce-weight of pure silver, and is equivalent to 583.3 grains, 
or 1 \ ounces avoirdupois (437.5 grains being the standard 
avoirdupois oz). Its French equivalent is 37.783 grammes. 
The tael is divided as follows : 

1 Tael or Leang pg, equal to 10 Mace or Ts'ien fg. 

1 Mace ,, 10 Candareens or Fen ^. 

1 Candareen ,, 10 Cash or Li Jf. 

Hence a tael contains 10 mace or 100 candareens, and is 
worth theoretically 1000 cash. Practically however the rate of 
exchange varies, and then 800 or even 1,800 copper cash are 
given in exchange for one silver tael. 

The word tael comes from the Hindu "tola' through the 
Malayan word "t&hil" . The word mace comes from the Hindu 
word "masha" through the Malayan word "mas". The word 
candareen comes from the Malayan word "kondrin" . The 
word cash comes from the Portuguese "cauca", which was the 
name of a small tin coin found at Malacca in 1511, and brought 
there from Malabar. 

Cash (vulgo Ts'ien jjj). — The mace and candareen are 
but decimal divisions of the tael. The cash is a small coin 


with a square hole in the middle for the purpose of stringing 
large quantities of them together. It should weigh 58 grains 
Troy or 3.78 grammes, and contain the following alloy : 

copper 50 

zinc 41 J 

lead 6 \ 

tin 2 

It has a variable value of from -~ to ~ of an English 
penny according to degree of debasement and scarcity. If we 
take the average of 35 cash to the penny, and the silver dollar 
at 2 shillings, a cash is ~ of a dollar. It is used for all retail 
transactions, and hence is the universal money of the people. 
In the interior, large and small cash are in circulation, and as 
the larger ones are less debased and contain more copper, they 
are generally much preferred. In some cities, both kinds are 
current, and this creates endless confusion, trouble, and not 
unfrequently ends in disputes. 

Historically, the origin of the cash seems to go back to the 
Ehnperors of the Ts'in ^ dynasty, 246 B.C., previous to which 
time, cowrie shells, called Pei ^, were used as a medium of 

Sycee. — Ingots or lumps of uncoined silver are called 
"Sycee", from the Chinese Sisze £|fl .£$ (fine silk, because if the 
silver is pure, it may be drawn out, when heated, into fine 
threads). An ingot of about 10 taels or ounces is called a ping 
|Jf, while one from 40 to 50 taels is called a shoe or Yuenpao 
7C JIS from its resemblance to a native shoe. It is through 
this medium that all large payments are made in the interior, 
the percentages for fineness and scale being added or deducted, 
when the silver is tendered in another district or Province, where 
a different fineness and scale obtain. In the large cities sycee 
is appraised, and the fineness determined by a Kungku fc fjjj or 
assay office, generally in the hands of the leading guilds and 

Various kinds of Taels. — The tael or ounce of silver 
varies in weight and purity according to places, and has no 


fixed ratio with the cash or copper coinage of the country. 
Even in the treaty ports different tael weights are in use. We 
will mention but the principal : 

1°. The Canton tael. — This is equivalent in weight to 579,84 
grains Troy. It is used in Canton, Hongkong and in Shanghai 
for weighing bar silver. In this latter case 82,78 Canton taels 
or ounces are equal to 100 ounces Troy. 

2°. Tlie Ts*aopHng jg 2p or Shanghai tael. — This is 
equivalent in weight to 565,69 grains Troy of a fineness of 
916 f. It is used in Shanghai for weighing silver and gold 
sycee, but not for bar silver. It is practically the local money 
of account, and that which is meant when speaking of exchange 
on London, the rate being fixed by telegraphic transfer for each 
day. Shanghai not being a large credit centre draws on London 
for the cost of her exports, and remits to London the cost of her 
imports. One Ts'aop'ing tael of silver was worth 700 copper 
cash in 1736, 900 in 1780, 1,400 in 1796, 2,000 in 1853, and 
is worth at present from 1,500 to 1,700 cash. 

3°. The K*up'ing ^ ^ or Treasury Tael. — This is the 
official tael in which taxes are paid to the Government, an 
allowance of 2 being made for every 100. Its weight is from 
575.5 to 580 grains Troy with a fineness varying from 916 to 
1000. Eight K'up'ing taels have a market value equal to £ 1 gold. 

4°. The Haikwanp'ing #| g| Zp or Customs Tael. — This tael 
has been adopted by the Imperial Maritime Customs at all treaty 
ports for the payment of customs duties, and to measure the 
value of foreign imports and exports. Its weight is 581.77 
grains Troy. Its par value is 6 s. 8 d., but since 1872, owing 
to the great fall in silver, its exchange value has gone steadily 
down. Its annual sterling exchange is fixed by the customs 
authorities. Thus, in 1903, its value was 2 s. 7 f d.; in 1904, 
2 s. 10 f d.; in 1905, 3 s. ^ d.; and in 1906, 3 s. 3 | d. 

The following table exhibits its fluctuations in regard to 
sterling from 1870-1906. 



Gold Equivalent of the Haikwan Tael from 1870-1906. 
















6 \ 









2 £ 
















- 4 












f H 





















10 § 



° 8 
























3i j 



7 1 






10 g 










"O 2 

A large quantity of silver dollars are imported into China. 
From the XVI th century and downwards, the most widely 
circulated was the Spanish dollar, called also the Carolus or 
PiUar dollar. The former name was given it because it bore 
the effigies of the two Spanish monarchs Charles III and Charles 
IV ; and the latter, on account of its having on the reverse the 
fabled pillars of Hercules. For a long number of years, this 
dollar, on account of its purity and uniformity, became almost 
the current coin of the land. The accounts of foreign mercantile 
houses were kept in it down to 1856, and it is still in use at 
Ningpo and Hangchow in Chekiang Province, and at Wuhu, in 
Nganhwei Province. With the loss of her S. American colonies, 
Spain ceased to export Carolus dollars to China. They thus 
became scarce, and their market value attained finally the rate 
of the Shanghai tael. 


Hereupon, the banks and foreign merchants changed the 
headings of all accounts from dollars to taels, the figures 
remaining the same, and this alteration has continued down to 
the present day. Accounts are kept in dollars and taels, and in 
exchange quotations, the dollar is quoted in terms of the tael. 

The Spanish dollar having almost disappeared, is at present 
superseded by the Maclean silver dollar, which bears as its 
device on one side, the cap of liberty, and on the other, an 
eagle strangling a serpent. This dollar is divided into 100 
Cents called Fen ft, or 10 ten-cent pieces, which the Chinese 
call Kioh ft in Mandarin, and Koh in the Shanghai vernacular. 
In 1905, the Haikwan tael was equivalent to about one dollar 
and a half, or exactly $ 1.55 ; in 1906 it was worth $ 1.57 
Mexican dollars. 

The Provincial mints of China have lately introduced new copper coins of ten 
cash (face value) called T'ungkiohtze $n) ft\ ^-, and it is estimated that there are some 
10,000,000,000 of them now in circulation. They are rapidly spreading and displacing 
the old coins (vulgo cash), but on account of their enormous output, they are at 
present much depreciated. 

Drafts and bills of exchange have also been in use in China for a very 
long time. 

Several attempts were made to have the Government adopt the American 
trade dollar, the dragon or Canton dollar, and the Hupeh dollar, but so far 
all have ended in failure. At Hongkong and Canton, the Hongkong dollar and the 
Straits dollar are current, but in no other places. 

Up to present, China has no gold currency. 

Necessity of a uniform Currency. — The confusion of 
the national monetary system, due principally to the absence of 
control of the Central Government, the banking system of the 
country, and the cupidity of high officials, has of late engaged 
the attention of the Foreign Powers, and it has been mutually 
agreed to establish a uniform currency. The basis of the new 
standard as proposed by Sir Robert Hart (''Suggestions concerning 
a uniform currency, presented to the Waiwu Pu by Sir Robert 
Hart, Bart., Inspector-General of I. M. Customs, China"), and 
Professor J. W. Jenks, is to be as follows : 


1°. China to maintain a national silver currency. 

2°. To establish a uniform exchange value between this silver 
currency and that of countries having a gold standard. 

3°. Uniformity in exchange to be secured by minting silver 
and copper coins of fixed weight, purity and value 
throughout the Empire, and maintaining them at parity 
with a standard unit of value, not necessarily coined, 
but containing a fixed number of grains of gold 
approximating to the monetary unit of countries with 
which China holds large commercial relations. 
The complicated details of this problem must be left to 
the economist and the statesman. If the scheme is 
realized, it is hoped it will secure honesty in internal 
administration, benefit domestic trade, remove eco- 
nomic losses and develop international trade. 

Revenue and Expenditure of the Empire. — According to Sir llobert Hart, 
the principal sources of revenue of the Chinese Empire for the year 1901, were the 
following with approximate annual values : 

Hk. Tls. 

Land tax in silver 


Land tax in grain 


Salt tax 


Imperial Maritime Customs 




Native Customs 


Native Opium 


Provincial Income 


Total. Tls. 90,400,000 
(The exchange value of the tael for 1901 was 2 s. 11 id.). 

Land-tax in silver. — The tax in money upon good 
rice-producing land is on the basis of 200 cash per mow lift (one 
acre is equal to 6 mows) or | of a tael an acre. In 1712, 
the amount of this tax was definitely fixed, and the poll-tax 
upon adult males abolished. 

Land-tax in grain. — This tax is paid by the Provinces 
of Kiangsu fl J$jc an( l Chekiang jjjj £L They are to send every 



year to Peking a little over 100,060 tons of rice. Formerly, ,1 
of this was carried through the Grand Canal, while the rest 
went by sea. The cost of transportation is fixed at 30 per cent 
extra, and is paid by the taxpayer in addition to the proper tax. 

Tlie salt-tax. — This tax is exclusively a Government 
monopoly. The salt is produced in certain specific districts 
along the coast, by evaporation or boiling from sea-water, or it 
is obtained from brine-wells, especially in Szechw'an. All the 
salt produced must be sold either to Government officials or to 
licenced salt-merchants, who have purchased the right to supply 
certain areas of consumption. By treaty, the importation of 
foreign salt is prohibited. For the collection of the tax, China 
is divided into 11 circuits. Each of these has its specific means 
of production, and it is forbidden to transport salt from one 
circuit to another. The cost price varies, and is generally from 
1 J to 4 cash per catty, or weight of 1 ^ lbs avoirdupois. The 
retail price varies also from one district to another, and averages 
from 25 to 60 cash per catty. The total annual consumption 
of salt throughout the 18 Provinces is estimated at 25 million 
piculs or 1,488,000 tons. 

Salt is largely smuggled, and when seized, is liable to 

Imperial Maritime Customs. — [See further on. p. 325). 

I*Usin M 4fc- — This is a recent fiscal regulation, and is 
levied upon goods while in transit from one Province to another, 
or from one district to another within the same Province. It was 
originally imposed to defray the expenses of the Mahomedan 
and T*aip'ing rebellions, and was not in force before 1853, 
nor extended to the whole country till 1861. Stations are placed 
at all large towns, and along the main routes of commerce 
whether by land or water. These barriers are very numerous 
in some places, as along the lower parts of the Grand Canal, 
where they follow one another at intervals of 20 miles or so. 
In places where trade is scanty, barriers are few and can 


sometimes be avoided by detours. A tariff is published for the 
information of officials and traders, but practically it is ignored. 
Nearly all merchants and boats make a bid, and haggle until 
they come to terms. Guilds and regular traders pay lump sums. 
The tax collected is generally 3 per cent at the departure station, 
and 2 per cent at each inspection station. The amount collected 
within the Province, seldom exceeds 10 per cent, but when 
goods travel through several Provinces, it easily reaches 15 and 
20 per cent. The general amount to be collected and the number 
of toll-barriers in each Province are fixed by the Governor. 

As stipulated by treaty, goods imported and exported by 
Foreigners are exempt from likin taxation at native barriers, on 
payment to the Imperial Maritime Customs of half the import 
duty, plus the usual ad valorem tariff. 

The likin regulations are a serious hindrance to native as 
well as foreign trade, and according to the recent treaties concluded 
with Great Britain, the United-States and Japan, they are to be 
permanently abolished. To compensate for this abolition, "foreign 
goods are to pay, in addition to the effective 5 per cent import 
duty, a special surtax equivalent to 1 \ times the said duty, 
whereupon they shall be immune from all other taxation, 
examination or delay 5 ' (British Treaty, 1902. Article VIII. Section 
I. and Appendix B (1) and (2). — Commercial Treaty between 
the United-States and China, 1903. Article IV). 

Native Customs. — The organization of the Imperial 
Maritime Customs has not abolished native custom houses. At 
the open ports and at important stations on the coast and inland, 
Government has native custom houses, which control the trade 
carried on in native junks. These custom houses are farmed 
out, and each collector is bound to pay a fixed minimum sum. 
If he returns more, he can claim a reward for his extra diligence. 
— Of late, several native custom houses have been transferred 
to the Imperial Maritime Customs. 

Native Opium. — Up to recent years, the growth and 
manufacture of opium were prohibited in China. They were 


finally allowed on condition of paying a tax. The collection 
of this tax is entrusted to the Provincial authorities. They 
are to keep a separate account of it, and hand over the sum 
collected to the Board of Revenue. 

The total amount of native-grown opium is estimated at 
about 400,000 chests per year. 

Miscellaneous and undefined taxes. — Under this 
title are comprised various items, as land transfer fees, pawn- 
brokers' and other licences, sale of official titles or brevet rank, 
duties on reed flats, exemption from forced labour and purvey- 

Expenditure of the Empire (in 1901). — The expenditure of the Empire for 
the year 1901 was divide 1 as follows : 

Hk. Tls. 

Imperial Household and Central Government 12,480,000 

Navy 5,000,000 

Army 30,000,000 

Embassies and Legations 1,000,000 

Interest and Repayment of Foreign Loans 24,000,000 

Railway Construction 800,000 

River Conservancy Works 940,000 

Customs, Lighthouses and Revenue Cruisers 3,600,000 

Provincial Administration 20,300,000 

Reserve Funds 3,000,000 

Total 101,120,000 

Foreign Debt. — China had no foreign debt till the end of 1874, when a loan of 
£ 027,075, bearing 8 per cent interest, was contracted through the Hongkong and 
Shanghai Bank, and secured by the customs revenue. Afterwards, a number of other 
loans were contracted through the same bank. Up to the war with Japan in 1894, the 
total foreign debt was inconsiderable, but since then extensive borrowings were made 
to meet the expenses of the war and the large indemnity demanded by Japan, which was 
Tls. 200,000,000 (at exchange of 3 s. 3 \ d), with a further sum of Tls. 20,000,000 for 
the retrocession of the Leaotung Peninsula. The last instalment of this debt was 
paid in 189S, and the total indebtedness of the country up to 1900 was £ 55,755,000, 
the principal loans being the Russian of 1895, the Anglo-Gei-man of 1896, and another 
Anglo-German in 1898, each of £ 16,000,000, and bearing interest at from 4 to 7 per 
cent. Recently, several minor loans, amounting in all to about £ 4,O00,C00, have been 
contracted for the purposes of railway construction. In January 1907, a further small 
loan of £ 650,000 at 5 per cent has been contracted for the completion of the railway 
from Shanghai to Nanking. In 1901, the country's obligations were increased 
consequent upon the Boxer uprising by a sum of Hk. Tls. 450,000,000, the amount 
of the indemnity to be paid to the Powers, to meet the expenses of their expedi- 
tionary forces, and compensation for losses to commercial societies, missions and 


individuals. This sum constitutes a gold debt calculated at the rate of the Ilaikwan 
Tael to the gold currency of each country (3 s. for Great Britain), and bearing interest 
at 4 percent. The capital is to be reimbursed by China in 39 years. The amortiza- 
tions are to be paid annually, and began January 1 st 1902. The revenues assigned 
as security are the following : the Imperial Maritime Customs, the revenues of the 
native customs, administered in the open ports by the Imperial Maritime Customs, and 
the total salt revenue, except a fraction already set aside for other foreign loans. 
(Imperial Edict. May 29 th 1901, and Final Protocol signed at Peking, September 
7 th 1901). 

The total foreign debt of China amounts at the close of 190G to £ 54,500,000, upon 
which the interest due is £ 2,500,000. 

3" Imperial Mari time C ustoms. 

Origin and Development. — The Imperial Maritime 
Customs, or Sinhaikwan i$f #J gg, commenced in 1854. The work 
started in Shanghai, the first Inspector-General being M r H. N. 
Lay. Owing to the T'aip'ing rebels capturing the native city, 
the collection of custom dues, especially on foreign ships, was 
placed in the hands of Foreigners, and this developed into a 
permanent institution, with a large and efficient staff recruited 
from most of the European nations, though the English are in 
the majority. 

At the head of the service is an Inspector- General, Sir 
Robert Hart since 1863, assisted by a Deputy Inspector-General 
and about 40 Commissioners, one of whom is generally in charge 
of a custom house. 

By an Imperial decree of May, 1906, the Maritime Customs 
Department was transferred from the control of the Waiwu Pu 
to that of the Board of Revenue, and two Administrators-General 
were appointed. 

Organization. — The administration is divided into 3 
departments : 1° Revenue or the collecting of dues; 2° Coasting 
and Harbour duties; 3° Postal service* 

The first of these departments is that which is generally 
styled Imperial Maritime Customs. 

The Indoor, Outdoor, Lighthouse and postal staff, totalled 
(I s * July 1906) 1,345 Foreigners and 10,636 Chinese. 

The Maritime Customs are entrusted with the care of 



buoys, beacons and lighthouses on the coast of China, the police 
of rivers and harbours in the open ports, and principally with 
the collecting of custom dues at the treaty ports. The duty is 5 
per cent ad valorem, and is levied on all imports and exports. 

Custom houses are principally stationed in the ports which 
were opened to foreign trade. 

The following is a complete list of these ports. It has been 
made out according to the chronological order in which it is pro- 
vided for their opening. The first five treaty ports were opened 
in accordance with the treaty of Nanking, August 29 th 1842. 

The name of the Prefecture on which the port depends, is 
omitted, when the port itself is a Prefectural city. 

Ports and Marts 

open to Foreign Trade. 1842-1906. 

Number of 











Amoy or Hsiamen 


M P! 

Ts'iienchow Fu. 



Foochow or Pagoda 





Ningpo [Island 







Sungkiang Fu. 



Chefoo or Yent'ai 

£ a 

Tengchow Fu. 



Swatow or Shant'eu 

m m 

Ch'aochow Fu. 



Hoihow or Haik'ow 

m p 

K'iungchow Fu. 

Hainan I. 


Newchwang Sze 



Fungt'ien Fu. 









M & 















m p 

Wuch'ang Fu. 









T'aip'ing Fu. 







Pakhoi or Peh-hai 

* m 

Lien chow Fu. 





T'aip'ing Fu. 





Linngan Fu. 





















Ports and Marts open to Foreign Trade, 1842-1906. (continued). 

Number of 








£ rfi 

Kingchow Fu. 




ft P 

K'aihwa Fu. 





P'ueul Fu. 



Samshui or Sanshui 


Kwangchow Fu. 







Tengyueh or Momein 


Yungch'ang Fu. 







Santungao or Santuao 


Fuhning Fu. 





Yungp'ing Fu. 




^ % M 

Sungkiang Fu. 







Kongmoon or Kiang- 

U P5 

Chaok'ing Fu. 



Ch'angsha [men 




Wan hsien 

m m 

Kw'eichow Fu. 



Ngank'ing or Ank'ing 












Wei hsien 

m m 

Iveichow Fu. 



Chowts'un or Cheuts'un 

$ w 

Tsinan Fu. 













Ngantung or Antung 


Funghwang T. 



Mukden or Fungt'ien 




Dalny or Tairen 


In the VIII th Article, Section 12 of the British Commercial Treaty with China, 
signed at Shanghai, September 5 th 1902, it has been agreed to open to foreign trade 5 
ports : Kongmoon, Ch'angsha, Wan hsien, Ngank'ing and Waichow (Hweichow), but 
up to present, the 3 latter have not yet been effectively opened. 

The Revenue collected by the Imperial Maritime Customs has cons- 
tantly increased, as can be seen by the following table : 

Customs Revenue 1900-1905. 


Hk. Tls. 














These duties are apportioned between the Foreign and Home Trades as follows 


Foreign Trade. 

Home Trade. 


Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

























The ports where trade is most important are the following : 




Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 






1 10,559,826 



























































4° Army and Navy. 

Army. — China has two independent sets of military 
organizations : the Manchu or Imperial Army, and the Provin- 
cial Forces, Important changes however, as stated further on, 
will soon completely alter the above organization. 

Mandra or Imperial Army, called also the "Eight Banners 

(Pahk'i /\ j§L). — This army is composed mainly of Manchus, 


Mongols, and the descendants of those Chinese who first joined 
the Manchu dynasty in the early part of the XVII th century. 
The Banners are distinguished by 4 colours : yellow, white, 
red and blue, and are further divided into 3 superior (Shangsan- 
k 'i Jt 3 SO* and 5 inferior (Hsiawuk'i "p 2j[ ^) Banners. 

Each adult Manchu is by birth entitled to be enrolled in 
the Eight Banners, and as such to receive his allowance of 
tribute-rice, whether in active service or not. 

All these soldiers, Manchus, Mongols and Chinese, are called 
KHjin Jft A or Bannermen. Those stationed in the Tartar or 
Interior City (Nei-ch'eng ftjftjc), in Peking, occupy the garrisons 
set apart for each Banner. 

Bondservants or Tao-i £j ^ (from the Manchu Bo-i, a 
slave), recruited from the three upper Banners (Shangsank'i 
Pao-i Jt S W: ^1 4t)i are garrisoned in the Forbidden City 
(Tzekin ch'eng ^ *£ ^), and do service in the Imperial House- 
hold. Their principal duty is to keep guard over the Imperial 
Palaces. Those of the five inferior Banners are attached to the 
various Princely houses or Wang Fu J )j| (Palaces of Princes 
of the Imperial Lineage). 

The Banners have also branch garrisons in various Pro- 
vincial Cities. As in the Capital, the men are entitled to draw 
a pittance from the provincial taxes as rations. These garrisons, 
or Chufang (J |S§, are stationed in the following places : 

Singan Fu 

US % Jfr» 

in Shensi 


Ninghsia Fu 

ttZ jft 

in Kansu 


Kiangning Fu 

ttW Jfr 

or Nanking 

IS M' 

in Kiangsu 


Hangchow Fu 

#L W Jfr' 

in Chekiang 


Foochow Fu 

SB JH Jft» 

in Fokien 

m * 

Ch'engtu Fu 

*» iff. 

in Szechw'an 

m ;n 

Kingchow Fu 

m « *. 

in Hupeh 

m * 

Kwangchow Fu J| $■) Jjtf, in Kwangtung )£ ^ 
At the head of these 8 Garrisons is a Manchu General-in- 
Chief or Tsiungkun ffi l|t. 

It is computed that the total number of Manchu troops 


amounts from 200,000 to 220,000 men, of whom 15,000 are 
stationed near Peking ^ #> and 20,000 within the city itself. 

Provincial Forces or Army of tlie Green Standard 

(Luhying $£ g). — The Provincial Forces are divided into the 
Land Army or Luhlu g {$, and the Navy or Shuishi ^C SS 
(for this latter, see below, p. 333). 

The nominal strength of the Land Army is from 20,000 to 
30,000 men in each Province, thus aggregating from 400,000 
to 500,000 men all told. The actual strength, however, does 
not exceed 150,000 or 200,000 men. They are enrolled for the 
purpose of maintaining peace and order throughout the Provinces, 
and are in fact more like a local constabulary force than a 
national army. 

They are distributed in small camps or garrisons in the 
principal towns. They are miserably paid, ill fed, badly drilled, 
and as a fighting force are practically of little value. 

Each Provincial Army Corps is under the command of a 
Provincial General-in-Chief or T*Uuh $| §, vulgo T*itfai j§ 
jg. The bulk of the troops which he commands is called Tipiao 
jg gg, or T'ituh's brigade. 

A small body of troops is specially enrolled to do duty in the 
Provincial Capital. It is called the Fupiao |fe jag or Governor's 
brigade, and is under the control of the Provincial Governor. 

The Viceroy has also his special brigade, called Tuhpiao 


The forces under the command of the Provincial General- 
inrchief are divided into Chenpiao ^ ^ or brigades, and those 
again into regiments or Hsieh |jj. The Hsieh are divided 
into battalions or Ting |f, and the Ying is further divided 
into military posts or Shao pg, and the posts into patrols or 
Sze ^. 

The Grain Transport Administration, for the conveyance 
of tribute-rice to Peking (now principally despatched by the 
"China Merchants Steamship Company"), had a special military 
organization under its control, designated by the name of Ts*ao- 
&***> \§ J8i or grain-transport brigade. 


Irregulars or "Braves". — To the regular army must be 
added the so-called "Braves?* or Yungsg, also styled Volunteers. 
They are called "Braves" from the character Yung Jg (meaning 
brave) being written on the back and front of their jackets. They 
are better paid and armed than the regulars, and are now 
drilled in foreign style. 

Since the Japanese war, they have been quartered near 
Peking jfc ijr and T'ientsin ^ ^, and are generally spoken of 
as the "Army of the North". 

They are grouped in 5 divisions, under the command of a 
Generalissimo, and number about 70,000 or 80,000 men. 

The new Chinese Army Scheme. — An Imperial decree, issued in 1901, 
| ordered the reorganization of the military forces of the Empire. The scheme comprised 
the 3 following divisions : campaign, reserve and police corps. 

Another and more recent decree suggested to the Emperor by the Board of 
Army Reorganization (Lienpingch'u $ft E$ |f£), appeared in 1905. This decree laid down 
the following regulations (On the old military examinations, now obsolete, see Ch. II. 
I Education). 

1° Training Schools for Officers of the land forces shall be of four kinds : 

a) A Lower or Preparatory School, called Luhkiin Siaohsioht'ang g| %L 'h jR S£ 
(Military lower school). 

b) A Middle-grade or Secondary School, called Luhkiin Chunghsioht'ang g$ 3p! 
ty & ^ (Military middle school). 

c) A Training College for Officers, called Luhkiin Pingkwan Hsioht'ang g$ ^E 
$$*§£ &■ !§£ (Military officers' college). 

d) A Military High Academy, called Luhkiin Tahsioht'ang ££ 3g ^ f£ j[£. 
In this latter, the higher branches of military science will be taught. 

The first course will comprise 3 years of instruction, and the second 2. When these 
I 5 years are over, cadets will pass four months in the army, to learn the duties of 
officers. They will then enter the Training College for Officers, where they are to remain 
for a year and a half. They will subsequently go back again to the ranks, for a period 
| of 6 months, with the title of Instructor. At the close of this stage, they will return 
i to the College for Officers, and undergo there an examination. Those who obtain good 
! marks will be definitely classed as officers. After two years, the most distinguished 
among them will be admitted to the Military High Academy, to study for a further 
course of two years. They will then graduate with the title of Military Staff-Officer. 
2° A lower or preparatory school will be opened in each of the 18 Provinces, as 
well as in each of the military divisions of Manchuria. 

3° There will be 4 middle-grade schools for the whole Empire, one in each of 
j the following Provinces : Chihli Ht g&, Hupeh $J jfc, Shensi ££ ®, and Kiangsu £E M* 
4° The training college for Officers, and the Military High Academy will be 
established at Peking * jfc. 


5° A short training-course school or Luhkiin SvJich'eng llsioht'ang |'fc J$ jj Jjjjj 
f^ i[£ (military hasty-formation school), for the expeditious training of Officers, will be 
opened at Peking, with accomodation for 800 applicants. 

6° A special short-training school for Instructors, or Luhkiin Suhch'eng 
Shi/an HsiohVang j^| ^ ^ )& $$ $£ & ^, will be likewise opened in the Capital. 

Reorganisation of the Army. — The new army is to be 
organized on the following lines : 

Army Council and General Staff. — This Department will 
have : 1°. A War Office with 6 bureaux ; 2°. A General Staff 
divided into 3 sections, and entrusted with the drawing up of 
plans of campaign ; 3°. A Directorate of Military Education for 
the instruction and efficient training of Officers. 

Active Army. — The active army is to be distributed into 
20 territorial sections, that is, one to each of the 18 Provinces, 
one in Chinese Turkestan, and one near Peking. 

Each section will have two full divisions forming together 
one army corps. 

Each division will comprise : 12 Infantry battalions, 

1 Cavalry regiment, 
3 Batteries of artillery, 
1 Company of engineers. 

A division will number 12,000 or 12,500 men, and so the 40 
divisions will make a total effective force of 480,000, or 500,000 
fighting units. 

Reserve Force. — All soldiers after their time of active 
service will pass 9 years in the First, and 3 years in the Second 
Reserve Corps. 

The men of the First Reserve Corps will drill every year 
during a month, in Autumn, and another month, in the 

The Second Reserve Corps will be called in annually for a 
few days service. 

The above scheme of reorganization will be fully carried out 
in 1910. 

Army Instructors and Equipment. — Instructors for the 
Chinese Army are engaged especially in Germany and Japan. 



Some measures have already been taken to effect uniformity in 
artillery (heavy guns and rifles), in the pay of officers and men, 
in regimental uniforms, manoeuvring and drill. Of the present 
Provincial troops, the best organized are those o( Chihli jj[ *£ 
and Hukwang $J] J| (combined Provinces of Hupeh jgfl # 
and Hunan $fj $f). The Generalissimo of the former is Yuen 
Shik 4 ai ;g -JS HI* Viceroy of Chihli. At the close of 1906, this 
army numbered 80,000 men. The Hukwang troops are under 
the control of Chang Chitung jjg £ j|p), Viceroy of Hupeh and 
Hunan Provinces, and number from 30,000 to 50,000 men. 

Effectives of the Provincial Army down to 1904 (at least as returned on 
paper). — We append here the units of the Provincial Army, or Green Standard, down 
to 1901. The figures given, are those published in 1904, by the War Office of China 
The accompanying dates indicate when the returns were made. 





























Hunan and Hu- 





Kansu [peh 














Navy or Sliuislii 7JC gjjj. — At the outbreak of the war 
with Japan in 1895, the Chinese Navy consisted of 2 divisions, 
the Northern (Pehyang Jfc f£) and Southern (Nanyang "^j ff), 
each under the control respectively of the Viceroy of Chihli and 
the Viceroy of Nanking or Leangkiang, with the title of Shuishi 
T'ungling 7X 0i^ $£ ijfj, or High Admiral. During the war, 10 
important war vessels of the Northern squadron were sunk or 
captured by Japan. The Southern division remained in the 
waters of the Yangtze, and took no part in the conflict. In 1900, 
the Allied Forces further captured and appropriated 4 destroyers 
built in 1898-99. Various attempts have since been made to 
restore the fleet. China (including a flotilla under the control 


of the Viceroys of Foochow and Canton, for the suppression of 
piracy) now possesses 2 second-class (4,300 tons), and 11 third- 
class cruisers (875-2,500 tons), 3 torpedo gunboats (350-1,000 
tons), 4 river gunboats (215-412 tons), 32 first-class and 12 
second-class torpedo boats. Of the torpedo boats, about half 
only are fit for action, the others being allowed to fall into the 
ordinary decay common to Chinese administration. The full 
compliment of men is about 2,500. 

The combined divisions of the North and South were lately 
placed under the control of a Commander-in-chief (Admiral Sah) 
with the task of reorganizing the navy. A naval school will 
be established at Shanghai, near the Arsenal dock. The regu- 
lations and curriculum will correspond with those issued for 
the reorganisation of the army. 

Arsenals and dockyards. — There are military arsenals 
at T'ientsin J£ jj£, Shanghai _£ #| (this now competes with 
private dockyards), Nanking "^j j£, Wuch'ang j£ g, Ch'engtu 
jg; ^p and Canton (Kwangchow Fu Jf jj+| Jjf), besides smaller 
establishments in other principal centres of the Empire. Several 
can turn out heavy guns, and also rifles and ammunition (inclu- 
ding smokeless powder) in large quantities. 

There is an important naval arsenal and shipbuilding yard 
at Pagoda, 9 miles below Foochow, in Fokien $g ^ Province. 
It is in the hands of French engineers in the employ of the 
Government (see p. 223). • 

Forts. — A great number of forts and batteries have been 
erected at the entrance to the principal rivers. The most impor- 
tant are the Kiangyin ££ fif? farts commanding the entrance to 
the Yangtze jg ^ the Min-kiang gfj JQ forts commanding the 
approaches to Foochow in Fokien, and the Bogue or Bocca 
Tigris (Hu-men j^ f^) forts at the entrance to the Canton or 
Pearl River. These forts and batteries are armed with powerful 
guns of European manufacture. 

The Taku ^ ffc and T'ientsin ^ jg; forts have been demo- 
lished as a sequel to the Boxer revolt of 1900. 




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Population. — Languages. - Religions. — Education. 


The population throughout the greater part of the Empire 
is made up of the Chinese race, except in the Southern Provinces, 
where the aborigines or alien element predominate. In the 
Provinces bordering on Tibet, Turkestan and Mongolia, elements 
belonging to the different peoples of these countries are mixed 
with the Chinese, the latter being however in the majority. 

The Chinese race is very ancient. According to the oldest 
records, it first occupied the valley of the Yellow River in Kansu 
*y* jjjf, Shensi gj£ |5 and Honan }pf $| . If we wish to solve the 
problem as to where it came from, indications seem to point 
that it was from Chaldsea or Assyria. These first Chinese settlers 
are called in the native annals the Hundred Families (Pehsing 
•g" J&), or the black-haired people (Limin $£ JJ). F^hsi ffc % 
is credited with having been their first chief. Among the ancient 
Emperors, Hwangti ^ ^, Too |g and Shun g£, are those more 
widely known. 

Confined in the beginning to the Northern Provinces, this pri- 
mitive race did not begin really to expand until under the Ts*in^ 
dynasty, 249 B.C. Under the Han $j dynasty, 206 B.C.-203 A.D., 
it occupied a large portion of the present Eighteen Provinces, 
except the coast-region of ChSkiang $f £t, Fokien jjjg J|£, and 
Kwangtung J| jjfc. The native tribes were also numerous and 
inhabited the S. and S. W. They were called Ileitis Jg ^ 
(barbarians), and have several branches still extant : the Sifans 
jg f£ in the W. of Szechw'an Jl| ; the Mantme §£ ^f or 


Lolos $j£ /j$f in the S. W. of the same Province and in Yunnan U 
$j; and the Miaotze g3 -j 1 inhabiting Kweichow jg;}H'|, Kwangsi 
jg jflf and Kwangtung /jf Jfc (see p. 4, and below, p. 342). 

These aborigines are sometimes called the prechinese races, 
because they occupied the country previous to the coming of the 
Chinese. The prechinese races, thoroughly homogeneous and 
prosperous, once formed powerful states along the Yangtze J|| 
^ valley. Among them, we may mention the Wu ^ kingdom 
(1 122-473 B.C.), which comprised in the days of its splendour the 
present Provinces of Kiangsu ft $$, Nganhwei ■£ $fc and North 
Kiangsi ^j|; the Ch'u *£ kingdom (1122 223 B.C.), which 
occupied Hukwang $j) j^ (actual Hupeh and Hunan), and parts 
of Honan jpj jft and Kiangsu f£ ||, and attempted constantly 
to annex North Kiangsi j£ jg , which owed allegiance to the Wu 
kwigdom; the Shuh jg kingdom (A.D. 302-347), which lay in 
Central and Southern Szechw'an [KJ Jl|, and in Southern Hupeh 
$Jj ft; the Yueh j|g kingdom (2057?- 334 B.C.), which comprised 
actual Chekiang Jflf ft, Fokien fig ^ and Kwangtung J§| ^. 
This last completely overthrew Fuch'ai -^ 3§tE, Prince of the Wu 
J^| state, and annexed his territory, 473 B. C. 

Somewhat less than a century afterwards, the King of Yueh 
JjJc, whose name was Wukiang $fc g§, declared himself vassal 
of the feudal Prince of Ch'u jg, 356 B.C., and the state thus 
became extinct, 334 B.C. The Ch'u kingdom, conquered in its 
turn, lost its independence, and was annexed by the Emperor 
TsHnshih Htvangti j& Jl ^, 223 B.C. 

Physical characteristics of the Chinese race. — With 
regard to physical characteristics, the inhabitants of the 18 
Provinces differ widely from one another, and the same may be 
said sometimes even of the inhabitants of the same Province. 
There are however certain features which are common to the 
race. The stature is below the average, and seldom exceeds 5 
ft. 4 inches, except in the North. The head is normally brachy- 
cephalic or round horizontally, and the forehead low and 
narrow. The face is round, the mouth large, and the chin small 
and receding. The cheek-bones are prominent, the eyes almond- 


shaped, oblique upwards and outwards, and the hair coarse, 
lank and invariably black. The beard appears late in life, and 
remains generally scanty. The eyebrows are straight, and the 
iris of the eye is black. The nose is generally short, broad and flat. 
The hands and feet are disproportionately small, and the body 
early inclines to obesity. The complexion varies from an almost 
pale-yellow to a dark-brown, without any red or ruddy tinge. 
Yellow however predominates, as with the Japanese, Manchu 
and Mongolian races, and so the appellation of "yeUow race" is 
generally applied to these people collectively. 

Moral characteristics of tlie Chinese race. — To sum 

up briefly the character of the Chinese is a complex and difficult 
problem, and perhaps as hard to decipher as the language. By 
some, it has been over-estimated, and by others undervalued. 
Considering that truth is fairly in the mean, we shall deal with 
it on broad lines. 

With regard to the intellectual qualities of the race, it is 
admitted that the Chinese mind is rather of a practical and matter- 
of-fact kind than of speculative or abstract. The educational 
system of the country develops wonderfully the memory, but 
cramps the reasoning powers, hence there is generally but super- 
ficial knowledge, lack of precison and order in ideas (called by 
some intellectual turbidity, by others topsyturvyism), and a total 
absence of the critical spirit. There is also (o be noticed a pre- 
vailing lack of foresight, of consideration of cause and effect, in- 
capacity of taking a general view of things, and in the individual 
and social acts of life a great amount of credulity and silliness. 

The general temperament of the people is morose and leth- 
argic, but when excited, they are fitfully vehement. 

With regard to moral qualities of the humbler kind, the 
Chinaman is patient, frugal, laborious, peaceable, law-abiding and 
respectful of authority. He is polite and ceremonious, and displays 
great veneration for parents and elders. He has a wonderful 
aptitude for agriculture and commerce. The honesty of the 
merchant-class is proverbial and deserves all praise. On the other 
hand, he is not over nice or particular about truth, and will 


easily lie to eonceal neglect, or secure some personal advantage. 
In many cases he eonsiders it impolite to plainly contradict or 
give a direct refusal, and in general does not see the claims of 
truth and sincerity as clearly as Westerners. He is also said to 
be proud and conceited with his own superiority; he is avaricious, 
and can seldom handle money with honesty ; he is cruel and 
vindicative, callous to the sufferings of others, and backward in 
showing gratitude for benefits. He likes gambling and litigation, 
and will be profligate whenever opportunity offers. He has an 
utter disregard for time and punctuality. He hates Foreigners, 
because their excellence is conspicuous, and he fears their in- 
fluence. He is not particularly clean, either in his person, habits 
or surroundings, and is rather indifferent about smells and 
noises. He has no lofty ideal of life, and is deficient especially 
in the higher moral qualities : sense of duty, trustworthiness, 
sacrifice for the general welfare, public spirit, enthusiasm and 
active courage in danger. 

Aboriginal Tribes and Remnants of Former Races. 

The lolos 91 A, also written f£ $: (Laolao) and $fcWt (Liaoliao). Wild hunters). 
— The Lolos state that they came from the region situated between Tibet and Burma. 
At the origin of their history, they place 12 patriarchs, who are said to have taught 
them the use of clothing and to work for their living. 

They are divided into two classes : the White and Black Lolos, being distingui- 
shed from each other by the colour of their head-dress. 

The Lolos are of the Indo-European or Aryan race. The skin is white, the nose 
hooked, the hair brown, the iris blue or grey, and the eye not almond-shaped. The roofs 
of^the houses are flat. The dead are buried in caves or cliffs. Woman is the equal of 
man, and infanticide is unknown. The Lolo is a warrior and hunter, sometimes a pastor, 
but seldom a tiller of the ground. As to his religion, he worships Nature and has a 
great fear of evil genii. 

The Lolos have no affinity with the Chinese, either in language, customs or 

The Chinese treat them with the greatest contempt, and consider that "though 
they have a human form, they are little removed from the brute creation". 

The Lolos are found chiefly in Kweichow J| ^H and Yunnan # fft. The Sze- 
chw'an Lolos are called Mantze 9 "3F (barbarous tribes of the South). 

The Lolos have their own language, which is very simple. All the words are 
formed by a single consonant and vowel. There is no diphthong and no final conson- 
ant. Each of these monosyllabic words has its special and distinct meaning. 

The language is the same everywhere, though it is divided into a great number 
of dialects. 


The written language was originally ideographic, but like that of the Chinese, it 
underwent transformation during the course of ages, and so it is difficult in its present 
state to retrace the objects which the ideographs primitively portrayed. The Lolo 
language is represented by about 3000 written characters. (On the Lolos, see p. 112). 

The Miaotze t8f -J- (shoots, children of the soil). — In their language, the 
Miaotze call themselves Meng (Burmese equivalent, Mong; in Siamese, Muang). — 
They state they came from the East. They are divided into a great many tribes, 
numbering it is said more than 50. They are often called, from the colour of their 
dress, white Miaos (Peh-miao |=| #), black Miaos (Heh-miao % "jSj), and flowery or 
embroidered Miaos (Hwa-miao l}§ &. The women of this tribe engage in embroidery- 
weaving, and wear beautiful dress-sleeves, hence the name). 

Like the Lolos, their language, customs and habits differ widely from those of 
the Chinese. They are a simple and hospitable people. 

In Yunnan ^ $|, the Miaotze are nomads or pastors, and hence are seldom 
found in large numbers together. . • 

Miaotze and Lolos are great wine-drinkers, and celebrate annually the arrival of 
Spring by music and dancing. 

It is considered by some that the Japanese are descendants of the Miao tribes, 
who migrated from South China to the islands of the North. (On the Miaotze, see also 
above, p. 112, 181, 188). 

The Ikias $££$? (barbarians). — This is the name given by the Chinese to all 
the tribes of the S. and S. "W., and especially to certain tribes inhabiting Kweichow 
H #| and Kwangsi ^ H> It was also formerly employed by Officials to designate 
Foreigners, but is now forbidden by treaty to be used in official documents. 

The Ikias differ little from the Miaotze, and are often confounded under the same 
name, or under that of Shans, tribes inhabiting the border-land of Burma and Siam. 
The word "Shan" comes from the Siamese "Sayam" (brown-red, alluding to the colour 
of the people). The Shans are called by the Chinese Pai-i JH ^ or P l oh-i $$& £(, but 
style themselves Luk-tai, or children of Tai. (On the Ikias, see above, p. 188, 198, 
199, 207). 

The Hakkas or K'ohkias £&£$? (alien or guest families, squatters). — The 
Hakkas are located principally in Kwangtung and Kwangsi, but are found also in 
Fokien, Kiangsi, CMkiang, Formosa and Hainan. 

They live in small and scattered groups, but in the Prefecture of Kiaying $ 1$< 
in the N. E. of Kwangtung Province, they are almost the sole occupants. 

Their language holds an intermediate position between the Mandarin and 
Cantonese. It is spoken by about 4 millions of people in the Kwangtung Province 

Generally speaking, they are poor, although there are rich men among them, as 
well as literary graduates. 

The sexes are not so separated in domestic life as with the Chinese. The women 
do not bind their feet, and their dress differs somewhat from that of the Cantonese, 
their jackets reaching down nearly to the knees, while their heads are covered with 
broad-brimmed hats, through which protrudes a top-knot of hair. 

The Hakka children often have a ring of silver round their neck, though this is 
not the custom with the Cantonese children. 

The Hakkas are generally a simple people, but very contentious, and hence 
constantly engaged in lawsuits. 


A great number of them work at Hongkong as barbers and stone-cutters. 

They are rather numerous in the Straits, where they are known as Kheks or 
Kelts, this being the Swatow and Amoy pronunciation of the word Hak. 

As to their origin, we have indicated it above, when describing Kwangsi and 
Kwangtung (p. 199 and 207), where they are mingled with the Ikias. With regard to 
those of Kwangtung, the following is the story gathered from their family traditions. 

They were located formerly, some in Shantung and Shansi, and others in Ngan- 
hwei. A first persecution, under the Ts'in §j| dynasty (B. C. 249-209), drove them from 
Shantung, and compelled them to settle down in Nganhwei, Honan and Kiangsi. — A 
second persecution, under another Tsin •© dynasty (A.D. 419), scattered them into the 
mountainous regions in the S. E. of Kiangsi, and to the borders of Fokien. — A third 
persecution, under the Tang Jjlf dynasty (A. D. 020), compelled them again to take 
refuge in the mountains of Fokien, and the high chains which separate Kiangsi from 
Kwangtung. — Under the Sung %z dynasties (A.D. 960-1280), many became soldiers, 
and thousands of them perished with the last Chinese Prince of the Southern Sung, 
in A.D. 1279, West of Macao. — At the beginning of the Ming #] dynasty (A. D. 1368), 
when they were driven from Fokien by disturbances which agitated that Province, 
they finally settled down in large numbers in the N. of Kwangtung. Hence they 
spread over the W. and S. W. of Kwangtung, and over different parts of Kwangsi. 

An implacable strife, in which about 150,000 perished, took place between the 
Hakkas and Penti (original or native stock), in the S. W. of Kwangtung, from A. D. 
1864-1866. The Chinese Government was then obliged to take vigorous measures and 
remove a large number of them to Kwangsi, the Island of Hainan and other parts of 
the country. (On the Hakkas, see above, p. 199 and 207). 

The Hoklos or HsiOlaos ^i $£ (people from Fok, or, as it is locally pronounced) 
Hok Province, i.e. Fokien Province). — The Hoklos or Foklos are found principally in 
the N. E. of Kwangtung Province. 

Their language, which is akin to that of Fokien, is spoken by 3 millions of these 
immigrants in Kwangtung. 

They migrated to this latter Province from Fokien a few centuries ago. They 
are a rougher, wilder, and also stronger set of men than the Southern Cantonese. 
There are a great number of them in Hongkong, where they are employed as chair- 
bearers. Many Hoklos emigrate, and are to be found in the different regions of the N. 

In the Straits, they are known as Tew-chews, an appellation derived from the 
Prefectural city of Ch'aochow $} •)$ (pronounced Tew-chew in the local dialect), from 
which place many of them come. 

The Yao $& (jackals) or Yu tribe. — The Yao tribes inhabit principally the 
S.W. of Kwangtung, and are also found in the S.W. of Hunan. The Hunan tribe is 
little known. The Kwangtung Yaos number about 30,000, and are located in the Prefec- 
ture of Lienchow J|t j\\, near the gulf of Tongking. They seem to be of Burmese origin, 
and migrated from Kwangsi to Kwangtung in the XII th century. Their hair is worn 
long, they are of short stature and have scanty beards. They are at present confined 
by the advancing Chinese to the high and inaccessible mountain regions. They are 
much considered by the other races for their knowledge of medicine, but their vengeance 
is feared, and the more as it is transmitted from father to son through several genera- 
tions. They have no written language, and their speech is quite different from that of 
the Chinese (see above, p. 207). 

The Sai, Si or Li tribe. — This tribe is located in the Island of Hainan, where it 
has maintained its independence against the Chinese, for nearly 2000 years, withdrawing 


from the coast into the mountains of the interior. They number about 100,000. There 
are also some Miaotze among them. They are divided into civilised and uncivilised 
Lis, and are a strong and well-built race. Their writing is most curious, and there 
rs such great difference in their tribal dialects that they converse sometimes with one 
other in Chinese. The women are tattooed. 

In the N.W. of Yunnan fir ffi are found the Mosos J§f '-£ (Mosnh) or Musus. 
They are a branch of the Miaotze, and live near Likiang Fu. Their houses are huts built 
of planks and branches. They live mostly on barley, but many hunt for musk, deer and 
other animals. The prevailing religion i? Buddhism. The Mosos constituted formerly 
a powerful state, which extended over part of Eastern Tibet and of actual Yfinnan. 

Further to the S., are the Lisus J] ^ (Lihsiih). They live in the mountain 
recesses of the Likiang valley. Their clothes are made of grass and plants, and fcheir 
hair is worn twisted into a knot. They hunt birds and beasts for food, and never lay 
their arms aside even at night (see p. 181). 

The Minkios or Minchias J35 §JC (Minhia) live along the shores of the Eulhai 
lake to the E. of Tali Fu, which was formerly the capital of their tribe. They are the 
descendants of the White Prince or Peh Wang |=J 3E, who ruled about the time of the 
christian era. They have no written character, but many of them study Chinese, and 
some have taken degrees in the civil or military examinations (see Tali Fu. p. 181). 

The W. and N.W. of Szechw'an, and the Western border of Kansu are inhabited 
by Sifans |5 ^ ( Western aborigines or barbarians). Most of them have recognized 
the supremacy of China, and are governed by Chinese Officials. 

Distribution of tlie Population. — The density of the 
population of China differs greatly in different parts of the country. 
The great plain of N. China, the Yangtze ^ ^ basin, the Sze- 
chw'an )\\ table-land, the coast-region and the Si-kiang "g" f£ 
delta, are the parts the most densely populated of the country. 

The Provinces which have the largest population are Sze- 
chw'an, Shantung, Hupeh, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Kiangsu, Ngan- 
hwei and Fokien. In each of these 8 Provinces, the number of 
inhabitants ranges from 60 to 20 millions. The Provinces which 
are least populated are Yunnan, Chekiang, Kansu, Shensi and 
Kweichow. Here the number of inhabitants in each Province 
dwindles from 12 down to 7 millions (see p. 8). 

The Mussulman revolts, which broke out in the Provinces of 
Yunnan j§ $3 and Kweichow jj^ j(fl, and also in those of 
Kansu [(' J|f and Shensi gfc |§ ; the T'aip'ing ■% zp rebellion 
likewise, chiefly in the Yangtze |g ^f valley, have exerted a 
most depopulating effect on large tracts of the Empire in the 
second part of the XIX th century. 

It is well nigh impossible to calculate at the present day the exact number of 
the inhabitants of China. The country has no census taken on European principles, 
but an attempt is made to ascertain the number of households for the purpose 
of collecting revenue, and from these a return of the total inhabitants is made out. 
The official census therefore which we have followed in this work (see p. 5 and 8), 
must be considered only as approximative. The different censuses taken by the 
Chinese in the past are however worthy in many instances of a considerable amount 
of credence, and in fact, form the only returns available for the entire Empire. Compared 



with some estimates made by foreigners, they may be said to be tolerably trustworthy. 
From these censuses, it will be found that the population has considerably 
increased during the preceding centuries. The following table will exhibit some statis- 
tics showing this increase. 


Number of families. 





































(If these statistics are reliable, and taking into account the increase of land 
under tillage, it must be admitted that tbey show a really great increase in the 
population of the Empire). 

Foreign Population in China. — According to statistics published by the 
Imperial Maritime Customs, the total foreign population of China, and the number 
of foreign commercial houses, for the years 1904 and 1905, were as follows : 




ll Houses. 










































278 ' 













































Non-Treaty Powers 











2°. Languages. 

The Chinese language. — Chinese is spoken throughout 
the length and breadth of the land, but with widely different 
pronunciation, constituting thereby an obstacle to its being 
understood by those who come from different regions within 
the Empire. It may be divided into 2 kinds : the Book Style, 
and the Colloquial or spoken language. 

The various forms of the Book Style are as follows : 

1°. The Ancient Style or KuwSn is ~X> — This is simple 
and concise in its construction, obscure and unintelligible with- 
out explanation, even, for Chinese scholars themselves. The 
Classics and the early dynastic Annals of the Empire are written 
in this style. 

2°. The IAterary Style or WenH J f. - This is a little 
more diffuse, but nevertheless stilted and filled with allusions 
and word-particles, either difficult or impossible to translate 
into English. The essays of candidates who compete at the 
public examinations are composed in this style. 

3°. The Official or Business Style, called Siao Wenli >]> # 
gg. — This is good prose with few particles. It is generally 
used in government and official documents, legal and statistical 
works, history and business correspondence. 

The Spoken Language. — This is divided into numerous 
dialects with their local pronunciation, intelligible to the people 
of the places where they prevail, but unintelligible to outsiders. 
The higher ranks and the learned also use them, adding a few 
book phrases, which are pronounced as in the dialect. Books 
are generally not written in the colloquial. It is considered to 
be beneath the dignity of a scholar to write books in the local 
dialects, and abandon the style of the Classics. 

The Mandarin language or Ktvanhtua *j§T f?f. — Thisis the 
common or public language spoken in the Chinese Empire, as 
opposed to the various local dialects. Though not universal, it is 
the most widespread, being spoken in 14 or 15 of the 18 Provin- 
ces, or by about 250 millions of people. It resembles the written 



language more than any other dialect, but is more diffuse, 
and contains synonyms and particles to render the sense clear. 
Mandarin has 3 marked varieties : the Northern or Pekingese, 
the Southern or Nankingese, and the Western, 

In the Eastern (S. Kiangsu, Chekiang, Fokien and Kwangtung) and Southern 
Provinces (Kwangsi and Kweichow), other dialects are spoken hy the people. These 
are more or less akin to Mandarin, but nevertheless sufficiently different to be 
unintelligible to a mandarin-speaking Chinese coming from other Provinces. The 
following is a list of those dialects with the approximate number of people who con- 
verse in them : 

Dialects of the E. and S. 

Spoken by. 

1° The Cantonese Dialects, comprising : 

1 — The Cantonese proper. 


2 — The Hakka. 


2° The Min fSJ or Fokien Dialects, comprising: 

1 — The Amoy dialect. 


2 — The Swatow (Hoklo) dialect. 


3 — The Foochow dialect. 


3° The Ngeu gfi or Wu Dialects, comprising : 

1 — The Wenchow dialect. 


2 — The Ningpo dialect. 


3 — The Sungkiang or Shanghai dialect. 


A sub-dialect of this latter is spoken at Hweichow $fc ^H in Southern Nganhuei 

The number of syllables in some of these dialects varies considerably. That 
generally assigned for the principal dialects, including also several varieties of Man- 
darin, is as follows : 


Number of 


Number of 


1. Amoy. 



Pekingese (mandarin). 


2. Cantonese. 





3. Foochow. 





4. Hakka. 





5. Hank'ow (mandarin). 



Yangchow (mandarin). 


6. Ningpo. 


Hainan has a dialect of its own, called the dialect of K'iungchow Fu, which is 
the most widely spread in the island. It is near akin to the Amoy and Swatow dialects, 
and is spoken by 3 million inhabitants. It is also used in the Leichow peninsula. 



Characteristics of tlie Chinese language. — The 

principal characteristics of the Chinese language may be reduc- 
ed to the 4 following: 

1°. It is monosyllabic. This must however le restricted to 
the book style, for the spoken language has several dissyllabic 
expressions, formed either by a combination of two symbols, or 
by the addition of an auxiliary particle joined to the primitive 

2°. It is uninfected, which gives it a simplicity and terseness 
unparalleled in any other language. The relations of words to 
one other are determined by position and the use of auxiliary 
particles. These latter precede or follow the symbol, and thus 
perform the duty of affixes, prefixes, noun and adjective termi- 
nations, tenses, prepositions, conjunctions, and all that is called 
grammar in Western languages. This terseness and economic 
simplicity constitute the great difficulty of the language. 

3°. The ideographs or symbols express neither letters nor 
words, but things or notions, 

4°. It has no alphabet, but a system of initials and finals 
called ' ; fants*ieh" g -fcjj (fan, meaning to turn back ; and ts'ieh, to 
cut), and introduced by Buddhist monks from India. This helps 
to give the sounds of the ideographs, the tone or sheng jjf being 
indicated by the word used as final. In this system, the initial 
of one sound is joined to the final of another, to form a third 
which expresses the sound of the given character, as f-ang "ff 
and w-en ^C make fen ft. (On the Mongolian language, see 
below. Book II. Oh. I. and II.). 

Chinese Character-writing. — The early Chinese charac- 
ters seem to have been pictorial representations, or rough symbols 
of natural objects and phenomena, each symbol representing a 
single object, as {ft (chw'an) running water or stream, \\\ (shan) 
a mountain, \ (jen) a man, p (k'ow) the mouth etc.... These 
symbols however, gradually underwent modifications, and it is 
difficult to make out in the present characters the objects which 
were originally represented. The number of written symbols 
or characters is considerable. K l anghsi>s Jjfe JjJJ dictionary 


contains 44,449 of them. No scholar knows them all thoroughly, 
and practically there are but 7 or 8,000 of them employed. Each 
character comprises two parts : a radical or key, indicating the 
general meaning, and a phonetic part indicating the pronuncia- 
tion. The number of radicals varied, some lexicographers giving 
500, others 300, and under the Ming $) dynasty 214. The 
authors of K'anghsi's dictionary adopted this last number, and 
this method has been followed down to the present day. 

The written symbols are the same throughout the whole 
empire. The inhabitants of Fokien, Kwangtung, Kwangsi, Che 1 - 
kiang and S. Kiangsu pronounce them differently, and even add 
some other characters, to express sounds and idioms peculiar 
to their own dialects. 

Lesser Dialects. — The Miaotze, Ikias, Lolos, Mosos and 
other tribes, have their own dialects and manner of writing, 
which are completely different from those of the Chinese. Some 
tribes employ symbols or ideographs, while others have rudi- 
mentary alphabets. 

Chinese literature. — The literature of China is very 
voluminous. The Emperor K'ienlung f£ g| (1736-1796) divided 
all these works into four classes : 1°. Classics or King jjg; 
2°. Historical works or Shi *£ ; 3°. Philosophical works or Tse ^f- ; 
4°. Literary compilations or Tsih ^. This last category com- 
prises especially collections of celebrated authors. 

g°. Religions. 

Religion is taken here in the sense of doctrine or system. 
Thus there are in China three principal religions, called by 
the name of the 3 doctrines or Sankiao ^£ ft : Confucianism, 
the only orthodox doctrine ; Taoism and Buddhism. Of these 
3 systems, the two former are indigenous, Buddhism being 
introduced from India in the early part of the christian era. 
Taoism and Buddhism have received at times official patronage, 
and a large amount of toleration, because it was thought that 
their doctrines agreed with Confucianism, but they were also 
often persecuted, one or the other, by the Government. 


Confucian lain or Jukia/o f^f ffc (doctrine of the literati). — 
Confucianism is chiefly the system of the literary class. It is 
not so much a religion as a politico-ethical code of state-govern- 
ment, and social etiquette, gathered from the writings of Confucius 
(K'ung Futze Jl ^ ^f. B.C. 551-479) and his disciples. There 
is no place in it for a primary cause, and no relation between man 
and this cause. Man is said to know good, but fails to perform 
it. Instruction and example are set forth as remedies against 
this weakness. The Sage insists on the fulfilment of social 
duties — obedience to authority, filial piety, kindness, friendship, 
concord with neighbours, moderation and economy, propriety 
and courtesy — because they lead to temporal happiness and fame, 
and will be rewarded in man's posterity. He had a poor idea of 
man's happiness. The whole system is incomplete, and proposes 
a commonplace ideal, which pervades all Chinese life and 

Though he died in 479, it was not until B.C. 49 that his 
doctrine obtained favour at Court. It reached its acme under 
the Sung %~ dynasty (A. D. 420-478), and was subsequently 
expounded by Chuhsi ^H (A.D. 1130-1200), as a great political 
means for paternal government and social order. 

Confucius received the titles of "teacher and example for 
ten- thousand pears", and "equal with heaven and, earth?' 
(these two latter are the supreme object of state worship). 
His temples abound throughout the land, and are placed in 
large areas ornamented with trees and water, and in close 
connection with the government examination-halls. Sacrifices 
are offered to him by the Emperor, at the vernal and autumnal 
equinoxes. Oxen and sheep are slain, and silk, wine and fruit 
offered. The mandarins are present. No prayers are used, but 
prostrations are made before the tablet of the Sage. Children 
on entering school make the same reverences, and also literati, 
after taking their degrees. 

Taoism or Taokiao ^ ^ (doctrine of the right way). — 
Taoism is a more abstruse philosophical system than Confucian- 
ism, and is filled with misty and enigmatic ideas. It may be 


called a crude attempt to explain, how all things evolved out of 
chaos, or the vague unknown. The system is chiefly exposed in 
the Taoteh King $ |g f$ or Taoist classic. The work was written 
by Lajotzeyg^ (Grand old man, or venerable philosopher. Born 
B.C. 604; time and place of death unknown), and contains 
5,320 characters. The return to Tao, whatever that may mean 
(the right and correct course, or the simplicity of nature), 
is held to be the key to human happiness. 

Taoism as a religion nowise represents the abstractions of 
Laolze, but was invented by the disciples of the philosopher. 
These also borrowed much from Confucian and especially from 
Buddhist literature. At the present day, this so-called religion 
is a medley of grotesque polytheism, in which gods, goddesses 
and genii are numerous. It also panders much to the Chinaman's 
dread of spirits, and dispenses magic swords, incantations and 
charms to ward off evil influences. 

Buddhism or Fohkiao {$ gfc (doctrine of Foh or Fuh). — 
Chinese Buddhism is of more recent date than Confucianism or 
Taoism. Confucius and Laotze lived both in the VI th century B.C. 
The official introduction of Buddhism into China dates only 
from the first century of the christian era. In the year A. D. 61, 
the Emperor Mingti HJ ft? had a dream, in which a mysterious 
person told him to go to the W. and seek his law. Hereupon, 
the Emperor's brother went to India, and brought back Buddhism, 
instead of the true religion of Christ, which was then being 
preached in the country. Buddhist literature thus entered China, 
and subsequently penetrated into Korea and Japan. Buddhism, 
through often persecuted by the Emperors of China, and obnox- 
ious to the literati, was easily accepted by the people. It 
somewhat degenerated in the XIII th century, but there was a 
revival in the XV lh . At the present day, Buddhism consists in 
inviting priests for burials, making prostrations before Buddha 
or Omit'ofuh PPJ 5^ PS i#n ana * nis disciples, and burning joss- 
sticks (sticks of incense made from the dust of various scented 
woods, mixed with a little clay, and used in temples for worship) 
before their statues. Buddhist monks or bonzes (from the Japanese 


Bonso, a Buddhist priest, and in Chinese, Hoshang ft (§), are 
generally very ignorant and little considered, though there are 
found among them a few scholars. They are despised by the 
people, and held up to contempt and ridicule. The nuns like- 
wise hold a very low position in the public estimation. 

These three religions are practically blended into one 
in the eyes of the great bulk of the people, who practise 
indiscriminately one or the other, as occasion requires. They 
add to them the worship of Ancestor s, who have also their temples 
or tz*et'ang jjipj 1£, and tablets or p'aiwei #}» fj£ (a board with 
the name of the deceased on it). They worship also evil spirits 
or mokwei ^ ^, believe in the transmigration of souls, in merit 
acquired by sparing animal life, and numerous other superstitious 

Besides these three religions, the most widely diffused in 
China are Shamanism, Christianity and Mahomedanism. 

Shamanism prevails chiefly among the tribes of Yunnan 
and Kweichow, in S.W. China. They fear spirits, worship 
natural objects (the sun, wind, mountains, rivers etc.) and have 
wizard-priests, who propitiate with offerings the malevolent 

Christianity is spread throughout the whole of China, in 
two different forms, the Catholic and the Protestant. 

Catholicism is called in China T*ienchu-kiao 5? i jffc, or 
Religion of the Ijyrd of Heaven, this name having been adopted 
to signify that the proper object of its worship is the true and 
living God, Creator of Heaven and Earth, and not the material 
heavens, which together with the earth, are the object of Imperial 
worship in China. Catholicism is the ancient religion revealed 
by God to man, at the origin of the world, and which Christ, 
Son of God and God himself, perfected 1900 years ago. It 
teaches that there is but one personal and supreme God, who 
is the Creator of heaven and earth, and to whom alone is due 
divine honour. It acknowledges but one true and universal 



Church, to which all men are called. The power and mission 
of this Church do not come from man, but directly from God, 
and its object is to help all men to be good, to save their souls 
and lead them in accordance with God's will to eternal hap- 
piness in heaven. 

The Catholic Church reckons at present in China about one 
million believers. 

Whether S* Thomas, one of the twelve Apostles of Christ, carried the light of 
the Gospel to the Chinese Empire, is not sufficiently guaranteed, but certain it is 
that some of his disciples early announced the new faith to the country. 

The first historical monument attesting the introduction of Christianity into 
China dates from the VIII th century. It is a stone slab discovered in A.D. 1625, near 
the city of Singan Fu, in Shensi. It bears the date of A.D. 781, and was erected by the 
Nestorians, a Christian sect separated from the main body of Catholics, and who pro- 
bably came from Syria or Persia. According to this slab, the Nestorians then possessed 
several churches and monasteries, and enjoyed liberty to preach the Gospel. They may 
even have erected their first church as early as 636. The Nestorians were banished in 
A.D. 845, by an edict of the Emperor Wutsung g£ £fc, of the T'ang j|f dynasty. 

Scattered groups however continued to live in China during the following 
centuries, and the Venetian traveller, Marco Polo, found several Nestorian congregations 
at Kashgar, Samarcand, and even at Peking, towards the close of the XIII th century. 

In the second half of the same century, and during the XIV th , several Catholic 
Missionaries were sent to China by the Roman Pontiffs and by Catholic Sovereigns. 
The best known are the Dominican Andrew of Longjumeau, and the Franciscans John 
de Piano Carpini, William, of Bubruquis, and John of Montecorvino. In 1307, this last 
reached Khanbalig (Peking), the capital of China, and was appointed Archbishop, 
with seven suffragans, by Pope Clement V th . He retained his bishopric until his death, 
which occurred in 1330. His successor in the see of Peking was Nicholas Bonnet. 

The Mongol invasion of Tamerlane closed the land-route to China, and so the 
Missionaries had henceforth to reach the country by sea. 

Dominicans and Franciscans attempted at various times to found churches in 
the S. They set out from Manila and Macao. The Portuguese occupied this latter place 
towards the middle of the XVI th century, and a bishopric was erected there in 1557. 

St Francis Xavier was the- first Jesuit who attempted to enter China. He 
started from Malacca, but died in 1552, at the island of Shangchw'an or Sancian, off 
the Canton coast. Shortly afterwards, a missionary of the same Order, Matthew Bicci 
(called in Chinese Li Matow t^IJ $§ ff ), succeeded in entering the country. In 1583, 
Ricci settled at Chaok'ing Fu §0 Jjf* Jflf, then the official capital of the Two Kwang Pro- 
vinces. In 1588, he removed his residence to Nanch'ang Fu Uf §| Jj!f, in Kiangsi Pro- 
vince. He subsequently extended his labours to Nanking $t l£, which he reached in 
1595. Here, observing that the success of his mission was at the mercy of local 
mandarin caprice, he set out for Peking, and after two unsuccessful journeys (1595 and 
1598), finally settled in the capital- of the Empire, in the year 1601. He there secured 


the esteem and good-will of the Emperor, and of the learned class, and was thus enabled 
to open China to other Missionaries. One of his principal converts in the capital was 
the Hanlin Doctor Sii Kwangk'i ^ -ft #C* a native of Shanghai. The tomb of this 
famous man is at Siikiahwei f& 5fc g| (locally pronounced Sicawei), and the Jesuit 
Observatory is so called from its being in the vicinity of the monument. When Ricci 
died in 1610, the Emperor himself offered a burial ground for his mortal remains, and 
a great concourse of the literary class attended his funeral. 

After Ricci, several Catholic Missionaries : Jesuits, Dominicans, Franciscans, 
and Augustinians, came to preach the Gospel in China. 

It was owing to his scientific knowledge that Ricci won the favour and esteem 
of the Chinese. His successors retained them by the same means. Among them, two 
are especially famous : Schall and Verbiest. 

Adam Schall von Bell (1591-1666), known in China under the name of T'ang 
Johwang ^ 3JJ |g, reached the country in 1622. 

Schall settled at first in Singan Fu, in Shensi Province. Summoned to the Court, to 
reform together with Fr. James Rho the imperial calendar, he was appointed President 
of the Board of Astronomy and Mathematics. The Emperor Ch'ungchen J^|£ held him in 
great esteem,and when this prince succumbed in the catastrophe of the Ming $j dynasty, 
the new Emperor of the Tats'ing ^C ?W> or present reigning house, maintained the 
Missionary in the same honourable position. Schall obtained an imperial decree 
securing the preaching of the Gospel throughout the Empire, and guaranteeing pro- 
tection for converts. Thanks to this favour, 100,000 Christians were received into the 
Church in the short space of 14 years. 

Verbiest (1623-1688), known in China under the name of Nan Hwaijen fft^jz, 
entered the country in 1659. Schall ordered him to come to Peking to assist him in his 
astronomical labours. He too became President of the Board of Mathematics, and the 
Emperor K'anghsi j£}& showed him the most sincere friendship. When he died, the 
Board of Rites prescribed the honours to be paid him, and his funeral was carried out 
at the expense of the State. The Emperor wrote his eulogium, and had it engraved 
upon his tombstone. 

Notwithstanding the Imperial favour in Peking, the native converts had neverthe- 
less to suffer many persecutions throughout the Provinces. They did not cease however 
to increase in number. The first pioneers of the Gospel were soon followed by the 
French Foreign Missions, and when the Society of Jesus was suppressed in Europe, the 
Vincentians or Lazarists took up and continued its labours in China. 

The propagation of the Gospel, which experienced a set-back at the close of the 
XVIII th century and the opening of the XIX th , started with renewed vigour in the latter 
half of the present century. Its progress was frequently hindered by persecutions, the 
last of which was in 1900, when the blood of thousands of martyrs flowed at the hands of 
the Boxers. The preaching of the Gospel is now officially authorized by treaty. The divi- 
sion of the country into Apostolic Vicariates, and the apportionment of the field between 
the various religious Orders and Congregations, thus preventing overlapping and fric- 
tion, have further facilitated the task. The annexed table will exhibit in detail the 
present divisions, the number of vicariates, churches and chapels, converts and appli- 
cants for baptism, or in other words, the pratical result of Catholic Missionary work. 





To Whom 







• ^*- — — ■— • 










App- . (Jhur- 
licints ones 

for or . 
Bap- Chap- 

tism I els 

First Region. 

N. Chihli 

Vincentians or Laza- 







N. Honan 

Mil a n ForeignMiss i<> u s 

S. Manchuria 

Pari sForeign Missions 



E. Mongolia 
Central ,, 

Belgian Foreign Mis- 














































/ tsuitze 


















Second Region. 

Hi (M.) 

N. Kansu 
S. „ (P.A.) 

N. Shensi 


N. Shansi 


N. Shantung 



Belgian Foreign Mis- 


Foreign Missions of 

" \sions 

German Foreign Mis- 























































Third Region. 

W. Honan (P.A.) 


E. Hupeh 

N.W. „ 

S.W. „ 

N. Hunan 


N. Kiangsi 




Kiangsu andNgan- 
hwei (Kiangnan^ 

Foreign Missions of 

Mi la n Foreign Miss ions 


Span ish A u gust in ians 




(Hsii Chow) 





























Li Chow 











































CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN CHINA. 1906. (continued). 


To Whom 

ind Principal 











Fourth Region. 


Paris Foreign Mis- 








N.W. Szechw'an 











































Fifth Region. 


Spanish Dominica ns 

















Milan Foreign Missions 









Paris Foreign Mis- 







Kwangsi (P. A.) 
















Mission Agencies 













Vicariates Apostolic 38 





Prefectures Apostolic 4 

Foreign i 
Native < 




Diocese of Macao and 



Mission of Hi 2 

Grand Total 





for China 

The Abbreviations P.A., mean Prefectures Apostolic, and M., means Mission. In 
indicating the year of report, we have given but the last figure, thus 5 means 1905, and 
6, the year 1906. The number of Priests comprises the Bishops. The other helpers, 
Foreign and Chinese, are not mentioned in this list. It may be also gathered from 
these statistics that there is but one priest to attend to every 537 baptized converts ; 
that out of every 1,717 such converts, one native priest is furnished for the ministry; 
and finally, that for one native convert who has entered the Church, there are still 430 
pagans outside th# fold, or in other words, that the number of catholic converts is but 
the ^th part of the total population of the Chinese Empire. 



Korea and Japan. 1906. 

The abbreviations Arch, 1)., mean Archdiocese; D., diocese; V. A., Vicariate 
Apostolic, and P. A. Prefecture Apostolic. 

Protestantism is generally called in China Y£su-kiao JJfl 
fijj} %fc or Religion of Jesus. The Protestant form of Christianity 
originated in the XVI th century. It rejected the headship and 
authority of the Catholic Church, and set itself up as a free and 
self-governing Church, based on the Bible interpreted by private 
judgment. It is divided into numerous sects and denominations, 
and has in China about 150,000 full adherents. 

Protestantism entered China only in the beginning of the XIX th century. The 
first Protestant Missionary to the country was the Rev. Robert Morrison, who arrived 
in A.D. 1807. On account of opposition to foreigners entering the country, he was then 
unable to engage in direct evangelical work. He therefore directed his energy to lite- 
rary undertakings, and published a large dictionary, and a Chinese translation of the 
New Testament. This latter appeared in 1814. The same year, he baptized the first 
Protestant convert in China. In 1818, he began, together with D r Milne, his translation 
of the Old Testament into Chinese. It was printed from wood-blocks, and published 
in 1823. About the same time, an Anglo-Chinese college was opened at Malacca. Here 
the newly arrived Protestant Missionaries settled, and were trained in the Chinese 
language and customs, till more favorable circumstances allowed them to enter the 
country. Meanwhile founts of moveable types were cast, destined to replace the wood- 
blocks which D* Morrison had first employed. 



In addition to the English Missionaries, others came from America to Macao in 


After the Nanking treaty of 1842, opening the five ports of Canton, Amoy, Foochow, 
Ningpo and Shanghai, the Missionaries proceeded from Malacca to China, and others 
soon arrived from home. Twelve Missionary Societies immediately established them- 
selves in these ports, and there opened schools, hospitals and dispensaries. Since then, 
more treaty ports have been opened, and numerous other Missionary Societies followed 
the first, the principal being the "American Methodist Episcopalians" (South), "Baptists" 
(of the Southern Convention, Missionary Union, Independent Movement, and Seventh- 
day), "Presbyterians" (North, South and Reformed), and the "China Inland Mission", 
which started work in 1853. 

Besides the distribution of Tracts and Bibles, and the establishing of Churches, 
they have opened colleges and schools, and translated numerous works, religious and 
scientific, into Chinese. They publish also several periodicals, and have hospitals and 
dispensaries in the principal cities where they work. 

It is now one hundred years since they commenced work in China. We append 
here the state of their Missions for the year 1902, as published by the Rev. Timothy 
Richard, no complete statistics having appeared since that date : 

Ordained Men 610 

Unordained Men (including Physicians) 578 

Missionaries' Wives 772 

Other Missionary Women (including Physicians) 825 

Native Workers (both Sexes) 6,388 

Missionary Stations or Residences 653 

Missionary Out-stations 2,476 

Communicants 112,808 

Adherents, not Communicants 91,864 

Day-schools 1,819 

Pupils in same 35,412 

Higher Institutions 170 

Students in same 5,150 

Foreign Male Physicians 162 

Foreign Women Physicians 79 

Hospitals or Dispensaries 257 

Patients during year reported 691,732 

The following is a full list of Protestant Missions in all China, alphabetically 
arranged. The table gives the date of their starting work in China, the number 
of foreign Missionaries, male and female, including physicians, the number of native 
helpers of both sexes, and the total native constituency, comprising communicants 
and adherents, not communicants. The results tabulated are those supplied by the 
various Societies themselves. 



Statistics of Protestant Missions in 

all China, 



Year of 

First work 

in Field. 





Native Co 



not com- 

American Societies. 

American Advent Mission Society 





American Baptist Missionary Union 





American Bible Society 




American Board of Foreign Missions 






American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions ... 






American Norwegian (Lutheran) China Mission ... 






Board of Foreign Missions, Presb. Church, North 





Board of Foreign Mission, Reformed Church in 


Board of Mission & Church Erection, Cumb. Presb. 







Board of Missions of the M. E. Church, South ... 






Christian and Missionary Alliance 






Dom. and For. M. S., Protestant Episcopal Church 





Exec. Com. of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian 

Church, South 





Foreign Christian Missionary Society 





Foreign Department, Y. M. C. A. North America 



Foreign Mission Board, Southern Baptist Convention 





Foreign Mission Committee, Presbyterian Church, 






Gospel Mission (Independent Baptist Missionary 





Hauges Synod's China Mission 






Home and Foreign Missionary Society, United 

Evang. Church 



Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, Canada 




Missionary Society of the Methodist EpiscopalChurch 






Mission Board of Seventh-day Adventists 



Scandinavian Alliance Mission of North America 




51 ; 

Scandinavian American Christian Free Mission ... 





Seventh-day Baptist Missionary Society 






Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant of America 





Synod of Reformed Presbyterian Church in North 





Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, M.E. Church, 





Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, Methodist 

Prot. Church 



Woman's Missionary Association, United Brethren 

in Christ 





218 I 

Wowian's Missionary Society, Methodist Church, 

Canada , 



Woman's Union Missionary Society ... . ' 





Statistics of Protestant Missions in all China, 1902. 




British Societies. 

Baptist Missionary Society 

Baptist Zenana Mission 

Bible Christian Home and Foreign Missionary 


British and Foreign Bible Society 

Christian Missions (commonly called "Brethren") 

Church Missionary Society 

Church of England Zenana Missionary Society ... 
Chm*ch of Scotland Foreign Mission 
Church of Scotland Women's Association for F. M. 
Foreign Mission of the Presbyterian Church, Ireland 
Foreign Missions Committee, Presb. Church, 


Friends' Foreign Mission Association 

London Missionary Society ... 

Methodist New Connexion Missionary Society ... 

Missions to Seamen 

Mission to Lepers in India and the East 

Mission to the Chinese Blind 

National Bible Society of Scotland 

Society for Propag. of the Gospel (North China 


United Free Church of Scotland Foreign Missions 
United Methodist Free Churches, H. and F. Missions 
Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society 

° ?2i 

u ? aj I 


First i 
in Fi 
























































Native Constituency 




















Continental Societies. 
Allg. evangelisch-protestantischer Missionsverein 

Berliner Frauenverein fiir China 

Danske Missionsselskabs 

Deutsche Blindenmission in China, in Hildesheim 

Deutsche China-Allianz-Mission 

Evangelische Missions-Gesellschaft, Basel 

Frauen Verein fiir christliche Bildung des weibli- 

chen Geschlechtes in Morgenlande 

Ges. z. Beforderung d. ev. Missionen unter d. Heiden 

Norsk Luthersk Kinamissionsforbund 

Rbeinische Missionsgesellschaft 

Sallskapet Svenska Baptist Missionin 

Svenska Missionsforbundet 

International Society. 
China Inland Mission 

Grand Total, 68 Societies 
























18 i7 
























The Foreign Missionaries comprise ordained and unordained men, Missionaries' 
wives and physicians. The uative helpers comprise workers of both sexes. 


Malioiuedantaiii, known in China as Hweihwei-kiao g) ! 

[U ft^returning religion, because they turn to Mecca in prayer), | 
was founded in Arabia by Mahomet, in the VII th century of the 
christian era. Part of its doctrine is borrowed from the Jewish I 
religion or from Catholicism, while other parts are due to the 
founder himself. Mahomedans came to China for the first time ! 
in the IX th century, as traders. Some entered the country from 
central Asia, while others arrived through the seaport towns of | 
Canton and Hangchow. Much of the science and arts of the 
West was brought to China by them. In 1272, a Mussulman 
observatory was established in Peking. In 1311, it is again i 
mentioned in Chinese annals, and lasted till 1622, when the i 
Jesuit, Adam Schall, was appointed President of the Board of 
Mathematics. In 1645, the Mussulmans of Kashgar, Yarkand, I 
and Khotan, sent tribute to Peking. Mussulmans are found at 
present especially in the N.W. and S.W. of China. In Shensifo 
pt ]§, there are 4 millions, and in Kansu -ft* f/f, about 6| 
millions of them. In Yunnan §| "$f, they number from 3 to] 
4 millions. These three Provinces contain four-fifths of the whole 
Moslem population of the country, which according to official 
censuses reaches from 15 to 20 millions. Peking has 200,000 
Mussulmans, who monopolize the inn and cart trade of the N. 
Socially, they keep aloof from the Chinese, and do not intermarry 
with pagans. In regard to religion, they have been treated by 
China with the broadest toleration, and are eligible to all posts 
in the State open to ordinary Chinese. The principal mosques 
are found at Singan Fu, Nanking, Hangchow and Canton. 

There have been several rebellions of considerable impor- 
tance by the Mahomedans against the Chinese government. All 1 
these troubles have grown out of the occupation of Kashgar by 
China in 1760. The two principal uprisings are known as th< 
Tungan and Panthay revolts. 

The Tungan revolt broke out in Kansu in 1861, and waf 
caused by the Moslem aspiration to restore the Khoja dynasty 
The rebellion spread Westward, and extended to Hi and Easterr 
Turkestan or Kashgaria. In 1871, Russia occupied Hi, am 


held it till 1881, when it was restored to China. In 1872, the 
Chinese General Tso Tsungt'ang £ S* 5Ei a * the head of the 
Imperialists, attacked the rebels, and took successively their 
strongholds, at Hami, Urumtsi, Yarkand and Kashgar. The 
revolt was finally crushed by the taking of Khotan, 3 rd Janaary, 
1878. This Northern rebellion lasted 17 years, and exerted a 
most depopulating effect upon the Empire. The number of those 
who were killed is estimated to be about 10,000,000. (See p. 31). 

The Vanthuy revolt originated in Yunnan in 1856. The 
Lolos also joined in it. It was caused by local tyranny, the 
success of the Mahomedans in gold-mining, and the ill-will and 
treachery of the Chinese officials. The Mussulmans seized Tali 
Fu, and in 1858, held the whole of Yunnan, except the Capital. 
In 1872, the Viceroy Tseng Kwohfan f g| and the Chinese 
general, Yang Yuhk'o j§fr ^ 7^, attacked and recovered Tali. 
Relentless cruelty and wholesale massacres marked the victory. 
Seventeen chieftains were beheaded, 20,000 of the defenceless 
people of the city put to the sword, and 24 large baskets full of 
fiuman ears sent to Yunnan Fu. The Sultan's head was severed 
Tom his body, and sent preserved in a jar of honey to Peking. 

The Panthay rebellion lasted 16 years, and was well nigh 
wresting Yunnan from its allegiance to Peking. Like the North- 
ern rebellion, it resulted in largely depopulating the Province 
ind ruining local industry. [See p. 174, 181 and 183). 

Judaism. — The Jewish religion is represented at present 
n China, by a colony of about 400 Israelites, who are found at 
Caifung Fu PJ JJ /(Sf, capital of Honan Jpf ffi Province. They 
ire in a state of ignorance and poverty, and their creed has 
ilmost died out in the midst of their heathen surroundings. 

Their religion seems to have been introduced into China 
*t the close of the X th century, or even as late as the XII th , if 
ve credit some stone tablets and inscriptions. The oral tradi- 
ion of the colony states however, that their ancestors came to 
vhina under the Emperor Mingti t£j ^, of the Han §| dynasty, 
,'etween A.D. 58 and A.D. 76, or perhaps even before the 
hristian era. 


4\ Edu cation. 

Old System. — In former times, China properly speaking 
had no educational system. Two principal forms of instruction 
could however be distinguished, elementary and secondary. 

Elementary Instruction. — This was imparted to children 
within their families, by private pedagogues, or by teachers in 
small schools. These schools were seldom frequented by more 
than 20 pupils. Parents and guardians were free to send their 
children to school. There were no schools for girls, and their 
education was generally neglected. Masters received no salary 
from the State, but the families of the pupils paid them a small 
remuneration. No certificate or grade was required for teaching, 
and no book or curriculum was compulsory. There was however 
a selection of books and a programme imposed by tradition. 

The child began by memorizing the Classics for 4 or 5 years. 
During all this time the meaning of the characters was no 
explained. There was no class-system, but each boy made i 
class by himself. Play was unknown, and was considered { 
waste of time. At the end of the 4 or 5 years' memorizing, ai 
explanation or translation of the book style was given in eas; 
language (see above, p. 347. n° 1). This explains how a goo< 
many Chinese can read the characters, but do not understan 
them, and are in fact illiterate. If the boy wished to procee 
a stage further, he was taught letter-writing and easy composi 
tion. This latter required little intelligence, being largely made u 
of quotations, allusions, antithetical phrases and word-particle 

The whole system laboured under serious disadvantage 
resulted in a considerable waste of time and had no education 
value. The memory and imitative power were marvellous 
developped, but the mind was not stored with valuable idea 
nor trained to precision or accuracy, and there was an utt 
lack of originality. 

Secondary Instruction, — This comprised beyond the pi; 
mary stage a short course of Chinese literature, a smattering 


history gleaned principally from the annals of ancient times, the 
writing of literary essays, and some artificial verse making. 

The curriculum being completed, the student could test his 
proficiency, and compete at the Civil Examinations. These were 
three in number, and in each of them a degree corresponding 
to our B. A., M. A., L.L.D., was conferred upon successful 

The first competitive examination took place in the Prefec- 
tural city. The degree conferred was that of Siuts'ai |f ^ 
(budding talent) or B.A. 

The second examination took place at the Provincial capital. 
Successful candidates were styled Kiijen §| \ (promoted scho- 
lars) or M.A., also called Provincial graduates. 

The third examination was held at Peking ^fc }{C. The 
degree obtained was that of Tsinshi jgl -J£ (entered scholar) or 
L.L.D., also called Metropolitan graduate. 

A large number of candidates competed at each of these 
examinations, but only a small percentage was received. Thus 
out of 12,000 or 20,000, who competed at the second examina- 
tion held in each Provincial capital, the number received was 
between 110 and 100. Again, out of 6,000, who underwent the 
third examination in Peking, about 320 were received, or a 
little over 5 per cent. 

Before undergoing a superior examination, it was necessary 
to have passed the preceding inferior one. There were however 
some exceptions through privilege. Several inferior degrees 
could be secured by purchase. 

The second and third examinations were held but once 
every three years. Through privilege, or on the occasion of 
Imperial rejoicing, they sometimes took place more frequently. 

The exercises proposed at these examinations comprised 
original poems and literary essays or Winchang ^£ j§£, upon 
texts selected from the Classics. Each examination lasted 
through several sessions or days, three for the B. A. and M. A. 
degrees, and one for the L.L.D. degree. 

Each Province had a fixed number of admissions for the 


M.A. and L.L.D. degrees. Those for the M.A. were as follows 



Kansu 40 





Kiangsi 104 





Kiangsu 87 





Kwangsi 51 





Kwangtung 86 





Kweichow 50 



The number of those who effectively received the M.A. 
degree in 1903, was however as follows: 



M.A. Graduates. 

M.A. Graduates. 


of the Provinces. 




imated. 1 












































































Under the name of Manchu graduates are comprised all Manchus, Mongols, ar. 
Chinese Bannermen, or descendants of those Chinese who joined the Manchu ctynast, 
in the early part of the XVII th century (see above : Army. p. 329). 

It may be seen from this table that the number of admissions for each Provinc 
does not always tally with that which has been previously fixed. — An appromnwtia 
confers on the recipient no privilege for subsequent examinations. 

The number of those who effectively secured the L.L.I 
degree in 1904, was as follows : 







Shantung 20 





Shensi 10 





Szechw'an 13 





Yunnan 10 





Manchu Bannermen 8 





Manchuria 2 





The session for obtaining this degree lasted from 15 to 20 days. 

It is from the ranks of M.A. and L.L.D. graduates that 
officials are generally recruited. The grade however confers 
no substantive office or appointment, but paves the way to sub- 
sequent official preferment. 

Most of the Prefectural cities have two Directors of Educa- 
tion, styled Hsiohshi ^k gfj or Kiuokuau |fc t fr. 

The Provincial Examiners are generally officials of high 
literary rank, who are appointed from Peking to serve for 3 
years in this capacity. They are called Hsiohcheng *£ fljfc, 
vulgo Hsiohtfai %$k g, or Provincial Literary Chancellors. 
Each Province has one Provincial Examiner, who resides gene- 
rally in the Capital of that Province. 

modern System of Education. — In the year 1902, new 
regulations were sanctioned by the Emperor, with the purpose 
of reforming the old system of public instruction avowedly 
insufficient, and inadequate to the requirements of the present 
day. In accordance with the same regulations, Peking # # 
was to have a University teaching the following branches : civil 
administration, law, literature, science, agriculture, industry, 
commerce and medicine. To the University were also to be 
attached a Technical College for teaching superior branches, 
Faculties, a Preparatory Course, and a Special Department for 
the training of officials and of teachers for government schools. 

Subsequently another Imperial decree, dated September 2 nd 
1905, abolished, beginning from the year 1906, the old-style 
programme and method of examinations, as well as the annual 
competitions in the Provinces for the obtaining of degrees. 
The great power and wealth enjoyed by Western countries, the 




assertive influence of Japan, the need of forming statesmen of 
talent and ability, of giving the people substantial and practical 
knowledge, and preparing them for a constitutional government, 
determined China to take this step. 

The new system comprises the study of the Chinese lan- 
guage, Chinese literature and composition, the various modern 
sciences, history and geography, foreign languages, gymnastics, 
drill, and in the higher grades political economy, civil and 
international law. 

The following is a short sketch of the various grades of Schools according to this 
new system. 

(trades of Schools. 


of Course 


1 — Primar}' or Elementary Schools 


2 — Higher Primary Schools 


3 — Middle Schools 


4 — High Schools 


5 — University Course 

3 or 4 

— Technical College 


Elementary Schools are to he opened everywhere throughout the Empire. 

Higher Primary in the District towns or Suh-prefectures. 

Middle Schools in the Prefectural cities. 

High Schools in every Provincial capital. 

The University and Technical College are to be opened in Peking. 

The study of foreign languages is generally not allowed in elementar)' school? 
but is confined to the Middle and High Schools. English and Japanese are to be prii: 
cipally studied, while French, German and Russian are optional. 

The University is to have eight Faculties, divided into 4G branches. 

Degrees in the New System. — The degrees to be conferred upon successfi 
candidates are as follows. 

On completing the Higher Primary Course 


,, the Middle Course 

Distinguished B.A 

,, the High Course 


,, the University Course 


,, the Technical College Course 

( T.C.L.L.D. or 

} Doctor of the 
f Technical College 


Normal and Special Schools. — Besides the above-mentioned Schools, there 
are also Lower and Higher Normal Schools ; — Industrial Schools (agriculture and 
manufactures) ; — and Commercial Schools. The Industrial Schools are divided into 
three grades : lower, middle and higher. The Normal Schools are devoted to the 
training of teachers for the Industrial and Commercial Schools. 

Moreover, there is to he at Peking a special course for the new L.L.D. graduates, 
a preparatory department for the University (during the first years), and a special 
school for translating foreign works. 

In future, Officials will be selected from amongst those who have received a 
modern education. In Naval and Military Schools, Foreign Instructors are generally 
employed. In the Government Schools of Chihli and Hupeh, the Foreign Teachers are 
mostly Japanese. 

The Government sends a large number of students abroad, especially to Great 
Britain, the United-States, France, Germany and Belgium. Of late, many have found 
their way to Japan. In July 1906, the number of them studying in the Universities 
of this latter country attained 13,000, half of whom were maintained at Government 

During the year 190G, the new system has been carried out with praiseworthy 
efforts. Officials and gentry vied with each other in establishing Schools, elementary 
and technical, but the pratical results are comparatively small. Lack of funds, and 
especially of competent teachers, proves a great hindrance to real progress. 

Administration of the Schools. — The administration of these Schools is to 
be conducted as follows : 

1° A Board of Education in Peking. This will be composed of High Literary 

2° A Provincial Bureau, with a special Staff for each Province. 

3° A Local Educational Bureau, to which will be admitted leading members of 
the gentry of the place. 

4° A Provincial Examination Bureau, for examining and conferring degrees on 
candidates from the Middle and High Schools. 

5° A Metropolitan Examination Bureau, for examining and conferring degrees 
on University candidates. 

Primary education is granted free of cost, and is not compulsory. A tuition fee 
is to be paid for all other grades, except in Normal Schools, where the expenses are 
defrayed by the Government, but students must engage to teach during a period of six 
years in the State Schools. 

The programme and moral tone of the Government Schools are exclusively Con- 
fucianist, and the teaching of foreign religions is prohibited. 

Private and Mission Schools. — Numerous private Schools have been 
opened in the large towns and other important centres, by the local gentry, and by 
leading merchants. Mission schools and colleges are also numerous throughout the coun- 
try, Roman Catholic predominating. The Shanghai Catholic Mission has a University, 
a College and Industrial School at Sicawei, 5 miles from Shanghai, and maintains, in and 
around Shanghai, 50 other schools, with an attendance of .S,750 pupils. The Protestants 
have Universities at Peking, Nanking, Shanghai and Soochow, and several Colleges 
and Schools throughout the Empire. — All these Schools offer opportunities for 
general culture, and tend to develop an enlightened and useful citizen. Their aim is to 




bring up "Young China" at home, and give a thorough literary, scientific and practical 
education. Instruction is given in both "Western and Chinese languages. 

Old-Style Military Examinations. — These examinations comprised like 
the civil ones three sessions. The first was awarded the title of Military B.A. or 
Wu Siuts'ai fR 5^ ^, the second that of Military M. A. or Wu Kiijen jjfc Ijl \, 
and the third, that of Military L.L.D. or Wu Tsinshi ^ ^ tt- Little knowledge of 
letters however was required of the candidate. To pass successfully, he was to be 
above all a man of muscle, and show it in the lifting of heavy weights, swordmanship 
and skill in archery. 

The number of graduates was fixed for each Province. The aggregate for the 
whole Empire was 963 military B.A. s. and 128 military L.L.D. s. 

It was from the ranks of successful candidates that military officers were mostly 
recruited. Having scarcely any knowledge of letters, of tactics, gunnery, engineering 
or fortifications, they were generally little esteemed by the people. 

The above old-style of examination is now abolished, and the New Army is 
drilled, armed and disciplined in foreign style. Soldiering is becoming more respectable, 
and every endeavour made to organize a national army (see above ; Army. p. 332-333). 



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Strength of Protestant Missions in China 

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Statistics of Protestant Missionary Societies 

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XXX. p. 144-145; 153-541. 
Total of Missionary Societies and Adherents 

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Present Educational Needs of China. — 
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Educational Reconstruction in Peking. — 
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Japanese Educational Influence in China, 

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361. — idem. p. 628). 
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China is essentially an agricultural country. More than two 
thirds of the inhabitants are cultivators of the soiL 

Chinese agriculture. — A striking feature of Chinese 
agriculture is that cattle-breeding and the planting of trees are 
almost entirely neglected. There are no large herds of cattle or 
flocks of sheep, as are found in other countries, no natural or arti- 
fical meadows, and the woods or forests are not thinned. The only 
pasture-lands are the slopes of mountains, which cannot be used 
for any other purpose; the only forests, those which have grown 
spontaneously in high and uncultivated places. Even these latter, 
which are seldom met with, except in Hunan $3$f, Fokien jg^ 
and Kweichow jj; $\, are disappearing rapidly. The consequence of 
this lack of foresight is that China is almost destitute of firewood, 
and has to import timber at heavy cost from distant countries. 

The only cultivated places are the bottoms of valleys, and 
the plains. In the richer and more thickly populated districts, 
mountains are however utilized, and the slopes are sometimes 
terraced even to the top of lofty hills. 

Cultivation varies with the nature of the soil, the altitude, 
irrigation, and climate. Rice for instance, thrives in the JV. of 
Kansu -\jf Jff, but does not grow in Kiangpeh f£ 4t or Northern 
Kiangsu f£ j$|. Some plants cannot be raised beyond a certain 
latitude. Tea does not grow in the valley of the Hwang-ho J| }pf, 
and the sugar-cane is rarely found beyond the Southern bank of 
the Yangtze ffi ^f. The banana, palm and lichi %% jfe irees oear 
fruit only in the South. 

The number of crops also varies with different regions. In 
the N. 9 there is generally but one crop; in the Centre, two or three, 


while in the S., especially in the low plain of the Si-kiang |f tt 
or West River, three are generally raised. 

The methods applied have not yet got beyond the most rudi- 
mentary stage, and improvements arrived at in other countries 
are but little known. Implements are rough and imperfect, the 
manuring is insufficient, and the rotation of crops scarcely ever 
carried out. There are no machines for thrashing the corn, and the 
rice-cleaning and cotton-ginning instruments are most primitive. 
There are no roads on which horses or buffaloes can bring home 
the crops. The small, weak plough does its work but superficially. 
If the soil produces an abundant harvest, this is entirely owing 
to its fertility and the patient labour of the husbandman. 

In the great Northern plain, the changeable character of 
the weather renders the harvest very uncertain* Drought, rain 
or floods, often destroy the fruit of long and toilsome labour. In 
the Central and Southern regions, the harvest is less exposed* 

Distribution of crops. — In the great Northern plain, 

wheat, barley, millet, buckwheat and maize are the staple crops. 

In the Provinces of the Upper Hwang-ho J| fpf, rice (but 
only in some districts), rhubarb, the poppy, tobacco and fruit- 
trees are chiefly cultivated. 

In the Central Provinces are found rice, tea, cotton, the 
Chinagrass plant or ramie fibre, the poppy, mulberry, varnish, 
lacquer and tallow trees. The silkworm is also reared in this 

In the South-Eostern Provinces are found the sugar-cane, 
rice, the groundnut and cinnamon. The silkworm also abounds. 

In the South-Western Provinces, the poppy is cultivated, 
and also tea, tobacco, rice, wheat, maize and barley. 

Various agricultural products of China. 

Plants cultivated for food. — By these are meant all those 
products which man uses for his food. In China, the following 
are principally found : rice, wheat, barley, millet, potatoes, peas, 
beans, and a great variety of leguminous and aquatic plants. 

Rice, called in Chinese taomi jfg Jfc, is the staple product 
and food of the country. Two kinds of it are chiefly cultivated: 



one which grows only in water, and the other, or red rice, 
cultivated on the uplands. It generally requires 4 months before 
a crop of rice can be harvested. 

Plants utilized in industry. — By these are meant all those 
that must first undergo some process of transformation before 
they are fit for use by man. Some of these, he uses to supply 
him with drink. Among them, we may mention wine. In China, 
this is made from the juice of the grape, but in small quantity. 
A special kind of spirit is obtained from rice and millet. Textile 
plants are transformed into cloths. These plants abound in 
China, the principal being the cotton-plant, hemp, the China- 
grass-plant or ramie fibre (Bcehmeria nivea). Silk is also used 
for clothing, but mostly by the richer classes. Taper is made 
from the pulp of the bamboo, and cords from its fibres, as well 
as from those of the palm-tree. The oil of the country is obtained 
from rape, cottonseed and groundnuts. The most extensively 
cultivated of all these plants are the tea and cotton shrubs, the 
sugar-cane, the bamboo arid the poppy plant. The leaves of the 
mulberry are much esteemed, and are used throughout the 
country for feeding the silkworm. 

Tea is the general beverage of the Chinese people. The 
tea-plant or ch'a ^ [see above : p. 226), is chiefly cultivated in 
the following Provinces : Fokien jjjg gr, Nganhwei ■$ ^, 
Kiangsi ft |f, Hupeh $J| 4fc, Hunan $Jj $j, Szechw*an )\] 
and Yunnan j| |j|. A highly esteemed kind, called P*ueul $& 
}Jf tea, is cultivated in this latter Province (see p. 180). The 
tea crop is gathered 3 times a year. The first, which consists 
of the tender sprouts of the shrub, furnishes the best and most 
delicate teas. The greater part of the crops is consumed in the 
country, while part is exported to foreign countries. The chief 
export towns are Harik'ow }g P in Hupeh $Jj ;|fc , Shanghai £ 
% in Kiangsu ft g|, Hangchow jjft JH in Chekiang $ft ft, Foo- 
chow jjg >)\\ in Fokien jjifa ^, and Canton or Kwangchow Fu Jf 
$1 ffi in the Province of Kwangtung ^ jfc. Of late years, Chinese 
tea has not been so well prepared as Ceylan and Indian teas, 
hence its export has much decreased. The leaves when gathered 


are prepared in four different ways, thus producing the following 
kinds . black, green, brick and dust teas* Brick tea is mostly 
forwarded to Siberia, Mongolia and Russia, via Kiakhta and 
Tientsin 5? St, and to Tibet, via Hank'ow JH p . The other kinds of 
leaf-tea are exported principally to Great Britain and the United- 
States, the Continental countries being largely coffee-drinkers. 

The poppy-plant or yingsuh g |j| (jar-seed, so called 
from the jar-like shape of the capsules) was grown in China 
at an early date for ornamental purposes. Its medicinal pro- 
perties became known by Mahomedan merchants (see p. 36?), 
who entered the country through Central Asia, and through 
Canton. Opium-smoking was introduced from Java and For- 
mosa in the early part of the XVIII th century. The first edict 
against the habit was issued in 1729. The cultivation of the 
poppy, for the sake of its extract, began in China about 1830, 
and developed rapidly. It is chiefly grown in the following 
Provinces : Yunnan JJ j|j t KweicJunv JJ Jfl, Szechufan [JXJ Jl|, 
Kansu -# H, Shensi $£ |f , Shansi ]\\ ]§, Shantung \\\ jg, 
Honan fpj $sf, North Kiangsu fr |jc< ana * Ch$kiung Jifff £j\ It is 
less extensively cultivated in the other Provinces. It has been 
estimated that there are 25 or 30,000,000 opium smokers in 
China. Its abuse by rich and poor has injured and beggared 
the country. To remedy the evil, His Majesty Kwanghsii has 
issued September 20 th , 1906, an edict, directing that the growth, 
sale and consumption of opium cease within 10 years, and 
ordering that the Government prepare measures for carrying 
out the Imperial Will. These measures have been subsequently 
drawn up and sanctioned by the Throne. They may be summed 
up as follows : 1° the cultivation of the poppy to be restricted 
annually by one-tenth of its present area; 2° all persons using 
it to be registered ; 3° all shops selling opium to be closed 
gradually, and all places where opium is smoked will have to dis- 
continue this practice within six months; 4° anti-opium societies 
will be officially encouraged. Moreover, all officials are requested 
to set an example to the people. Those over sixty will be 
treated leniently, but all under this age must abandon the habit 


within six months, and if they cannot do so, they must withdraw 
from the service of the State. Some Viceroys have already 
enforced these regulations within their respective juridictions. 
Great Britain has been approached by China, in regard to the 
gradual importation of Indian opium, while the other Powers 
have been requested to co-operate in the solution of this whole- 
some reform. 

The sugar-cane, called in Chinese kanchi ^ g£, is prin- 
cipally cultivated in the Provinces of Kwangtung J| )g, Fokien 
/jiS £1 ana * Sxechw*an )\\. The methods employed for the 
manufacture of sugar are still very primitive. Several foreign 
sugar refineries have also been established, and are doing good 
business. The greater part of the sugar is despatched to 
Hongkong §/$ [see p. 280), whence it is re-exported into China. 

The cotton-plant, or mienhwa-shu %% '{[ ||j", is chiefly 
grown in Kiangsu fx. $?> Nganhwei jj? $J, and Hupeh jljfl 4fc 
Provinces. The seed is sown in May, and the crop gathered in 
September. The down or floss is of two colours, white and yellow. 
The white kind is the more widely cultivated, and also the more 
lasting, while the yellow is shorter, and much less esteemed. 

Useful trees. — China abounds in useful trees sought 
after for their timber, or prized for their industrial properties. 
The principal of these are the gum-lac tree or ts'ihtze-shu j§g 
^f jgf, the varnish-tree or t'ungtze-shu fle] ^ i^, the tallmv-tree 
or kiientze-shu Jjf ^f- Hf, the wane-tree or pehlah-shu £j «^ $$f, 
the camphor-tree or chang-shu ^ |$g-, the soap-tree or tsao- 
kioh-chu Jfl'^! fit, and the palm-tree or tsung-shu ^ |jf. 

The mulberry-tree, or sang-shu H JJJ, is cultivated for its 
leaves, which serve for rearing the silkworm. It is found prin- 
cipally in the Provinces of Kiangsu f£ j$|, CFiekiang ftft Jq, and 
Szechw'an |Q j||. 

A special kind of silkworm feeds on the leaves of the wild 
oak in the Provinces of Kweichow j^ ji\, Honan jpf "^, and 
Shantung iJj ^. 

(China is one of the principal silk-producing countries. Its 
produce alone attains 27°/ of the total amount consumed by 


foreign countries. Of this, 18°/ comes from the N., and 7°/ from 
the S. of China. As to the remainder of the world's silk, Italy 
furnishes 25 /<» Japan 28°/ , and the other countries 20°/ o ). 

Here, we may also add the bamboo or chuhtze fj -^f, which 
embellishes the Chinese landscape and homestead, and may be 
called the national plant. Native botanists reckon sixty varieties 
of it, all applied to numerous domestic and industrial purposes. 
Its tender shoots are used for food, its roots are transformed 
into canes, its tapering culms supply poles and masts, or are 
made into tables, stools, chopsticks, pipes, umbrellas, fans, 
and even musical instruments. 

Fruit-trees. — The principal fruit-bearing trees are : the 
peach (t'ao-shu #fc 1$) and pear-trees (li-shu ^ j|§}), the apricot 
(hsing-shu § $J), the apple (p'inkwo-shu jgj Jl ;fff) and plum- 
trees (litze-shu ^ ^jp Hf), the arbutus-tree (wumei-shu J* jfe 
;JfJ), the orange (kiihtze-shu ffi ^ jfff), Jujube (tsao-shu jg IB") 
and banana (patsiao-shu "g ^g i|§}), the lichi $$ ^), the 
pine-apple (polo-shu $jr |j Hf), the mango-tree (mangku-shu 
# "& ^), the vine (p'ut'ao-shu % %j ®). chestnut (lihtze-shu 
M ~P $J) ana " walnut-trees (hoht'ao-shu ^ ft J|}), tne * >er " 
simmon (shitze jffc ^f. Diospyrus kaki), the medlar or loquat 
(lukiih f^^S, pronounced in Cantonese lukwat, i.e. rush-orange). 
This fruit is also called pHp'a (\]fc \Q pronounced bibo in the 
Shanghai dialect), or biwa [see p. 18). 

Domestic animals. — The principal domestic animals 
are : the horse, ass, mule, water-buffalo, dog, cat, rabbit, pig, 
goat, sheep, hen, duck, goose and pigeon. In the N., the camel 
is also employed as a beast of burden [see p. 17). 

Szechw'an JQ )\\ and Kweichow j|; $1 produce the best 
breed of ponies. They are also imported in great numbers from 

Pisciculture. — In some parts of China, principally in the low valley of the 
Yangtze jg •%-, the spawn and fry of fish are gathered, and cast into the rivers and 
lakes. A little yolk of egg, bean-gruel, or chopped grass, afford at first sufficient food. 
The fish grow rapidly, and form a considerable extra to the diet of the people. 

Fishing is extensively carried on in the rivers, and along the coast, and fur- 
nishes millions with a means of subsistence (see p. 17). 




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Silk industry. — Tea. Ch. VI. 120-137. — 
Gardens in China. Ch. XXIII. p. 367-370). 

Dyer Ball J. — Things Chinese. Shang- 
hai, 1903. (Agriculture in China, p. 13-25. 
— Silk. p. 616-623. — Tea. p. 681-697. — 
Rice. p. 605-607. — Cotton, p. 183-187. — 
Flowers, p. 284-287. Fruit, p. 296-300. — 
Gardens, p. 301-303). 

Thomson J. — The Land and People of 
China. London, 1876. (Agriculture. Ch. 
IX. p. 216-240). 

Williams. — Agriculture of China.Chinese 
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Williams. — Agricultural Implements 
used by the Chinese. Chinese Repository. 
(Vol. V. p. 485-494). 

Green G.R.— Agriculture of China. Wash- 
ington, 1856. 

JamiesOn G. — Tenure of Land in China 
and the Condition of the rural Population. 
(N.C.B.R.A. Soc.Vol. XXIII. p. 59-78). 

Smith A. -— Village Life in China. New- 
York, 1903. 

Williams. — Rice, its Varieties, Mode of 
Cultivation etc. Chinese Repository. (Vol. 
III. p. 231-234). 



Fortune R. — Tea Countries of China. 
London, 1853. 

Fortune R. — Residence among the Chi- 
nese. London, 1897. 

Von Rosthorn. — On the Tea Cultivation 
in W. Ssuch'uan. London, 1882. 

Remarks on the Tea Plant. — Chinese 
Repository. (Vol. XVIII. p. 13-18). 

Collins V. D. — Sorgo or Northern Sugar- 
cane. (N.C. B. R. A. Soc. New Series, 
18G5. p. 85 sq.). 

J u lien S.— Resume des principaux traites 
Chinois sur la culture des M (triers et 
l'education des vers a soie. Paris, 1837. 

Force P. — Summary of the Principal 
Chinese Treatises on the culture of the 
Mulberry and rearing of Silkworms. 
Washington, 1838. 

Al lorn — Details of the Manufacture of 
Silk and the Culture of Silkworms. Chi- 
nese Repository. (Vol. XVI. p. 223-230. 

Fauvel A. — The Wild Silkworms of the 
Province of Shantung. China Review, 

1877. (Vol. VI. p. 89-107). 
Ratbouis 0. — Des Vers a soie sauvages 

de la Province du Chan-toung. (Etudes, 

1878. p. 559-572). 

Fauvel A. — Les Sericigenes sauvages 

de la Chine. Paris, 1895 
M c Cartee D. R. — The Wild Silkworm 

of China. (N. C. B. R. A. Soc. 1860. art. 

5. p. 75 sq.). 
Sii Kwangki Paul. — Dissertation on 

the silk manufacture and the cultivation 

of the Mulberry. Shanghai, 1849. (See also 

Chinese Miscellany n° 3). 
La Fabrication de la soie illustree. — La 

Culture du riz illustree. — L'Agriculture 

et la soie illustree. Shanghai. 
Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs. — 

Special Series. (Silk and Silk Statistics. 

n os 3 and 12). 
The Manufacture of Silk. — Chinese Repo- 
sitory. (Vol. XVI. p. 223-230). 
Cultivation of the Mulberry. — Chinese 

Repository. (Vol. XVIII. p. 303-314). 
Les Vers a soie sauvages. — Memoires 

concernant les Chinois. Paris, 1786. (Vol. 

II. p. 174-19J). 
Robertson D. R. — Cotton in China. (N. 

C. B. R. A. Soc. 1859. p. 302-308). 
Cultivation of Cotton in the District of 

Shanghai. — Chinese Repository. (Vol. 

XVIII. p. 449-469). 

Rrldgman E. O. — Chinese Grasscloth. 

Chinese Repository. (Vol. XVI. p. 209- 

Williams. — Manufacture of Grasscloth. 

Chinese Repository. (Vol. XVIII. p. 209- 

216; 554-500). 
Jarvie R. — Respecting Chinagrass. (N. 

C.B.R.A. Soc. 1865. p. 171 seq). 
Moorman T.— La Ramie ou Ortie blanche 

(Boehmeria nivea), sa description, son 

origine, maniere de la preparer indus- 

triellement. Gand, 1871. 
Maegowan D. J. — The Tallow-tree. 

Chinese Repository. (Vol. XX. p. 422- 

Memoires concernant les Chinois. Paris, 

1786. — (Ceremonie du Labourage. Vol. 

III. p. 449-504. — Sur les Cotonniers. 

Vol. II. p. 196-212. — Sur le Bambou. 

Vol. II. p. 212-228.— Notices sur quelques 

plantes et arbrisseaux de la Chine. Vol. 

III. p. 437-198. — Observations sur les 

plantes, fleurs et arbres de la Chine. Vol. 

XL p. 183-268). 
Parker E. H. — Chinese Account of the 

Opium War. Shanghai, 1888. 

MontgomeryMartinR.— China. London, 
1817. (Opium : Progress and extent of 
consumption. — Individual and National 
effects. — Denounced by the Chinese 
Government. — Unchristian conduct of 
England. Vol. II. Ch. IV. p. 171-262). 

Sirr H. C. — China and the Chinese. 
London, 1849. (Opium : consumption 
and cultivation in China. — Religious 
and Moral obligation of England. Ch. 
XII. p. 251-280). 

iledhurst W. H. — The Foreigner in Far 
Cathay. London, 1872. (Opium-smoking. 
Ch. IX. p. 84-88). 

Thomson J. — The Land and the People 
of China. London, 1876. (Evil effects of 
Opium. Ch. VI. p. 145-150). 

Turner F. S. — British Opium Policy and 
its Results to India and China. London, 

Dudgeon J. — The Evils of the use of 
Opium. (Annual Reports of the Peking 

Edkins J. — Historical Note on the Poppy . 
in China. Shanghai, 1898. 

Ralfour F. H. — Waifs and Strays from 
the Far East. London, 1876. (Opium. 
Ch. XII. p. 102-112). 



Thelwall A. S.— Iniquities of the Opium 
trade with China. London, 1S39. 

Williams. — The Middle Kingdom. New- 
York, 1861. (Opium trade. — Mode of 
cultivating the Poppy. — Preparation of 
Opium. — Prohibited by China. Vol. II. 
Ch. XX. p. 381-393). 

Dyer Ball J. — Things Chinese. Shang- 
hai, 1903. (Opium. — Evil results from 
Opium-smoking, p. 488-497). 

Park W. II. — Opinion of over 100 Phy- 
sicians on the use of Opium in China. 
Shanghai, 1899. 

Day II. — The Opium Habit. New-York, 

Hart E. — On the Use of Opium in India. 
London, 1894. 

Curzon G. N. — Problems of the Far East. 
London, 1S96. (The Opium Question. 
Ch. IX. p. 283). 

Martin D r E. — L'Opium : ses Abus ; 
Mangeurs et Fumeurs d'Opium. Paris, 
1893. (L'Opium en Chine. Ch. III-IV). 

Libermann D r H.— Les Fumeurs d'Opium 

en Chine. Paris, 1862. 

The Customs Opium-smoking Returns. — 
Kecorder. (Vol. XIII. and XIV. passim). 

The Spread of Morphia in China. — Recor- 
der. (Vol. XXXI. p. 2GG). 

Opium imported into Shanghai. — Recor- 
der, 1900. (Vol. XXXVII. p. 432). 

Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs. — 
Opium, 1864-1881. (Special Series). 

Dabry de Thiersant. — La Pisciculture 
et la Peche en Chine. Paris, 1872. 

Williams.— The Middle Kingdom. New- 
York 1861. Modes of catching Fish. (Vol. 
II. Ch. XV. p. 109-112). 

Dyer Ball J. — Things Chinese. Shang- 
hai, 1903. Cormorant fishing, p. 181-182. 

Cormorant fishing. — East of Asia Maga- 
zine. (Vol. II. p. 95-97). 

Carp Culture in Chekiang Province. — 
Recorder. (Vol. XVI. p. 201-207;. 

Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs. — 
Pisciculture in China. (Miscellaneous 
Series. N° 8 9 and 11). 



Mining. — Mines are numerous and rich throughout the 
18 Provinces. In the past, they were almost unknown, but in 
recent times, their exploitation has become more and more 
important. When worked they will certainly prove a great 
source of wealth for the country. 

The chief minerals are coal, iron and copper. 

The largest deposits of coal are found in Shansi |]j |f , 
Hunan $J| |g, Kweichow j| Jfl and Szechw'an J||. There 
are also important coal-fields in Chihli ]§[ f$, Shantung |Xf 3ft, 
Shensi gfc ]§, Honan jpj ^, Yunnan j| ]$j, Hupeh $ ;|t and 
Kwangtung ,Jg£ Tf[ Provinces. The amount of coal in Yunnan, 
Kweichow, and Kwangsi seems to reach 30,000,000,000 tons, 
and it is estimated that the vast coal measures of South- 
Shansi would amply supply the world with coal, at the present 
rate of consumption, for thousands of years to come. 

Coal mines are principally worked in the Province of 
Chihli \££ *$, at K'aip'ing §§ Zp, and also to the W. of Peking 
4fc]^; in Shansi \\\ |f Province, near T'aiyuen Fu -j^f^^\ " 
Hupeh $}J 4fc Province, to the S. of Wuch'ang Fu g | f; and 
also in the Provinces of Hunan $[| $g, Kwangtung J| jg and 
Shantung jjj ]g (see each of these Provinces : Mineral Wealth). 

Iron ore is found throughout all China. The best known, 
and also the richest and most actively exploited beds, are those 
of Tsehchow Fu % fi\ Jfr and P'ingting Chow ^ g? jjf in 
Southern Shansi |]j ]g; those likewise of Szechw'an |7jJ J||, 
Hunan gg |g, Honan }pf ^ and Shantung |Jj Jl. 

Copper is extracted in Yunnan Jf ^ and Kweichow J; 
*HJ. The mines are the property of the Chinese Government, 


which has monopolized the output for its own benefit. The 
copper extracted in those places is inadequate for the needs of 
the country, and about 30,000 tons are imported annually. 

Zinc and tin are extracted in Yunnan U $|, and quick- 
silver in Kweichow j|; >)]\. 

Gold, silver, and argentiferous lead, mines are little 
worked. They are mostly found in the Western and South- 
Western Provinces. Gold is found in grains in the beds of 
several rivers of the West, especially those of the Han-shui $| 
7JC and of the Upper Yangtze ^ : f. This latter river owes to 
this particularity its name of Kinsha-kiang £ jj? ££, or golden- 
sand river. The amount of the precious metal thus obtained is 
very small. 

Kerosene is found in small quantities in Szechw'an H )\\ 
and Kansu "^ Jj. 

Salt is obtained from brine-wells in Shansi \\\ || and Sze- 
chw'an J||, and from evaporated sea-water along the coast. 

mining regulations. — According to mining regulations 
established in March 1904, the Chinese Government reserves for 
itself 25% of the profit of all mines. A further charge of 20% 
is to be levied on the output of diamonds and precious stones; 
10% upon gold, silver and mercury; and 5% upon coal and 
iron. All minerals are moreover to pay an export duty of 5% 
and likin to the amount of 2|%. 

Industry. — Industry on a large scale is represented only 
by a few hundred manufacturing firms in the large cities. The 
crafts and small trades on the contrary are extensively developed, 
and comprise various branches but make little progress. Their 
methods being rudimentary, and their instruments so inadequate, 
they turn out only inferior articles despite long and tedious labour. 

We shall mention among these articles Indian ink, manu- 
factured in Nganhwei n£ $fc and Szechw'an (5 )\\ Provinces ; 
cotton-cloth in Hupeh JJJ jjfc ; fans, household furniture, lacquer 
ware and matting in Kwangtung J§| ]f( ; varnished tiles in Hu- 
nan JfSfl llH d V es in Ghihli nUft and Chekiang }$f £t; and almost 
everywhere paper, earthenware, bricks and coffins. 



Two manufactures deserve to be especially mentioned : 
porcelain and silk* both of which were formerly in a flourishing 
condition. The porcelain of Kiangsi jf£ "jftj obtained world-wide 
celebrity, and was in great demand on account of its brilliant 
colours, its exquisite finish and its quaint designs. In 1850, 
the T'aip'ing -fc, 2p. rebels destroyed the kilns, which have 
since been rebuilt, but the articles turned out are far from 
equalling in colour and finish those of former times. (See Kiang- 
si. p. 144). The silks and gauzes of Soochow j$jj jfl and Nan- 
king IS SC in Kiangsu £C jj£, and of Hangchow tfi >H1 in Che- 
kiang JJf ££, are highly valued throughout China, but are in 
little demand by foreigners, as they have neither the lustre, 
variety or finish of the French, Italian or Japanese silks. 

Industry on a large scale is carried on principally at the 
open ports. Cot ton- spinning and weaving mills (17 in all) are 
established in Shanghai J^ $J, Hank'ow g| P, Wuch'ang g£ g, 
Ningpo % $£ and Foochow jjjg *(+( ; silk-filatures in Shanghai, 
Soochow Jfft *|fl and Canton J| )ff ; dockyards in Shanghai, Foo- 
chow and Tientsin ^ jjj;; sugar refineries in Canton; steel- 
works in Hanyang ^| ^ (Hupeh $f] 4fc Province); arsenals in 
Shanghai, Wuch'ang and T'ientsin; mints in Peking 4b 7fC» 
Nanking"^ 5J(, Canton and other Provincial capitals; large 
printing establishments in Shanghai, T'ientsin, Foochow and 


La Mission Lyonnaise, 1808. — (Voir sur- 
tout dans la 2 e partie : DmoIos. Rapport 
but les Mines et la Metallurgie au Yun- 
nan, au Koei-tcheou. — Antoine et 
Metral. Rapport sur la soie. — Riault. 
Rapport sur le Coton et les Cotonnades. 
— Grosjean. Rapport sur les corps gras 
et leurs derives). 

Leclere. — Etude geologique et miniere 
des Provinces Chinoises voisines du Ton- 
kin. Paris, 1902. 

Monod. — Contribution a l'etude geologi- 
que de la Chine meridionale. (Bulletin 
econoniique de l'lndo-Chine). 

Leprince-Ringuet. — Etude geologique 

sur le N'ord de la Chine. 1901. 
Weurlesse. — Chine Ancienne et Nou- 

velle. Paris, 1902. (surtout 2 e partie. 

Ch. I). 
Grandidier. — La Ceramique Chinoise 

Paris, 1894. 
Chavannes. — La Sculpture sur pierre 

en Chine au temps des 2 dynasties Han. 

Paris, 1893. 
Paleologue M. — L'Art Chinois. Paris, 

de Marguerye R. — L'Art chez les Chi- 
nois. Paris, 1904. 




Leboueq. — Vie de M» r Dubar. 187!). (In- 
dustrie. Cb. V.). 

Julien S. — Fabrication de la Poroelaine 
Cbinoise. Paris, 1856. 

Julien S. — Industries Anciennes et Mo- 
dernes de l'Empire Chinois. Paris, I860. 

Pol Korigan. — Metiers Chinois. (Dans 
l'Echo de Chine, 1901-1905. passim). 

Daryl P. — Le Monde Chinois. Paris, 1885. 
(L'Industrie. Ch.IV. p. 50-63. Soie, coton, 
ceramique, richesses minieres. — Peche. 
— Associations ou Guildes dans la vie 

BardE. — Les Chinois chez eux. Paris, 
1900. (Les principaux produits de la 
Chine. Ch. XIX. p. 212-225. - Le Mar- 
chand Chinois. Ch. XX. p. 240-249. — 
Le Peril Jaune, ou la concurrence du 
travail Asiatique. Ch. XX. p. 226-239). 

Strauss L. — La Chine : son Histoire, ses 
Ressources. Paris, 1871. (Mines : houille, 
petrole, fer, cuivre, metaux precieux. 
p. 336-422. — Industrie, p. 423-428). 

Antonini. — Au Pays de Chine. Paris. 
(L'Industrie. (Ch. IV. p. 196-204). 

Bonacosi. — La Chine et les Chinois. 
Paris, 1847. (Manufactures et Industries. 
Ch. XII. p. 186-190). 

Irisson HI. — Etudes sur la Chine. Paris, 

1866. (l'Industrie. p. 127-136). 
De Courey.— L'Empire du Milieu. Paris, 

1867. (Industrie : metallurgie, cerami- 
que, poterie, laque. Livre V. Ch. II. p. 

Tillot M. — Notes Commercialcs sur la 
Chine. Chang-hai, 1901. 

Murray's China. — Edinburgh, 1843. 
(Geology and Mineralogy of China. Vol. 
III. Ch. V. p. 266-282). 

Grosier. — General Description of China. 
London, 1795. (Mines of China, metals, 
stones, clays. Vol. I. Book IV. Ch. IV. 
p. 398-422.— Silks and porcelain of China. 
Vol. II. Book VIII. Ch. XL p. 451-479). 

Williams.— The Middle Kingdom. New- 
York, 1861. (Industrial Arts of the Chi- 
nese : metallurgy and porcelain. Vol. II. 
Ch. XV. p. 113-144). 

GutzlaffC. — On the Mines of the Chi- 
nese Empire. (N.C.B.R.A. Soc. 1847. N° 
1. art. 5). 

Davis Sir J. F. — The Chinese. London, 
1842. (Industrial Arts, metallurgy.— Silk 
and porcelain manufacture. Vol. II. Ch. 

XVII. p. 216-250). 

Mining in China. — N. China Herald. 
April 2, 1864. 

Richthofen. — Letters. Shanghai, 1873. 

Richthofen. — The Distribution of Coal 
in China. (Ocean Highways. Nov. IF73). 

Gundry R. S. — China Past and Present. 
London, 1^95. (Edict in favour of Mining; 
Mineral resources. Ch. V. p. 109-119. — 
Industries, cotton manufacturing in the 
East. Appendix G. — The Hanyang iron 
and steel mills. Appendix E.). 

Leroy-Reaulieu P. —The Awakening 
of the East. London, 1900. (Industries 
limited to the open parts. — Salaries in 
Shanghai. — Working hours in silk fac- 
tories. Ch. VII. p. 237-241). 

Blackburn China Mission. — Blackburn, 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. X th Edition. 
London, 1902. — China : (Production and 
Industry. — Precious Metals.— Manufac- 
tures, p. 27-28). 

Lamprey. — Notes on the Geology of the 
Great Plain. (N.C.B.RA. Soc. Decemb. 

Ed kins J. — The Bituminous Coal Mines, 
West of Peking. (N.C.B.R.A. Soc. 1 ( 67. 
p. 243-250). 

Kingsmill T. — Notes on some out-lying 
coal-fields in the S. E. Provinces of 
China. (N.C.B.R.A. Soc. 1866). 

Riekmore A. S. — Notes on the Distri- 
bution of Gold in China. (Notes and 
Queries on China and Japan. Vol. I. p. 22). 

Williamson A. — Travels in North- 
China. London, 1870. 

Pumpelly R. — Geological Researches 
inChina. (Smithsonian Institute. January, 
1866. Coal-fields). 

Little A. — The Far East. Oxford, 1905. 

Jernigan T. R. — China in Law and 
Commerce. New-York, 1905. (Physical 
Features. Ch. I. p. 1-32). 

Jamieson J. W. — Cotton Mills of China 
(Diplomatic and Consular Report. China. 
No 629. Foreign Office, 19u5). 

Hirth. — Ancient Porcelain : a Study in 
Chinese Mediaeval Industry and Trade. 
Hongkong, 1888. 

Bushel 1 S. W.— Chinese Porcelain before 
the Present Dynasty. 

Ilippisley. — A Sketch of the History of 
Ceramic Art in China, 1902. 



On the Porcelain Rock of China. — (Ame- 
rican Journal of Science. March, 1871). 

Hodgson. — How to identify old China. 
London, 1905. 

Giles II. A. — Introduction to the Study 
of Chinese Pictorial Art. London, 1905. 

Bushel 1 S. W. — Chinese Art. London, 

Anderson W. — The Pictorial Arts of 

Japan. London, 1887. 
Audsley G. A. — Keramic Art of Japan. 

London, 1881. 



China's trade has undergone greater modifications than her manufactures. Up 
to 1842, the whole foreign trade of the country was carried on only through two ports : 
Macao and Canton, all the others being closed. Since then, 50 ports have been thrown 
open, and every year sees new additions made to the list. China has reaped therefrom 
a certain amount of prosperity and well-being, which, although still far inferior to those 
of Europe, are however of no mean importance. She would undoubtedly benefit largely 
were she to open her doors much wider. While being bettered by foreign products, the 
export of her wealth would bring in gold and silver, and enable her to reach a higher 
standard of perfection in her implements, methods and ways of transit. 

For greater clearness, we will study her trade under three different headings : 
the home trade, that carried on with the outlying dependencies of the Empire, and 
finally her foreign or exterior trade. 

Home Trade. — The home or inter-provincial trade 
consists in the interchange of goods within the 18 Provinces. 
It is by far the most important of the country, but impossible 
to estimate through lack of efficient control and reliable statistics. 
Its special feature is that of being largely a retail trade. This 
characteristic is carried to extremes owing to the currency in use, 
the cash. This facilitates the retail sale of articles, which every- 
where else would be effected wholesale. 

We can however consider separately the retail and wholesale 
trade of the country. The retail trade is carried on in the shops 
of small towns, or at fairs which are held on fixed dates, now 
in one place, now in another. A great variety prevails as to 
the holding of these fairs in different Provinces, and even in 
several parts of the same Province. The wholesale trade is 


monopolized by rich merchants or guilds. These sell wholesale 
to shopkeepers, who retail the commodities to their customers. 
Shopkeepers deal generally in only one kind of merchandise. Thus 
there are rice, tea, opium, fur and other petty traders. Provin- 
ces, rich families and guilds engage in special branches. There 
are thus in China the tea-merchants of Nganhwei #$(,, the rice- 
merchants of Kwangtung jf^ Tg and of Kiangsu j£ j$|, and the 
bankers of Shansi |Jj "g. In regard to families, suffice it to 
mention the rice spirit of the Iju JPikin family in Peking ^ tJt, 
and the tea of the Fang family in Nganhwei *}£%>. Inter-provincial 
trade is also extensively carried on. Thus Hunan jjjjfj ^ sends 
its coal to Hupeh }jj 4b; Hupeh exports its cotton-cloths to Sze- 
chw'an J||, Kweichow jif j^\ and Hunan fjjjj g|; Kwangtung 
Jg ig sends its fans, Nganhwei 4% fg its Indian ink, and Kiangsi 
JX. W its porcelain, to every Province of the Empire. 

Trade with the outlying Dependencies of the Empire. 

(Tibet, Chinese Turkestan, Mongolia, Manchuria). — The 18 

Provinces export to the outlying dependencies of the Empire 
the following articles : tea, silk, opium, Chinaware and foreign- 
made piece-goods. They import furs, musk, jade, ponies (from 
Mongolia), and beancake (from Manchuria). 

Foreign Trade. — Foreign trade is carried on through 
the open ports with Japan, Hongkong, India, the United States, 
Europe etc. 

Importance of China's Foreign Trade. — The impor- 
tance of China's foreign trade is annually increasing. It has 
almost trebled since 1891. The following are the statistics 
published by the Imperial Maritime Customs since the above 
mentioned year. By Net Imports, the Customs understand the 
value of the foreign goods imported direct from foreign coun- 
tries, less the value of the foreign goods re-exported to foreign 
countries during the given year. All values are in Haikwan 
taels (see gold equivalent of the Haikwan tael from 1870-1906. 
p. 319). 



Annual Value of the Foreign Trade of China, 1891-1905- 

































































Principal Foreign Countries with which China 
trades. — The distribution of the trade among the principal 
countries of the world is shown in the following table. The 
figures given cover the years 1903-1905, and include the sum 
total of imports and exports. 

Annual Value of the Direct Trade with each Country, 1903-1905. 





Total, Hk.Taels. 


Total, Hk.Taels. 

Great Britain. 








British India. 




Singapore and Straits. 




Australia and New Zealand. 




South Africa (including Mam-itius). 








United States of America. 




Philippine Islands. 




Mexico and Central America. 



Annual Value of the Direct Trade with each Country, 1903-1905. (continued). 





Total, Hk.Taels. 

Total, Hk.Taels. 

Total, Hk.Taels. 

South America. 












Austria and Hungary. 




Norway, Sweden, Denmark. 


Spain and Portugal. 






Russia, European Ports. 




Russia and Siberia by land Frontier. 




Russia, Pacific Ports. 








Japan and Formosa. 




French Indo-China. 








Dutch Indies. 




Turkey, Persia, Egypt, Aden. 




Principal Imports from Foreign Countries. — The principal imports from 
Foreign Countries are set out in the following table. The figures range from 1903-1905, 
and the values are given in Haihwan taels. 

Principal Net Imports from Foreign Countries, 1903-1905. 

Description of Goods. 


Cotton Goods (Shirtings, Drills, 

Woollen and Cotton Mixtures. 

Woollen Goods. 

Miscellaneous Piece Goods. 


Coal and Coke. 

Cigars and Cigarettes. 


Dyes, Colours and Paints. 


Value : Hk. Tls. 






Value : Hk. Tls. 

Value : Hk. Tls. 






















Principal Net Imports from Foreign Countries, 1903-1905. (continued). 

Description of Goods. 




Value :Hk.Tls. 

Value :Hk.Tls. 

Value : Hk.Tls. 

Fish and Fishery Products. 




Bags of all kinds. 
















Glass and Glassware. 




Kerosene Oil, American. 




„ Borneo. 




„ Burma. 



„ Russian. 




„ Sumatra. 








Machinery and Fittings. 




Matches, Japanese. 
















Railway Plant and Materials. 








Stores, Household. 




Timber, Hard-wood. 




„ Soft-wood. 




Sugar, Brown. 




„ Candy. 




„ Refined. 




„ White. 












Beer and Porter. 




All these imports come from different countries. Thus, cotton yarn from 
India ; cotton goods from Great Britain and the United States of America ; opium 
from India; kerosene oil from the United States of America, Sumatra and Russia; wine 
from France ; matches from Japan ; rice from Indo-China ; aniline dyes and colours 
from Germany ; flour from the United States of America and window-glass from Bel- 
gium. In thus speaking, we do not mean to state that all the matches are imported 
solely from Japan, or all the window-glass from Belgium, but we wish to point out the 
supply-source whence such articles are chiefly derived. Likewise, it must not be inferred 
from the above table relating to the trade of the various countries, that all the products 
come from these countries themselves. Thus Hongkong, and to a large extent Great- 
Britain too, are furnishers of imports manufactured in other countries, but shipped in 
English bottoms. 



Principal Exports to Foreign Countries. — The following tabic shows the 
principal exports from China to Foreign Countries for the years 1903, 1901 and 1905. 
The values are given in Haikwan taels. 

Principal Net Exports to Foreign Countries, 1903-1905. 

Description of Goods. 




Value :Hk.Tls. 

Value :Hk.Tls. 

Value : Hk.Tls. 









Raw Cotton. 




Skins (Furs), Skin Clothing, Rugs. 












Straw Braid. 




Sheep's Wool. 




Hides, Cow and Buffalo. 




Oils (Bean, Groundnut, Tea, Wood, 




p [Aniseed, Cassia). 

.;. 190,300 



Tin, in Slabs. 




Mats and Matting. 




Cattle (Sheep, Bigs, Goats). 








Fire crackers and Fireworks. 

2,433,95 L 



















Provisions and Vegetables. 




Sesamum Seed. 




Tobaco, Leaf and Prepared. 




Chin aware. 




Fruits of all kinds. 








Fish and Fishery Products. 




Timber and Wood of all kinds. 




Vermicelli and Macaroni. 




Principal Re-exports. — The value of China's re-exports 
is inconsiderable. The total was in 1904, Hk. Tls. 13,384,055; 
and in 1905, Hk. Tls. 14,093,741. The following table will 
exhibit the most important articles for the years 1904 and 1905, 
with their equivalent values in Haikwan taels. 



Principal Re-exports, 1904-1905. 

Description of Goods. 



Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Cotton Goods. 


5,020,06 1 

Formosa Tea. 









Household Stores. 



Kerosene Oil. 












Condensed Milk. 



Woollen Goods. 



Bags of all kinds. 


168,-! 85 




Ceylon Tea. 






Beer and Porter. 






Value and Importance of tlie principal articles or 
trade. — The principal imports to China are 6 : Cotton piece 
goods, opium, metals, kerosene oil, machinery, railway plant 
and materials. The following table shows the details of cotton 
goods supplied from 1903-1905. 

Importation of Cotton Piece Goods and Yarn. 





Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Shirtings and Sheetings, Plain. 




Drills, Jeans, T-Cloths, 




Fancy Cottons (Italians, Lastings, 
Spanish Stripes). 




Cotton Yarn and Thread in Balls 
and Spools. 




Cotton fabrics are imported especially from the United 
States of America and from England, and in lesser quantity from 
Japan, Germany and India. 



Cotton yarn is imported principally from India and Japan. 
The following table shows the quantity supplied from 1903- 

Importation of Cotton Yarn. 




Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

















The sorts of Opium imported from 1903-1905 were as follows. 

Sorts of Opium imported, 1903-1905. 




Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 













Other kinds (Persian). 




Net Importation of Opium into 

shows the exact quantity of opium which 
ports from 1900-1905. 

the Open Ports. — The following table 
passed into consumption at the principal 

Opium : Net Importation into the Principal Ports, 1900-1905. 







1905 j 





























































































The Picul is equivalent to 133 J lbs avoirdupois, or 60,453 

The principal exports from China are silk and tea. 
These two articles constituted up to 1880 more than 80% of the 
whole export. The following tables show the various kinds, 
value and quantity of each of these exports. 

Sorts of Silk exported, 1903-1905. 





Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Silk, Raw, White. 




„ Yellow. 




„ Wild. 




,, Steam Filature. 








Waste Silk. 




Cocoons, Refuse. 




Piece Goods. 




Shantung Pongees. 




Products, Unclassed. 




Total Export of Silk to Foreign Countries for the past 10 









! Year. 



















































































i 1902 











■ 1903 


































Silk is principally purchased by France (74,100 piculs in 
1904, and 70,820 in 1905), which takes alone annually about 



250,000,000 francs worth (£ 10,000,000), or 12 % of the total 
export. Italy comes next, having taken 22,116 piculs in 1904, 
and 21,620 in 1905. The United States of America hold the 
third place, having taken 17,800 piculs in 1904, and 16,246 in 
1905. The great silk exporting centres are Shanghai and Canton. 
China's silk trade is at present in an unsatisfactory condition. 
The eggs of the worms are diseased and nothing is done to 
remedy the evil. In the Shanghai district, from 1000 eggs, 
400 are failures, 300 arrive at the spinning stage, while the 
remainder produce only inferior cocoons. To make a picul of 
silk, it took formerly 3 to 4 piculs of cocoons, now it takes 4 to 
6, and the article produced is of inferior quality. The total 
value of the silk export of 1904 was Hk. Tls. 78,255,412, and 
in 1905, Hk. Tls. 70,393,833, a falling off of 7,861,579 taels. 

Sorts of Tea exported, 1903- 1905. 





Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Tea, Black. 




,, Green. 




,, Brick, Black. 




,, „ Green. 




„ Tablet. 




,, Dust. 




Total Export of Tea to Foreign Countries for the past 10 years. 






















































































Tea : Exportation Direct to Foreign Countries, 1905. 















Great Britain. 












Other British Colonies. 





United States of America. 





Russia (European Ports). 






Russia and Siberia (by land 






Russia (Pacific Ports). 






Continental Europe (Russia 




J 5 


Turkey, Persia, Egypt. 




The principal marts for the export of tea are Hank'ow g| 

P in Hupeh jjf) 4fc, Shanghai _fc $$ in Kiangsu f£ ]Jc, Foochow 
jjlg >fl\ in Fokien jg $g, and Canton or Kwangchow Fu ^ >ft| 
Jft in the Province ol Kwangtung J| }g. Hank'ow exports its 
article principally to Siberia and Russia in the shape of brick 
tea. Two-thirds of this tea come from Hunan $Jj "$f and Hupeh 
Jjfl % ]fc, and the remaining one-third from Kiangsi fx. W- Black 
tea is exported chiefly to Great Britain, and green tea to the 
United States of America, this latter country taking in 1905 
about 15 | million lbs, or nearly half the total output. Of 
late years, China's tea business has degenerated, and now occupies 
but a secondary place in the list of exports. The growth and 
preparation of the leaf are carelessly attended to, and the packing 
is at times fraudulent. Thus in 1904, the London Customs 
rejected 6000 chests of scented capers, as adulterated with iron 
filings and sand, and totally unfit for use. In 1905, a Chinese 
Commission visited the tea districts of India and Ceylon, but so 
far no steps have been taken to improve the produce, and place 
on the market a leaf of better quality and purity. 

Importance of the Commerce of the various Ports [see 
Imperial Maritime Customs, p. 328). 

Share taken by each Foreign Country in the Foreign Trade 
of China, 1903-1905. 





: Vessels entered and cleared, 1903-1905 






















































































































Chinese Shipping. 







Vessels of the 
Foreign Type. 















All these vessels are owned by Chinese, sail under the 
entered and cleared at the Imperial Maritime Customs. 

Carrying Trade between the Treaty Ports, 

Share taken by each Nationality. 

Chinese Flag, and have 



Clearances and Entries 
at Treaty Ports. 

Total Tonnage 
Outwards and Inwards. 

















































































Shanghai : Gross and Net Values of the Trade of the Port, 1903-1905. 


Foreign Goods. 

Imported from Foreign 
Countries and Hong- 
kong .. - 

Imported from Chinese 

Total Foreign Im- 
ports _ 

Re-exported to Foreign 
Countries and Hong- 

Re-exported to Chinese 
Ports (chiefly to 
Northern and Yang- 
tze Ports) 

Total Foreign Re-ex- 

Net Total Foreign 



Hk. Tls. 




1 40,^23,693 


Native Produce. 

Imported (chiefly from 
Northern and Yang- 
tze Ports) 

Re-exported to Foreign 

Re-exported to Chinese 

Total Native Re-ex- 

Net Total Native Im- 

Native Produce of 
local origin export- 
ed to Foreign Count- 
ries M „.... 

Native Produce of 
local origin export- 
ed to Chinese Ports. 

Total Exports of 
local origin 

Gross Value of the 
Trade of the Port. 

Net Value of the 
Trade of the Port, 

| i-e., Foreign and Nati- 
ve Imports, less Re- 
exports, and Native 
Exports of local origin. 






Hk. Tls. 


14,' 65,081 


Hk. Tls. 














Hk. Tlf 







Hk. Tls. 

il,19 1,337 







Hk. Tls. 







(See above : Gross and Net Values of the Trade of Shanghai, 1900-1905. p. 269). 



Percentages of Trade and share of each Nationality, together with tho total 
foreign population of China, and the number of foreign commercial houses for the years 


















Percent ages of Trail e. 
1904 \ l9uF 






Commercial House s. 
1904T~ I 1905 



















































3 ? 380 


Population and Commerce or tlie Open Ports. — 

We have given in this work the estimated population of the 
large cities of the Chinese Empire. Approximate as it is, it 
affords at least valuable information on the relative importance 
of the principal centres of population. We now append here 
the population and annual value of the trade of each of the open 
ports. The list of the Ports is arranged alphabetically, and the 
statistics are taken from the returns of the Imperial Maritime 

Annual Net Value of the Whole Trade of each Port, 1903-1905. 






Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Amoy (Hsiamen). 

K H 





Canton (KwangebowFu). 







* 8> 





2 S 

38,l c 3,912 





ft Si 






a s 






m m 




624,000 | 



Annual Net Value of the Whole Trade of each Port, 1903-1905. (continued). 






Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

Hk. Tls. 

























14,59 Q ,411 
















6,< <3 76,804 


Kongmoon (Kiangmen). 






Kowloon (Kiulung). 






1 see 

Lappa (Kungpeh). 










































Pakhoi (Peh-hai). 





2,- c 30,938 


Samshui (Sanshui). 







Santuao (Santungao). 



























Swatow (Shant'eu). 






























































Grand Total. 





Value of Exports abroad. 




Value of Home Trade. 




The estimated population of each port is that of the Chinese inhabitants of these 
cities. In TsHngtao # J|, a port situated at the entrance to Kiaochow 8f* ft\ bay, in 
Shantung |JLj }fi, and leased to Germany by China in 1898, the Chinese population is 
about 40,000, but if we include the sphere of interest, 120,000. The foreign civilian 



population is 1,110. The German garrison of Kiaochow consists of 102 officers, 3,400 
non-commissioned officers and men, and one battalion of the East Asiatic Garrison 

The share of Hongkong in the trade of China amounted in 1903 to 31 % of the 
imports and 14 % of the exports; in 1904, it reached 40% of the imports and 30% of the 
exports, while in 1905, the imports attained 43% but the exports dropped to 34 £ %. 

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In no civilised country of the world are communications so 
difficult as in China, Of late, a certain amount of progress has 
been made in the Postal and Telegraph services, in railways 
and steam-navigation along the coast and on the rivers, but 
every thing is still to be done in regard to good roads and the 
up-keep of canals. 

Roads and Bridges. — Except the Government courier 
roads, China has only footpaths of variable dimension, some of 
which are paved or laid with flag stones, while others are 
merely beaten tracks through the fields. 

In the N. 9 the roads widen out enough in the plains to 
allow rough carts to travel on them. In the Centre and the 8. 9 
where the country is largely mountainous, they seldom exceed 
5 feet in breadth. In Yunnan jf ]^ however they attain 6 feet. 
In the N* W. f they are generally sunk deep between high walls 
of loess or yellow earth. 

Bridges are generally of stone and sometimes of wood. In the W.,as in Szechw'an 
P9 J||, there are some iron-chain suspension bridges, but they cannot bear heavy 
burdens. In several places, where the river is too wide, bridges of boats are established. 
The most famous is that of Lanchow Fit |@ ^H ffi in Kansu "tf |8f Province. Fine stone 
bridges with arches are found in several Provinces, especially in Szechw'an P9 )\\ 
and Fokien %fc ^. 

In the Central and Maritime Provinces, no governmental provision is made for 
the repairing of roads and bridges, and all such public work is carried out at the 
expense of the inhabitants of the locality. When traffic becomes actually impossible, 
the officials levy a tax in the district to make the necessary repairs. It sometimes 
happens, though seldom, that a well-to-do member of the local gentry, or some guilds 
take the work in hand, in which case the latter collect themselves subscriptions 
and supervise what is done. In the Western Provinces, where the population is scanty, 
the officials have to make provisions for occasional repairs. They employ soldiers to do 
the work, or impose it upon the population of the adjoining villages. 

We have mentioned, when describing the 18 Provinces, the principal roads, and 
here refer the reader to each of these Provinces (see each Province : Highways of 


Govern men t. Courier Roads or Postal Highways, called 
in Chinese Kwanma-talu *g Jg| fa |gg (Public horse great roads). — 
Such is the name applied to the principal roads which connect 
Peking ft pj( with the remote regions of the Empire. The 
number of these roads is generally stated to be 21. Like the 
customary tracks of the country, they adopt approximately a 
straight line. They are often cut into the steep sides of mountains, 
or run through them by means of tunnels. When the plain 
expands, they attain a width of from 20 to 25 yards, and are 
paved, and sometimes bordered with rows of trees. At intervals 
of every 3 miles, a signal tower is erected. All along the way 
are found inns, relay-posts and stations of soldiers. Taking 
Peking as the centre or starting point, the following are the 
principal of these roads : 

1 — Peking ;|fc jjr to Mukden, in Manchuria. 

2 — Peking ;|fc >£ to Ch'engtu Fu )fc %$ jfc in Szechw'an 

J||. This road passes through Taiyuen Fu fa J& fft in 
Shansi |lj ]§, and thence proceeds to Singan JBu jg 4£ 
JjSf in Shensi $$ j§. Here it branches into two, one 
leading to Lanchow Fu f^j ft Jjfr in Kansu -y* Jf, the 
other to Ch'engtu Fu jfc %fi> JjSf in Szechw'an Q )\\. 

3 — Peking ft njr to Yunnan Fu |J $f $f. This road passes 

via Weihwui Fu jg )g Jfr, K'aifung Fu ffl % Jft 
and Nanyang Fu -ffi ^ fff in Honan fpj ^§ Province. 
It thence proceeds to Siangyang Fu || g§ J^f in Hupeh 
$8 ;|t> Ch'angteh Fu ^ <jg[ jj^f and Tuenchow Fu fa ^| 
JjJ in Hunan $J) ^, Kweiyang Fu ^ £§ jjj in Kweichow 
it; *|+|, and leads finally to Yunnan Fu j| j§ fff. 

4 — Peking ft # to KweUin Fu fe $c Jj?f in Kwangsi J| |f. 

This road, like the preceding one, passes via Weihwui 
-^Wtf J? $F in Honan Jpf $}, Hank'ow g| p in Hupeh $JJ 
4t, Ch'angsha Fu j| S? Jfr in Hunan $j $|, and thence 
leads to KweUin Fu ^ $t JjSf, the Capital of Kwangsi J| ||. 

5 — Peking ;|t >£ to Canton or Kwangchow Fu $ fl\ Jgf 

This road passes through Nanch'ang lu g|f g jjj in 
Kiangsi j£ jR}, and thence continues to Canton. 


6 — Peking jf£ # to Foochow Fu jjfg j>\\ jffi in Fokien #g %£. 
This road passes via Chenkiang Fu §fc jf£ /f^f in Kiangsu 
{£ $£, Hangchotv Fu ^ jfy| ^ in Chekiang ffi ft, and 
thence leads to Foochow Fu jjjg ■ j\\ /jSf, the Capital of 
Fokien jjjg $§: Province. 
The up-keep of these roads is entirely neglected, and they 
are almost impassable, especially in the rainy season. 

Modes of Conveyance. — In the Northern Provinces the usual mode of convey- 
ance for passengers is by cart drawn by ponies, mules or oxen. Some also travel in 
sedan-chairs borne by carriers, or in mule-litters (both are however rare and reserved 
for distinguished persons), and in barrows propelled by hand and sail. Others ride on 
horseback cr on mules and donkeys. For goods, conveyance takes place by ox-cart, 
by mules, by camels and by donkeys. Goods are also transported to a large extent on 
the shoulders of carriers. The three-mule cart is the most comfortable way of travelling 
when one starts on a long journey. Besides the passengers, these carts will carry from 6 
to 8 cwt weight of luggage. Beyond the main roads, carts cannot be used in Shensi ££ j?9 
and Kansu \[ jfjf, while in Shartsi \1\ M the highways are even in such a bad state 
that it is difficult to travel on them. 

In the Central and Southern Eegions, carts are seldom found. Passengers 
travel on the barrow or sedan-chair. Others ride on ponies, mules or donkeys, 
Jinricshas are found only in the large towns and in the surroundings. Carriers are 
even more numerous than in the North. 

Waterways. — China possesses an excellent network of 
waterways, especially in the Central Region. The principal are: 
the Yangtze Jg -f and tributaries ; the Si-kiang |f jT£ and 
tributaries; the lower Teh-ho £j fpf, the Min f$ or Foochow 
river, the Ilwai-ho fj£ /jij in Nganhwei $ HJ ; the Ts'ien- 
t'ang-kiang £g j$£ f£ in Chekiang, portions of the Hwang-ho 
^r JpJ and tributaries, chiefly the Wel-ho j|§ Jpf (see these 

The Yangtze holds the foremost place with its tributaries : 
the Han -g|, the Szechw'an Jl| rivers, the Siang-kiang *#{J XL 
and Kan-kiang ^ f£- Its great lakes, its ever abundant water- 
supply, all afford the greatest facilities for navigation. 

Many of these water-courses are navigable only in the 
flood-season. Others, near the seaboard, are available only when 
the tide comes up. 

Canals are numerous, especially in the deltas of the Yang- 
tze and the Si-kiang. They are carelessly looked after, and 


sometimes even quite neglected, the consequence being that they 
become more and more filled up with silt. 

The most important of these is the Grand Canal* 

The Grand Canal or Imperial Canal, called in Chinese 
Yu-ho % fpf (Imperial river), Yiin-ho %. fpj (Transport river), or 
Yunliang-ho g| |J| fnj (Tribute-bearing river). — The Grand Canal 
extends from Hangchow jtfi j\\ fff in Chekiang, to Tientsin J^ 
*i$ fft in Chihli jg *)fc, a distance of about 1000 miles. 

According to the most reliable accounts, it was commenced 
in the VI th century B.C., and finished in only A.D. 1283. The 
most ancient part is that which lies between the Yangtze ^ ^f 
and the Hwai-ho f{g jp[. The Southern part, extending from 
Hangchow to Chenkiang, was constructed from A.D. 605 to 617. 
The upper part, extending from the old bed of the Hwang-ho 
H fpj to Tientsin, was constructed by the Emperor Shitsu ft jjj|. 
of the Yuen ?£ dynasty, and completed within a space of 3 years 
(A. D. 1280-1283). Shitsu then transferred his capital from 
Hangchow tfi jfl JjSf to Peking fc fc As the Northern Provinces 
were not very fertile, and the trade along the seaboard unsafe, 
he was forced to get provisions from the Southern Provinces. 
He therefore resolved to complete the work left unfinished by 
his predecessors. 

The Southern portion, extending from Hangchow |t ^ to 
Chenkiang H ££, offers no difficulty as to its water-supply. 
The slope is gentle and water is plentiful. Navigation on it is 
easy. Boats are sometimes retarded by bridges, but there are 
neither rapids nor locks to pass. The floods and tides of the 
Hangchow river are the only obstacles to overcome. A strong 
embankment has been constructed to maintain apart the water 
of the river from that of the canal. 

The Central portion, extending from the Yangtze $ ^ to 
Ts'ingkiangp'oo ffi JQ {§, is the most ancient. This part skirts 
several large lakes. It was formerly fed by the Yangtze |j| ^f, 
and its stream flowed in a S.-W. direction. It is fed at the present 
day by the waters of the Hwai-ho ff| }pf, as they issue from the 
Hungtseh gt ffi lake, and the stream runs in a N.-S. direction. 



The current is strong and difficult to ascend when one proceeds on 
the upward journey. The level of the country lying to the W. 
of the Grand Canal and called the Shang-ho J^ fpj, (above the 
river), is higher than the bed of the Canal, while the country to 
the E., or Hsia-ho f }pf (below the river), is lower. Waste- 
weirs constructed on the Eastern embankment, and opening on 
the Hsia-ho f discharge the surplus waters in the flood-season, 
and thus relieve the banks and hinder injury of the works. 
There are few bridges in this portion of the Canal, but 
numerous ferry-boats facilitate passing at almost every place. 
This part of the Canal is far from offering the same advantages 
for navigation, at least when one proceeds from S.-N., as the 
Southern portion. Boats however can easily travel on it. 

The Northern portion, extending from Ts'ingkiangp'oo ffi J£ 
Jjfto T'ientsin^jjlg;, is the most recent and also the most difficult 
for navigation, and hence the least utilized. Between Ts'ing- 
kiangp'oo and the Hwang-ho ^ }pf, the canal is fed from the 
Hwai-ho flg }pf and the Wen-ho $fc ffTf . The current flows in a 
S.-N. direction from the junction of the Tawen-ho j$ gfc Jpf 
with the Grand Canal at Nanwang ffc [T£. The passage of the 
Hwang-ho ^ fpf is difficult. If the water fails to rise 7 J feet 
beyond the ordinary level, junks are unable to cross it. If it 
rises higher, the current becomes too strong, and so travellers 
must at times wait a whole month before an opportunity offers 
to cross it. At Lints'ing |£Jjj jpf, the Canal joins the Wei-ho j|j 
jpf, borrows its channel, and is again easily navigated. From 
Ts'ingkiangp'oo to Lints'ing, the Canal is navigable with .diffi- 
culty. Water is often lacking, and the locks or chah gg (such 
is the term applied to the narrows that stem the velocity of the 
current, and establish a strong difference of level above and 
below) constructed to remedy this drawback, are passed with 
difficulty. On the up-voyage, the boat must be hoisted by means 
of hawsers, while in the downward trip, it must be kept in 
check. There are numerous capstans, and hands are not wanting 
(about 80 or 100 men are at work at times), nevertheless the 
operation is not performed without trouble and risk of danger. 

4 30 


The tribute-fleet, which carried the rice to Peking, formerly 
followed this way, and comprised 4,000 to 5,000 boats divided 
into 65 sections. The voyage was performed but once annually. 
Of late years, the grain despatched to Peking is largely forwarded 
by the sea route, through the agency of the "China Merchants 1 
Steamship Company". 

As a means of communication between N. and S., this part 
of the Canal is at present of little value, as it is defectively 
constructed, silted up by the mud-laden waters of the Hwang- 
no, and rendered ineffective through official neglect. 

In its Southern and Central portions, the Grand Canal, 
although badly kept up, is much more utilized, and several 
thousands of boats traffic on it. From Ts'ingkiangp'oo to Tien- 
tsin, travellers frequently hire carts which jolt them on to Peking. 

Numerous officials were formerly entrusted with the up-keep 
of the Grand Canal, under the control of a Director-General of 
the Grain Transport, or Ts'aoyun Tsungtuh }S 3 || # • This 
official was of equal rank with the Viceroys. He resided at 
Ts'ingkiangp'oo, as well as his first Assistant, who bore the title 
of Tribute Taot'ai, or Ts'ao-Hot'ai ^f }pj J. The office of Director- 
General of the Grain Transport was abolished in January, 1905. 

Railways. — The pioneer railway of China was constructed 
by the firm of Jardine, Matheson and C° in 1876, and connected 
Shanghai _£ #J and Woosung ^ ffg, a short distance of 12 
miles. The Chinese Government gave no regular permission, 
and official opposition being manifested, the working of the line 
was stopped by the British Minister. In 1877, it was sold to the 
Chinese Government, the rails and sleepers were torn up and the 
entire rolling stock shipped off to Formosa. About 20 years elapsed 
before the subject was taken up again. The Shanghai-Woosung 
line was rebuilt in 1897, by German engineers, in the service of 
a Chinese Company, and opened to traffic, Septemb. 1 st , 1898. 

In 1886, the Imperial Northern Railway Company was 
started under Government approbation, and obtained the cons- 
truction of a line from T'ientsin 5J jg; to the K'aip'ing gg 2J5 coal 
mines in North Chihli jg[ *$. This line was further extended to 



T'angku jig? J£ at the mouth of the Peh-ho £3 fpj, and opened to 
traffic in July 1888. In 1897, nine years later, it was completed 
as far as Peking. 

Several important lines have since been built, others are 
in process of construction, or are being contemplated. Railway 
enterprise is of great importance to the success of the Imperial 
Post Office in China. It will also much facilitate other inland 
communications, and develop trade throughout this vast Empire, 
which could so far be crossed only with difficulty, and with great 
loss of time. Chinese finance being inadequate to such a vast 
scheme, foreign capital was borrowed, and certain lines mort- 
gaged to Foreign powers and companies, but the Government 
can redeem all concessions under certain specified conditions. 

At the close of 1906, there were about 3,500 miles of railway 
lines open in China, inclusive of Manchuria. 

The following list will record briefly the principal lines now 
completed and working, as well as those under construction, or pro- 
jected in the near future. It is made out proceeding from N. to S. 

I. Railway Lines completed and working, 1907. 

„ 6 






Designation of Line. 




Peking to Hank'ow. 


# & 

Grand Trunk Line of China. — 
Open to traffic Novemb. 14, 1905. 
French and Belgian capital. 


Imperial Railways 

of North China. 

Peking to T'ungchow. 

Kingt l vnrj. 

m ii 

Short Branch Line. 


Pekingto Yink'ow (New- 



Called generally the Shanhaikwan 


chwang) via T'ientsin, 

Line. The character "Yu" is the 

T ; angku and Shan- 

name of a river near the E. end 


of the Great Wall. 

Keupangtze j£ %g ^ to 

Sinmin Fu. 


Keupangtze is the junction on the 


Sinmint'un i^f^ ifc. 


Sinmint'un to Mukden. 

Fung sin. 


This section was restored to China 
by Japan, April 15, 1907. A De- 
cauville line joins Mukden with 


Antung (175 miles) on the Yalu. 
It will be converted to the stan- 
dard gauge in 2 years. 



I. Railway Lines completed and working, 1907. (continued). 

« <u 



1 .2 

2 a 


Designation of Line. 





Kinchovv Fu to the Nan- 


p'iao Coal mines. 

Kaopotien to the West- 

Kaopotien is on the Kinghan Line. 


ern Tombs. 

Chinese Eastern 


j% m 

The Northern Section of this Rail- 


way is now controlled by Russia, 
as far South as Ch'angch'un 
(Kw'anch'engtze).From Ch'ang- 
ch'un to Dalny, the line has been 
transferred to Japan, and iscalled 
the S. Manchurian Railway. 

Manchuria Station, via 

A short branch (15 miles) runs from 


Harbin to Port Arthur 

Tashihk'iao to Yink'ow (New- 

and Dalny. 


Harbin to East Man- 

A line connecting Kirin with 


churia Frontier. 

Ch'angch'un will be jointly con- 
structed by China and Japan. 

Ts'ingtao to Tsinan Fu 


l> m 

German Direction. 



Taok'ow to Ts'inghwa 



Thisline crosses the KinghanRail- 



way, and connects Weihwui Fu, 
Hwaik'ing Fu and Honan Fu. 
Constructed by the Peking 
Syndicate (British 1 !, and taken 
over by China under Loan 
Agreement of July 3 rd , 1905. 

Shanghai to Woosung 



Forming part of the Shanghai- 



Nanking Railway in course of 
construction. "Hu" is the 
literary name of Shanghai. 

P'inghsiang to Liling 



Conveys coal from the P'ing- 


(borders of Kiangsi- i 

hsiang mines to Liling in Hu- 



Canton to Samshui 



Branch of the Yuehhan Line. 



Swatow to Ch'aochow , Ch'aoshan. 

m m 

Constructed by Chinese and 


Fu (Kwangtung). 

Japanese Engineers at a cost of 
S 3,000,000. Sand used as bal- 
last. No foreign capital invested. 

The Swatow terminus is a mile 

and a half from the town. 


II. Railway Lines under Construction, 1907. 


Designation of Line. 


- 6 





Peking to Kalgan. 



Chinese capital and construction. 


Peking to Jehol. 


m n 

Open as far as Nank'ow (33 miles). 

Chengting to T'aiyiien 


BE * 

Shansi line from Chent'ow to T'ai- 


P'ingyang to Tsehchow 


2p *f 

yiien Fu. Russian capital. 
Constructed by the Peking Syndi- 


Fu (Shansi). 

cate. Tsehchow Fu is the centre 
of a vast coal-field. 

K'aifung to Lohyang 


ffl m 

Belgian capital. 



Shanghai to Nanking. 


m m 

Concession granted to the British 
and Chinese Corporation, L d .,by 
Loan Agreement of July 9, 1903. 
Completed as far as Wusih, 30 
miles beyond Soochow, and 
opened July 18, 1906. Whole will 
be finished in 1907. The Shanghai 
line will be extended to Hang- 
chow and Ningpo; also from 
Sinyang (S.E. Honan) to P'uk'ow 
(N. bank of Yangtze, opposite 


Shanghai to Kiahsing. 


M M 

Opening ceremony took place 
January 21, 1907. 

Canton to Hank'ow. 



Concession originally granted to 
an American Syndicate, but now 
redeemed by China for a sum of 
Tls. 3,000,000. Opening ceremony 
took place June 28, 1906. So far, 
construction little advanced. 
The line from Canton to Sam- 
shui, already constructed, forms 
part of this railway. The char- 
acter "Yueh" is the name of 
the region South of the Meiling, 
and early subdued by the Han 


Canton to Kowloon. 


% m 

British capital and construction. 


Laokai to Yiinnan Fu. 


W. M 

This is the Tonkin-Yunnan rail- 
way, conceded to France. Will 
be open to Mengtze in 1907. 
The character "Tien" means the 
country occupied by the Lolos 
and other tribes. 




III. Projected Railway Lines, 1907. 

Desigation of Line. 






Kalgan to K'ulun. 


m m 

K'ulun or K'urun is the Chinese 


name for Urga. It is built on 
the Tola river, a branch of the 

Lanchow to Hi. 


n & 

Hi Province is a part of Chinese Tur- 


kestan, or the New Dominion. 
It lies to the N . of the T'ien-shan, 
and is watered by the Hi river, 
which flows into Lake Balkash. 

T'ientsin to Ghenkiang. 



This line is to pass through Tsi- 



nan Fu in Shantung, and Sii- 
chow Fu in Kiangsu. British 
and German capital. China is 
now working to have the conces- 
sion cancelled. 

T'ungkwan to P'uchow 

Wuhu to Kwangteh 



Borders of Shansi-Shensi. 



Construction commenced. Theline 

Chow. (Nganhwei). 

will be extended to Wenchow in 
Chekiang Province. 

Hank'ow to Ch'engtu. 


jii m 

The Capitals of Hupeh and Sze- 
chw'an, via Ch'ungk'ing. 

Kiukiang to Nanch'ang 

Ch'^nchow to Ch'ang- 



Kiangsi Province. 



North Hunan. 

teh Fu. 

Soochow to Ningpo, vifc 



Kiangsu and Chekiang Provin- 



ces. British capital. 

Amoy to Foochow Fu. 

Fokien Province. Japanese capital. 


Foochow to Wuch'ang 

Wuch'ang on the right bank 


Fu. (Hupeh). 

of the Yangtze, opposite the 
mouth of the Han-ho, is the Ca- 
pital of Hupeh . Japanese capital. 


Canton to Kanchow Fu. 


m m 

Kanchow Fu is in South Kiangsi, 
on the Kan-kiang, which flows 
into the P'oyang lake. 

Canton to Amoy. 



Kwangtung Province. 

Macao to Sanishui and 


Sinning to Yungkiang. 


%r ^ 

S. E. Kwangtung. 

Langson to Nanning,via 

Southern Kwangsi. The line will 



be further extended to Pakhoi 
in Kwangtung. French capital. 

Bhamo to Tengyueh. 



Yiinnan. British capital. 



Many years will dapsc before all these lines are built. The Upper and Lower 

Yangtze, the Canton-Hank'ow, the coast lines will no doubt be made, and passing 
through the richest and most populous regions of the country, they will decidedly 
prove a success. 

Postal Service. — Till within a few years ago, there was no Post Office Depart- 
ment in China similar to what exists in Western countries. The Government had its 
mounted couriers who carried the Imperial commands enclosed in a sealed casket. 
They could be recognized from afar by a small yellow flag attached to the collar of their 
dress. There were relays of horses every 30 miles, and the postal couriers passed from 
one horse to another without alighting. Whenever waterways were available, long 
barges replaced the mounted service. This courier service was however only for go- 
vernmental purposes, and the common people shared nowise its advantages. Private 
correspondence was entrusted to postal agencies or "letter hongs", who undertook, on 
payment of a small sum, to convey it to its destination. 

In 1874, Sir Robert Hart, the Inspector-General of the Imperial Maritime Cus- 
toms, established a postal system between Peking and Shanghai, and subsequently 
extended it to the foreign mercantile community. Thus originated the postal system 
of China, called the Imperial Post Office, opened on Feb. 2 nd , 1897. It is conducted 
by a special branch of the Imperial Maritime Customs (see above : p. 325). Peking, 
Shanghai and Canton, have Postal Commissioners, with jurisdiction over inner Pro- 
vinces; Wanhsien (in Szechw'an ; the most important port on the upper Yangtze 
after Ch'ungking. see p. 115) has a Foreign Inspector, who controls all mails forwarded 
to China's Far West. The Imperial Post Office (I. P. O.) deals with all mail matters 
ordinarily enumerated in postal tariffs : letters, postcards, newspapers, printed matter, 
samples, and also with parcels (domestic and international), and a special kind of native 
mails known as "clubbed" letter mails, made up and transmitted on account of Native 
Postal Agencies under certain regulations. Stamps are sold and registration conducted 
under much the same rules as in Union countries. Money Orders are issued and 
cashed within the domestic area only. Conventions passed with Great Britain, Hong- 
kong, France, Germany and Japan recognise its postage stamps (1 dollar-cents being 
equivalent to l d for postal purposes), and thus enable it to forward mails to Foreign 
countries. During the year 1905, the tariff has been recast and better adopted to the 
requirements of the people, a letter being now forwarded within a district for 1 cent 
(i A ), and for 2 cents (^ d ) per g oz. to any part of the Empire, a wonderfully cheap rate 
indeed when we consider the difficulty of communications, the distance covered, and 
the necessary staff required for such an arduous undertaking. Means of transport, 
regularity and speed have also been improved. Official support has been gained and 
prejudices broken down, but the new system has still to compete with native "letter 
hongs", and struggle against likin charges on parcels, and smuggling of "clubbed" 
mails. Fixed rates and prepayment are much resented, the Chinaman ever wanting 
to bargain. 

At the close of 1905, Postal Establishments, including Head Post Offices and 
Agencies, numbered 1,626, and reached in 1906 to 2,096. The bulk of articles dealt 
with rose from 66 g millions in 1904, to 76 millions in 1905. Parcels also have 
advanced from 772,000 to over 1 million. 

The following tables will exhibit the work and its progress from 1901-1905. 



Present Tariff: Imperial Post Office (from Notification No. 41). 




Foreign Countries. 

Mail Matter. 

Unit of charge. 


















Every ^ oz. or fraction thereof. 
(Limit of weight, 4 lbs). 







j Single. 
' Double. 










Every 2 oz. (singly or in bulk). 
(Limit of weight, 4 lbs.). 






Books and Prints ; 

Up to 3 oz. 





Commercial Papers. 

(Limit of weight, 32 oz.). 


Up to 3 oz. 

(Limit of weight, 8 oz.). 













With return Receipt. 







Up to 1 lb. 

1 lb. to 3 lbs. 
(Limit of weight, 22 lbs. For 
inland places reached by 
overland courier, 6 lbs.). 



Money Orders. 

Per Dollar. 


Not issued. 

(Limit of order, $50. For 

inland places not reached 

by steam, $10). 

Local. — Tariff I. i.e. Mail matter within delivery radius. 

Domestic. — Tariff II. i.e. Mail matter between Imperial Post Offices in China. 

Tariff V. franks foreign letters and postcards inland, where an I.P.O. exists, but 
foreign heavy mail articles (Newspapers, Books, Commercial Papers, Samples), if carried 
to places not reached by steam, have to pay additional Tariff II. (domestic). 

All foreign parcels, where and however carried, have also to pay additional tariff 
II. (domestic), over and beyond Union postage on parcels. 


Head and Branch Offices, with articles handled 1901-1905- 






Head and Sub-Offices. 





Branch Offices. 












Articles dealt with. 






Parcels : Number. 






Weight (Kilos). 






Letters in native "club- 
bed" mails. 

7 : 3O0,O0O 





Postal Sections and Work, 1904-1905. 










North China: Peking to Kiaochow. 







Central China : Ch'ungk'ing to 

Kiukian e- : rchow. 

Lower Yangtze : Wuhu to Hang- 








South China and Yunnan Stations. 













Besides the Imperial Post Office, the principal Foreign Powers maintain their 
own Post Offices in the Treaty Ports. Thus there are in Shanghai : British, German, 
French, American, Russian and Japanese Post Offices. These generally distribute 
letters and parcels by their own letter-carriers, though some (as the United States) 
entrust this work to the Imperial Post Office. The tariff of Foreign Post Offices 
varies, as the mail matter is internal or external to the country conducting the office. 
Thus the British Post Office in Shanghai forwards letters to Great Britain, and some 
English Colonies, at a tariff of 4 cents ( l d ), and to Union countries at a tariff of 10 
cents (2 d ^) per | oz. If the same letter is despatched through the French, German 
and Chinese Post Offices, and franked with their stamps, it must pay Union rates, or 10 
cents ( 2 d h ) per 5 oz. weight. From April 1907, all letters to Europe may be again 
forwarded via. the Trans-Siberian route. 

Telegraphs. — Up to 1884, China had no other system of rapid communication 
than beacons lighted on towers, which thus quickly flashed important news or orders 
to remote regions. These towers however were few in number, and the signals were 
not always comprehensible. 

In 1884, the Danish Great Northern Telegraph Company put up the first line, 
which connected Peking and Shanghai, and was completed August 22 nd , 1884. 

Great difficulty was experienced at first to preserve it from wholesale destruc- 
tion. The villagers in the neighbourhood frequently pulled up the posts io make 
firewood, and cut the wires to make nails. To check this deetructiveness, an Imperial 



decree was fixed on each post, threatening with immediate decapitation any one who 
would be caught cutting down the posts or wires. 

New lines soon followed this first attempt, one linking Tongking with Shanghai, 
another connecting Shanghai and Hank'ow etc. 

In 1887, China requested to connect her telegraph system with that of Siberia, 
thus putting Peking in communication overland with Europe, but the permission 
was not granted till 1892. 

The total length of line in operation throughout the whole Empire at the end 
of 1905 was 34,000 miles. A main line connects N. and S., and runs down along the 
coast. The S. has another main line. From the Northern and Southern main lines 
spring three branch lines, one going Westwards, another through the inland Northern 
Provinces, and a central one along the Yangtze valley. A line 3,000 miles long runs 
across the Gobi desert. By means of all these, telegraphic communication is maintained 
from Peking with every Province, while short branch lines connect the principal towns 
within the Provinee itself. The rate per word for inland messages is very high (Shang- 
hai to Peking 0,42 cents [ 10 d ] ; Shanghai to Hongkong 0,45 cents [ll d ]), and this 
debars the people from benefiting by its advantages. At the close of 1906, the Im- 
perial Telegraph Company, almost wholly Chinese, had 379 offices, and employed over 
1,200 workmen together with 8 foreign engim 

Chinese writing being not alphabetic hut syllabic, there being as many char- 
acters as there are words in use, and these words having great similarity iu sound, 
the telegraphic messages are sent in a number cypher. For transcription, a double- 
ended type is used; on one end is the character or ideograph, hut only 8,000 are used, 
and on the other the corresponding number. Winn a message is received, it is set up 
by the numbers, and then printed from the reverse or character end. 

Other Telegraph Companies in China. — In 1871, the Eastern Extension 
Telegraph Co. (English), connected at Madras its lines with those of the Eastern Tele- 
graph Co., and thus linked Shanghai by cable with Hongkong, Singapore and Europe. 

Since then, numerous other lines have been laid by Great Britain, France, 
Bussia, Germany, the United States, Japan and by the Northern Telegraph Co (Danish). 

The lines connecting the principal ports of China with each other, and with the 
outside world, are the following : 

Places connected. 




Cape S* Jacques (Indo- China) and Hongkong. 
Tourane (Indo-China) and Amoy (Fokien). 
Hongkong and Amoy. 
Amoy and Woosung (near Shanghai). 

Amoy and Gutzlaff. 

Gutzlaff and Woosung. 
Hongkong and Foochow (Fokien). 
Foochow and Woosung. 
Woosung and Nagasaki. 

Woosung and Gutzlaff. 

Gutzlaff and Nagasaki (2 cables). 

Nagasaki and Vladivostock. (2 cables). 

Length of cable 
in Nautical Miles. 







i 418 



Places connected. 

Length of cable 
in Nautical Miles. 

9. Woosung and Chefoo (Shantung). 

10. Chefoo and Taku (Chihli). 2 cables. 

11. Woosung and Ts'ingtao (Shantung). 

12. Ts'ingtao and Chefoo. 

13. Chefoo and Weihaiwei. 

14. Chefoo and Port Arthur (Manchuria). 

15. Sharp Peak (Foochow) and Tamsui (Formosa). 

16. Shanghai and Yap (Caroline Islands). 

Shanghai and Guam, via Manila. 
Yap and Guam. 

Guam and Honolulu, via Midway I. 
Honolulu and San Francisco. 
Guam and Yokohama, via Bonin I. 






Steamship Companies sailing to or from China. — Several Steamship 
Companies have established communication? between China, Europe, America, 
Australia and Japan. The principal of these are the following : 



Name of Line. 


Plying between. 

of sailings. 

, — 

1° Regular services. 

Peninsular and Oriental Steam 


London, Shanghai. 


Navigation Co. (P. & O.). 

Canadian PacificRailway(CP.E.), 


Vancouver, Hongkong. 


or Empress Boats. 

Messageries Maritimes (MM.). 


Marseilles, Yokohama. 


Norddeutscher Lloyd. 


Bremen, Yokohama. 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha (N.Y.K.). 


Tokio, San Francisco, 
Marseilles, Anvers. 


Toyo Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha. 


Yokohama, Hongkong, 
San Francisco. 


Austrian Lloyd Steam Naviga- 


Trieste, Yokohama. 


tion Co. 

Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 


San Francisco, Hono- 
lulu, Hongkong. 


Occidental and Oriental Steam- 


San Francisco, Hono- 


ship C° (O. & O.). 

lulu, Hongkong, Manila. 

2° Other Lines connecting 


With Europe. 

Glen Line (Cargo and Passeng- 


Glasgow, Shanghai. 

ers) . 
Ben Line. 


Ocean Steamship Co. L d , and 


Glasgow, Liverpool, 


China Mutual Steam Naviga- 


tion Co. 

British India Steam Navigation Co. 


London, Yokohama. 



Name of Line. 


of sailings. 

Hamburg-America Line. 


Compagnie Asiatique. 


Chargeurs Reunis. 


With America. 

United States and China- Japan S S. Line. 


Standard Oil Co. 


Great Northern S.S. Co. of U.S. 


With Australia. 

Eastern and Australian S.S. Co. 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 



With Japan. 

Osaka Shosen Kaisha. 


The Boats of nearly all Companies plying between 

Europe and America. 

3° Coast and Riverine S.S. Companies. 

China Merchants' Steam Navigation Co. (CM. S.N. 



Indo-China Steam Navigation Co.( Jardine,Matheson 


<fe Co.). 

China Navigation Co. (Butterfield & Swire). 


China and Manila S.S. Co. 


Hongkong, Canton and Macao S.B. Co. 


Apcar and Co. 


Geddes and Co. 


Spitzel and Co. 


Douglas S.S. Co. 


Shan Steamers Co. 


China Engineering and Mining Co. 


Melchers and Co. Hank'ow-Swatow Line 


Norddeutscher Lloyd Orient Linie. 


Hamburg America Linie. 


China Coast Navigation Co. (Siemssen and Co). 


Taito Steam Navigation Co. 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Osaka Shosen Kaisha, and 


Daito Hunan Kaisha (combined Aug fc 16, 1906. 

— Formerly "Yangtze Shipping Co".). 

Nisshin Kisen Kaisha. 


Mitsui Bussan Kaisha. [Orient. 


Compagnie Francaise des Indes et de l'Extreme 


Compagnie Asiatique de Navigation (Racine Acker- 


mann et Cie). 

Chinese Eastern Railway Steamship Co. 





Calendrier Annuaire (published annually 
by the Jesuit Fathers of the Zika- 
wei Observatory, Shanghai. 1903-1907. 
Up-to-date information on the Postal, 
Telegraph and Railwaj^ Systems of 

Fauvel. — Les Telegraphes, la Poste et 
les Phares en Chine. (Questions diploma- 
tiques et coloniales. Paris, 1899). 

Fauvel. — Les Chemins des fer en Chine 
(ibid. 1898. — Les Yoies navigables de la 
Chine, ibid. 1900). 

de Ufarcillac. — Les Chemins de fer 
en Chine. (Questions diplomatiques et 
coloniales. 1899). 

Cordier H. — Relations de la Chine avec 
les Puissances Occidentales. Paris, 1903. 
(Les Telegraphes. Vol. III. Ch. VI. — Les 
Chemins de fer. ibid. Ch. XXI). 

Cordier H. — Notes sur les Chemins de 
fer en Chine. (T'oung-Pao. Octob. 1906. 
p. 516-552. 

Les Chemins de fer en Chine. — (Bulletin 
du Comite de l'Asie Franchise, 1904. p. 
535-538. — Chemins de fer Chinois, ibid., 
1905. p. 376-77. — Regime des Chemins 
de fer en Chine, ibid., 1905. p. 420-424 ; 

Projets de Chemin de fev dans la Chine 
meridionale. — (Bulletin du Comite de 
l'Asie Franchise. 1906. p. 391-394). 

Le Chemin de fer du Yun-nan (with plan). 

— (Bulletin du Comite de l'Asie Fran- 
caise. 1903. p. 318- 323 ; 482-83. — Le Che- 
min de fer de Laokay au Yun-nan. ibid. 
190G. p. 160). 

Le Pekin-Hank'ow. — (Bulletin du Comite 
de l'Asie Francaise. 1905. p. 421-425). 

Developpement du service postal en Chi- 
ne. — Bulletin du Comite de l'Asie Fran- 
caise. 1905. p. 40). 

Pinon R. — La Chine qui s'ouvre. Paris, 
1900. (Chemins de fer. Ch. III. p. 151-218. 

— Appendix I. p. 219-353). 

Gandar D. — Le Canal Imperial. Chang- 
hai, 1903. 

Cordes. — Handels f rassen and Wasser- 
verbindungen von Hankau nach dem 
inneren von China. Berlin, 1899. 

Le Compte L. — Journey through China. 

London, 1(597. (The Canals and Rivers 
of China. Letter IV. p. 101-112). 

Davis Sir J. F. — Sketches of China. 
London, 1841. (The Grand Canal. Vol. I. 
Ch.IX. p. 2-15-2 9). 

Davis Sir J. F. — The Chinese. London, 
1814. (The Grand Canal. Vol. I. Ch. V. 
p. 139-142. — Crossing the Yellow River, 
ibid. p. 143-144). 

Du Halde. — Description of the Empire 
of China. London, 1738. (The Grand 
Canal. Vol. I. p. 17-18). 

Williams. — The Middle Kingdom. New- 
York, 1861. (The Grand Canal. Vol. I. Ch. 
I. p. 27-33.— Public roads, ibid. p. 33-34). 

Thomson J. — The Land and People of 
China. London, 1876. (The Grand Canal. 
Ch. I. p. 10-12). 

Smith W. L. — China and the Chinese. 
New York, 1863. (Roads and Coolies. 
Ch. XIX. p. 100-102). 

Williamson A. — Journeys in North 
China. London, 1870. (Means of Inter- 
communication. — The Grand Canal. 
Vol. I. Ch. VI. p. 55-83). 

Williamson A. — Notes of a Journey 
from Peking to Chefoo, via the Grand 
Canal. (N.C.B.R.A. Soc. 1866. p. 1-25). 

Ney Elias F. — Notes on the Water- 
supply of the Grand Canal. (N.C.B.R.A. 
Soc. 1867. p. 80-86). 

Carles W. R. — The Grand Canal of 
China. (N.C.B.R.A. Soc. 1896. p. 102-115). 

Colqishoun A. R. — Across Chryse. 
2 Vol. London, 1883. 

Colquhoun A. R. — China in Transfor- 
mation. London, 1898. (The Question of 
Communications. Ch. IV. p. 80-108). 

Colquhoun A. R. — The Overland to 
China. London, 1900. 

Colquhoun A. R. — The Problem in 
China and British Policy. London, 1900. 
(The North-China Railways, p. 19-21. — 
Political value of Railways, p. 22-25. — 
Inland Navigation, p. 38-39). 

Gundry R. S. — China Present and Past. 
London, 1895. (Memorial in favour of 
Railways, 1887. Appendix C. p. 394-398. 
— Prospectus of the first Chinese Railway. 
Appendix D. p. 399-340). 



Curzon G. N. — Problems of the Far 
East. London, 1896. (Railways in China : 
Great Trunk Line, Peking-Hankow. — 
Manchurian Railways. — Other Com- 
munications. Ch. X. p. 311-320). 

Mk hie A. — The Englishman in China. 
London, 1900. (Yangtze and Grand Ca- 
nal. _ Roads and Waterways between 
T'ientsin and Peking. — Map of Canton 

Parker E. H. — China : Her History, 
Diplomacy and Trade. London, 1901. 
(Trade Routes. Ch. IV. p. 57-81). 

Leroy-Beaulieu P. — The Awakening 
of the East. London, 1900. (Means of 
Communication in Siberia. —The Trans- 
Siberian Railway.— The Railway through 
Manchuria. Part I. Ch. VIII-X. p. 50-75). 

Hosie A. — Three Years in Western Chi- 
na. London, 1890. 

Dyer Ball J. — Things Chinese. Shang- 
hai, 1903. (Railways in China, p. 590-004). 

Little A. — The Far East. Oxford, 1905. 

Krausse A. — The Far East, its History 
and its Question. London, 1903. (Origin 
of the Siberian Railway. — Manchurian 
Railway Agreement. Ch. VI. p. 114-118. 
— Map of Russian Railways in N. China, 
p. 175. — Convention between Great 
Britain and Russia with regard to their 
respective railway interests in China. 
Appendix 13. p. 355-358). 

Kingsmill T. W. — Various Contributions 
to Inland Communications in China. 
(N.C.B.R.A. Soc. 1898. p. 1-213). 

Ohisholm G. — The Resources and Means 
of Communication of China. (Geogr. 
Journal, 1898. Vol. XII. p. 500-519). 

Jernigan T. H. — China's Business 
Methods. Shanghai, 1901. (Interior Trade 
Routes, p. 184-200). 

Jernigan T. H. — China in Law and 
Commerce. New York, 1905. (Land and 
Water Transit. Ch. XIII-XIV. p. 309- 
308. — Railway Transit. Ch. XV. p. 369- 

Encyclopaedia Britannica (X th Edition. 
London, 1902). — China : Internal Com- 

munications, Railways, Roads and Ca- 
nals, Telegraphs, p. 29-30). 

Blackburn China Mission, 1896-1897. — 
Blackburn, 1898 (Communications, the 
Great Highways of Trade. Neville's 
Report. Section II. p. 72-107). 

Jamieson G. — Chinese Railways : A 
Guide to Foreign Investors. (Financial 
Review of Reviews. London. January, 

Douglas Sir B. — China, 1882. (Tra- 
velling. Ch. XI. p. 197-212). 

Douglas Sir R. — Society in China. 
London, 1895. (Manner of Travel. — 
Various kinds of conveyances. — Chinese 
carts, waggons and wheelbarrows. — 
Poetical description of a Chinese inn. 
Ch. XXIII. p. 370-374). 

Medhurst.— The Foreigner in Far Cathay. 
London, 1872. (Travelling and Porterage 
in China. Ch. XVII. p. 143-155). 

The Woosung Railway. — Hongkong Daily 
Press. Sept. 27 th , 1892. 

The T'ientsin Railway. — Hongkong 
Daily Press. Sept. 9 th , 1891. 

The Railway to Soochow and Wusieh. — 
(North-China Herald. July -_0 th , 1900). 

Piry T. — Report on the working of the 
Imperial Post Office, 1905. (China: Im- 
perial Maritime Customs. Statistical 
Series 3 and 4. Shanghai, 1906. p. 31-78. 
With descriptive Catalogue of stamps and 
postcards, 1878-1893, by J. Mencarini). 

List of Telegraph Stations in China, ar- 
ranged according to Provinces. Shang- 
hai, 1906. 

Dennys N. B. — Notes for Tourists in the 
North of China. Hongkong, 1860. 

Hurley R.O. — Tourist's Guide to Canton, 
the West River and Macao. Hongkong, 

Darwent C. E. — The Shanghai Guide. 
Shanghai, 1905. 

Berol's Guide to Shanghai (illustrated, and 
with map). Shanghai, 1904. 

The Hotel Metropole's Guide to Shanghai 
and Environs, by W. E. B. Shanghai, 


.Rise and Progress of the Chinese Empire. — Foreign Relations. 


1°. Rise and Progress 

of the Chinese Empire. 

The Chinese nation is the oldest in the world, and its history goes back to the 
most remote antiquity, but there is an absence of authentic records, in the shape of 
either monuments or written documents, whereby a trustworthy account of the early 
ages may be sketched. "We are therefore compelled, at least for the present, to rely 
upon what tradition furnishes us. As time rolls on, more documents will be available, 
and facts will be more substantiated. For the sake of clearness, we shall divide this 
study int